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THE AMERICAN /; 
JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

PUBUSHKD MONTHIvY BY 
AUTHORITY OF THE) 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science 

A RECORD OF THK Progress of Pharmacy 
AND thk Alued Sciences 



publication committee 

FOR 1920 

CHARLKS H. La WALL, Ph.M. GEORGE M. BERINGER. Ph.M. 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, Ph.M. JULIUS W. STURMER, Phar.D. 

JOHN K. THUM, Ph.M. E. FULLERTON COOK, Ph.M. 

ROBERT P. FISCHELIS, B.Sc, Phar.D. 

EDITOR 

GEORGE M. BERINGER, A.M., Ph.M. 



VOLUME 92 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
1920 



RSI 



THE AMERICAN 



journMfof pharmacy 



By the immutable laws of the Solar System another annual cycle 
has been completed and we are brought to the dawn of a new calendar, 
another Gregorian year. Before an appreciative, broad view of the 
expanse before us, a very brief retrospect of the year just closed may 
not be amiss. We are not prepared to-day to subscribe to the sen- 
timent that 

"What's past, and what's to come, is strewn with husks, 
The formless ruin of Oblivion." 

The year 1919, despite the fact that it did not bring to fruition 
the anticipated reign of established Peace on Earth and universal 
Good Will among mankind, has not been lacking in actual accom- 
plishments. Despite the fact that the demoralization of the most 
gigantic of all wars has been followed by a year of unprecedented 
social and economic disturbances and world unrest, there has been 
written in the historical chronicles of 19 19 much that bespeaks real 
progress, much that is vital to the destinies of many nations and the 
welfare of millions of human beings. These events can never be 
obliterated from the records of the year nor buried in oblivion. ; ' 

The wise statesmen and the thoughtful men of all civilized' ' ' 
nations realize that the gigantic problems of this period of titanic ' 
reconstruction are necessarily being carried over to the new year and 
that the world's peace, prosperity and progress is dependent upon 
the wisdom and the justice of the decisions of these. 

In matters pharmaceutic, the events of the year past have been 
encouraging. The conventions of the national pharmaceutical 
organizations of England and of America evidenced intense interest 




'"Xm^' THE THRESHOLD OF 1920. 
"Time, as he passes us, has a Dove's wing, 
Unsoil'd and swift, and of a silken sound." 



2 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



in all of the various activities that make for the progress of the pro- 
fession and the papers presented and the several addresses of the 
presidents and the chairmen of the sections indicated the earnestness 
of the spirit of research and the desire for professional advancement 
that pervaded these meetings. 

Before closing the door upon 191 9, we cannot refrain from re- 
ferring to some matters that are personal to the Journal. Volume 9 1 
has been completed, but not without many peculiar and trying 
difficulties. Those who, during this year, have been engaged in 
publication or had dealings with printers will appreciate the troubles 
of the editor in endeavoring to have the monthly numbers of the 
Journal issued with at least some degree of regularity. At times, it 
would appear as if the entire printing establishment was under the 
control of the "printer's devil" and that his main weapon was ob- 
struction. However, the year with its trying, yet profitable, experi- 
ences is over. 

The Editor has given his best efforts to maintain the American 
Journal of Pharmacy as a progressive and ethical magazine of phar- 
macy and appreciates the support that has been given so loyally 
and continuously by the contributors and subscribers and is grateful 
for the encouragements and kindly expressions that have come his 
way. It is a great satisfaction to know that the Journal is not only 
maintaining a long established ethical standard, but that, likewise, 
its advertising patronage and its subscription list are both making 
healthy and substantial gains, that its readers are multiplying and 
its influence is growing apace. He takes this opportunity to once 
more acknowledge his indebtedness to the authors and contributors 
who have aided so materially in the progress. 

As we view the year ahead of us, we cannot but see the dark 
clouds that are already above the horizon. However, we are not 
inclined to be pessimistic. This year will be full of opportunity for 
work and for prosperity such as never came to us before. With 
optimistic energy we must seize the opportunities as presented, and 
with well-defined purposes work out the salvation of sane ideals 
that must be established as the foundation for social, economic 
and scientific progress. Pharmacists everywhere must realize that 
they will have a share in the responsibilities and opportunities of 
this momentous reconstructive period. The adherence to the ethics 
of the profession and the degree of personal application, will determine 
the individual's share in the prosperity and happiness that is in store. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Editorial, 



3 



The Pharmacopoeial Convention to be held in Washington in 
May, to prepare for the Tenth Decennial Revision of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, will open to the medical, pharmaceutical and 
chemical professions many avenues for investigation and altruistic 
service. This should be the opening opportunity for marking the 
great progress in the medical professions during the decade that 
has passed since the previous Pharmacopoeial Convention convened. 
Every pharmacist should be in alignment with and participate in the 
work of the revisions of the Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary 
that will be commenced in 1920. 

To our readers and friends we extend BEST WISHES and 
HEARTY GREETINGS and express the hope that the year 1920 will 
bring to them a bounteous measure of Prosperity and Happiness. 

G. M. B. 

THE BAYER COMPANY CITED TO APPEAR BEFORE 

THE FEDERAI. TRADE COMMISSION. 
In the August, 19 19, issue of this JournaIv, in an editorial on the 
"Proprieties of Advertising," reference was made to the objectionable 
style of newspaper advertising employed by The Bayer Company in 
advertising aspirin tablets and to the action taken by the Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmaceutical Association at its annual meeting in condem- 
nation of same. 

In this editorial, comment was likewise made upon the reply of 
The Bayer Company to the Pennsylvania Association, admitting 
error in the advertisement complained of and its discontinuance was 
announced. We directed attention to the fact that, although this 
admission of error was not as frank as might be wished, it was to be 
hoped that under the new management of this Company the ques- 
tionable methods of advertising adopted by its Hun predecessor 
would be discontinued and that the modern standard of business 
ethics and the proprieties of advertising would be observed in the 
future. 

We have since observed that this company has continued the 
extensive campaign of newspaper advertisements of aspirin tablets, 
and that many of these contain insinuations of the inferior quality 
of the products of other manufacturers. 

The Federal Trade Commission has taken cognizance of this 
unfair method of advertising and formal complaint has been made 
alleging unfair methods of competition and The Bayer Company havS 



4 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



been cited to appear before the Commission and given forty days to 
file an answer, after which the case may be tried upon its merits. 
The Federal Trade Commission allege that the published adver- 
tisements of this company imply that the word "aspirin" is only 
properly used to designate the product of the respondent, and that 
its product is the only genuine, unadulterated and safe aspirin to be 
used, and that the products of other manufacturers, sold in 
competition as aspirin, are spurious and adulterated and composed 
of other materials, such as talcum powder and the like. By these 
actions it is alleged that The Bayer Company misleads the public 
into giving undue preference to Bayer aspirin, thereby causing loss 
and damage to competitors. 

The action taken by the Federal Trade Commission raises an 
important question as to whether such advertisements are to be 
included in unfair trade methods and come within the control of this 
Commission. We await the outcome with the hope that it will firmly 
establish that proper methods are to be employed in advertising that 
will not be unfair to either competitors or to the public and indicative 
of a code of ethics worthy of fair-minded business men and maintain 
the properties of advertising. 

There is still another question involved which may not be con- 
sidered at all in the cause at issue. The question of the propriety 
of permiscuously advertising and encouraging the indiscriminate 
use of a drug which has at times a deleterious action upon the human 
organism. This important question must sooner or later receive 
consideration and possibly may have to be controlled by legislative 
enactments. G. M. B. 

THE REVISED NARCOTIC REGULATIONS. 

The Treasury Department, through the Internal Revenue, has 
issued Regulations No. 35 relating to the importation, manufacture, 
production, compounding, sale, dispensing and giving away of 
Opium or Coca Leaves their salts, derivatives, or preparations 
thereof. This pamphlet of 78 pages is a comprehensive exposition 
of the Act of December 17, 19 14, commonly called the Harrison Act 
and the amendments thereof enacted as sections of the Revenue 
Act of 1918, and of the Regulations extant for the enforcement of 
these laws. It is a model "Regulation" for the thoroughness and 
clarity with which the Department has dealt with a difficult and 
intricate problem and presented its conclusions and instructions. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. | 



/ 

Editorial. 



5 



Commendable features of this public document are the classifi- 
cation of the subjects as set forth in the various headlines of the 
chapters and paragraphs and recapitulated in the "Table of Contents," 
the excellent index covering ten pages of titles and giving the num- 
bers of the articles containing information relating to each item and 
the very general use of cross references in the articles themselves so 
that related information desired is readily and promptly obtainable. 

These regulations are of the greatest importance to every one 
whose profession or trade activities necessitates the possession and 
handling of opium or coca leaves or any derivative or preparation 
made from or containing either. They are quite explicit and settle 
several mooted questions that had arisen under prior promulga- 
tions of regulations and contain some modifications of former 
rulings and a number of new features, the literal compliance with 
which may cause considerable annoyance and trouble. 

The various articles of the regulations are titled and numbered 
and printed in juxtaposition with the provisions of the law to which 
they are intended to apply. We fear that some of these will 
be considered as entirely too stringent and as exemplifying the 
tendency of the Departments of the Federal Government to frame 
regulations that are bureaucratic exhibitions of authority rather 
than interpretations of the enactments of Congress for the enforce- 
ment of which regulations are authorized. It would seem at times 
that the police power was exercised by the officials in charge in 
ways that are unnecessarily burdensome and annoying to the many 
who are law-abiding and at no time would intentionally infract the 
laws, and that time, energy and official duty could be better 
applied in ferreting out and punishing the relatively few who are 
wilfully and criminally breaking the laws. 

The purpose to have Federal and State enactments so dovetail 
as to prevent those who are not properly qualified from engaging 
in dealing in narcotic drugs is a fundamental principle to be ob- 
served. Very rightly an initial requirement is that only those whose 
dealings in narcotic drugs are not in violation of any law, either 
State or Federal, can be licensed under this law and that the 
application for registration must be accompanied by affidavit 
showing that the applicant is legally qualified or permitted, under 
the laws of the jurisdiction in which he is engaged, or proposes to 
engage, in any business or occupation within the scope of these 
regulations, to engage in such business or occupation. 



6 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



Registrants under this Act should be careful to see that they carry- 
on their business in these drugs in strict accordance with the classi- 
fications of the law and the differentiations of what can be actually 
done under each class. ' 'A Retailer' ' cannot engage in the sale of origi- 
nal stamped packages of these drugs unless he likewise is registered 
as a wholesale dealer and pays the annual tax of $12.0 imposed 
upon those so classified. Nor can a "Retailer" or a "Wholesale 
Dealer" engage in the manufacture and sale of non-exempted articles 
such as Laudanum and Dover's Powder without also registering 
under Class i — Importers, Manufacturers, Producers, Compounders. 
As a consequence those engaged in a complex business, or who supply 
physicians and hospitals, for example, will have to be registered 
under several classifications and keep the required records for each. 
While a* "Wholesale Dealer" under the definition of the Act may sell 
stamped full packages of other manufacture than his own, when he 
sells his own products of these narcotic drugs, he must do so as a 
licensed "Manufacturer" and stamp tax these at the specified rate 
of I cent for each ounce or fraction thereof of the preparation and 
not the narcotic contained. 

Attention is especially called to the classification of chemists, 
who are not employees of a registered manufacturer, but who make 
analyses of narcotic drugs or preparations or use such in the analysis 
of other things, as liable to the tax as compounders of $24.00 per 
year. They must procure the narcotic drugs to be used as test 
reagents in their analytical work on official order forms and keep 
records and make the same form of returns as do the manufacturers. 
This may be very unwelcome to the majority of chemists who but 
very seldom engage in such analyses or to the toxicologist who may 
unexpectedly be called into a case requiring such reagents to confirm 
his findings. 

Practitioners who prescribe narcotic drugs must register and pay 
the tax of $3.00 per annum even though they do not keep such drugs 
in their possession. A practitioner may sell to his own bona- fide 
patients narcotic drugs for legitimate medical purposes without in- 
curring liability as a retailer. 

Institutions, such as colleges of pharmacy, sanatoriums, clinics 
and hospitals not exempt as federal, state, county or municipal 
public institutions must pay the same tax as individuals similarly 
engaged in handling narcotics. 

Itinerant vending or peddling is precluded as all sales and dis- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Editorial. 



7 



pensing must be done from a fixed address and a peddler of such 
drugs will be regarded as incurring a separate tax liability and com- 
mitting an additional offense at each place where a sale is made. 
Even the exempted preparations may be sold only at or from regis- 
tered places of business. This should eliminate the evil of the wagon 
peddler selling promiscuously paregoric and exempted proprietaries 
to the grocers and general store keepers who are irresponsible and 
usually not qualified by the laws of the state to engage in such trade. 

Nurses are not permitted to register nor to be in possession of 
narcotics except as agents of physicians or those prescribed as medi- 
cines for their personal needs and they are subject to the same 
limitations as other consumers. A practitioner must account on 
his records for all narcotics left with nurses for administration and all 
such as are not administered must be returned to him. 

While officials of national, state, county or municipal hospitals 
or public institutions, who in the discharge of official duties have to 
dispense or handle narcotics, are exempt from registration and the 
payment of the special tax imposed upon registrants, they must have 
the orders on which they secure the supplies of narcotics approved 
by the collector of the district and as a prerequisite satisfactory 
credentials of the exemption and official capacity of the official must 
be filed annually before July ist. The exemption granted does not 
relieve them of the necessity of keeping the required narcotic records. 

Ample provisions are made for change of address, change of 
ownership for any cause, and the mode of procedure in such cases 
is prescribed. 

The forms for records and reports for each class of registrants are 
specified. The required records are exacting and the keeping 
thereof will entail much labor and may prove nigh impossible to 
the busy practitioner or dispenser. The reports are to be made 
out monthly and in triplicate, and exhibit all receipts of narcotics 
and their disposition and stock in hand. 

Instructions are given for the cancellation and application of the 
special narcotic stamps to be applied by importers and manufac- 
turers and the reports required provide for an accounting of all 
stamps purchased, used and unused. 

The practicability as well as the wisdom of the requirement 
that narcotic drugs and preparations must at all times be segregated 
and be kept under lock and key, is questioned. While such a method 
may be readily practiced by a practitioner whose stock should be 



8 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



relatively small and require but limited space, it will not be easy to 
follow by the druggists and manufacturers whose varied stocks and 
the ample supplies required would necessitate a large space, special 
compartments or rooms and each must be under lock and key. 
It will destroy the orderly classification and arrangement of stocks 
and moreover the segregation will advise the dope fiend and the thief 
where such valuable and narcotic drugs and medicines are stored. 

Physicians and pharmacists want to bear in mind that official 
orders are to be issued for the purchase and transfer of narcotics 
and that duplicates must be made out at the time of executing the 
originals. Further, that they are to be used to cover each and every 
transfer of narcotics between those registered under the act, but they 
must not in any case he used as prescriptions. The order issued must 
specify the number and size of package of each item and if pills, 
tablets or other similar dosage forms, the number of such units in 
each individual package. The prior regulations are modified so as 
to permit a person licensed under several classifications to transfer 
on his records from one registry to another without the issuing of 
orders against himself, but his records must show every such trans- 
action. Unfilled orders should be returned to the maker with a 
letter of explanation and this letter with the returned order is to be 
filed as part of his records. On orders filled in part only, the vender 
and likewise the vendee shall note on the order and duplicate the 
actual quantities supplied with date, and subsequent deliveries on 
account must also be noted on these orders. 

Prescriptions can be issued for narcotics, only by practitioners 
duly registered under the act and can be filled only by pharmacists 
also registered under the proper classification. The regulations 
concerning prescriptions are necessarily exacting and must be care- 
fully studied and followed by dispensers. A prescription can only 
be issued for legitimate medical purposes. It cannot he issued as an 
order for the practitioner to purchase his supplies nor for the purpose 
of supplying addicts with narcotics. The prescription must he written 
with ink or indelihle pencil or typewritten; if typewritten, it must he 
signed hy the practitioner with ink or indelihle pencil. This may 
conflict with the custom in some dispensaries and clinics to have 
certain frequently-used prescriptions printed and with the not un- 
common practice among physicians to use the ordinary lead penci 1 
in writing prescriptions and not the indelible type now officially 
directed. The prescription must he dated and signed the day of issuing 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Editorial. 



9 



and must hear the full name and address of the patient, the name, ad- 
dress and registry number of the practitioner. The responsibility for 
the proper writing of the prescription is upon the practitioner and 
he is Hable to the penalties provided if he fails to insert thereon the 
information required by the law. 

Physicians who have occasion to treat incurable diseases such as 
cancer and advanced tuberculosis where narcotics are necessarily 
prescribed in relatively large quantities, or who are attending aged 
and infirm addicts, the withdrawal of the drug from whom would re- 
sult in death, are permitted to prescribe the narcotics needed in 
accordance with their judgment, provided endorsement is made upon 
the prescription that the drug is dispensed for the condition stated, 
and in the latter case give the age of the patient and state that the 
drug is necessary to sustain life. 

The druggist filling the prescription must show on the back thereof 
the signature and address of the person who secures the drug prescribed 
and must preserve the prescription for a period of two years. 

The refilling of a narcotic prescription is prohibited, except where 
the preparation covered by the prescription might have lawfully 
been sold in the first instance without a prescription or official order. 

The permission to refill prescriptions for exempted drugs and 
preparations is a distinct modification of the previous regulations 
which differentiated between "prescription" and "preparation" and 
the selling of exempted drugs as either. Partial filling of prescriptions 
will not be permitted under any circumstances, nor can prescriptions 
for narcotics be accepted over the telephone. This provision will con- 
flict with the custom of many physicians to telephone their pre- 
scriptions to the pharmacists. 

The order forms supplied for the purchase and transfer of narcotics 
must not be used as prescriptions. The pharmacist filling the pre- 
scription must affix to the package a label showing the name and regis- 
tered number of the dealer, the serial number of the prescription and 
name and address of the patient and the name and address and regis- 
tered number of the practitioner writing the prescription. As containers 
frequently used for prescriptions will not be large enough to permit a 
label giving directions and also the additional data required by this 
regulation, it may be necessary to attach to the package a special 
label containing the data directed. 

The collector of literary curios will find a number of these in the 
recent Congressional enactments and in regulations framed by the 



lO 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



departments. The following hon mot is a sample worthy of such 
preservation. "A practitioner is not regarded as in personal at- 
tendance upon a patient in the intent of the statute unless he is in 
personal attendance upon such patient away from his office." 

"Personal attendance" should be irrespective of the temporary 
place of either physician or patient and the necessity of the patient 
should determine the drug prescribed by the physician and not the 
fact that the patient happens to be in the physician's office. 

Only such narcotic drugs as are personally administered by a 
practitioner when in attendance upon a patient away from his office 
are exempted from the records of narcotic drugs required. 

Stock solutions such as are used by oculists and other specialists 
may be kept on hand, providing a record is made of the date when 
the solution is made or purchased and the date when such solution 
is exhausted. 

All records made by any of the registrants must be kept open 
for the inspection of authorized officials of the department. 

The regulations provide that oral, nasal, ocular, rectal, urethral 
and vaginal preparations are not to be regarded as for external use, 
and that preparations manufactured or used for such purposes con- 
taining more than the exempted amount of narcotic drugs do not 
fall within the scope of the exemption granted to external prepara- 
tions. 

A private formula containing not more than the exempted per- 
centage of narcotic drugs, made in accordance with a private formula 
of a physician, upon request of the physician that the druggist keep 
a quantity of the mixture on hand in order that prescriptions may be 
filled for his "special mixture" is not to be considered as a ready- 
mad^ preparation in accordance with the U. S. P. or N. F. or estab- 
lished formula, and is, therefore not within the exemption granted for 
such preparations. 

Every manufacturer, producer, compounder or vender (including 
the dispensing physician) of exempted preparations, must keep 
a record of all sales, exchanges, gifts, etc., the entries to be made at 
the time of delivery. The record must show the name, address and 
registry number of the dealer to whom the preparation or remedy 
is sold, exchanged or given, the name and quantity of the preparation 
or remedy, and the date on which the delivery to the purchaser or 
his agent is made. A separate record must also be kept of sales 
of such exempted preparations to persons other than dealers, even. 



^""jJnZy,\9w:} ''Proof Spirir— What Is It? U 

though such sales are made on prescriptions. It is probable that 
many druggists have not heretofore kept such record of the sales 
of exempted preparations and proprietaries, and they should take 
cognizance of the requirement of the law that such should be kept 
and the intent to enforce same as shown by the regulations. 

G. M. B. 



"PROOF SPIRIT"— WHAT IS IT? 
By Rai^ph R. Koran, P.D., 

PHII^ADElvPHIA, PA. 

The term "proof spirit" is one of British origin, American adop- 
tion and universal confusion. In Allen's "Commercial Organic 
Analysis," 4th edition, we are told that "formerly the British Excise 
determined the strength of spirits by pouring a certain amount on 
gunpowder. A light was then applied. If the spirit was above a 
certain strength ('proof') the gunpowder ultimately inflamed, but 
if weaker the gunpowder was too much moistened by the water to 
be capable of explosion, and the sample was said to be 'under proof. ' ' ' 
Fortunately, this archaic method of approximating the alcoholic 
strength of spirits is no longer used, and by Act of Parliament, 
"prooj spirit" is now defined to be a liquid of such density that, at 
51 ° Fahrenheit, thirteen (13) volumes shall weigh the same as twelve 
(12) volumes of water at the same temperature. The ''proof spirit" 
thus produced has a specific gravity of 0.91984 at 60/60° Fahren- 
heit, and contains, according to Fownes, 49.24 per cent, by weight 
or 57.06 per cent, by volume of alcohol. ^ 

The United States Internal Revenue Department defines "proof 
spirit" as "that alcoholic liquor which contains one-half its volume 
of alcohol of a specific gravity of seven thousand nine hundred and 
thirty-nine ten-thousandths (0.7939) at 60° Fahrenheit." "This 
will correspond to a specific gravity of about 0.9341 if water at 60° 
Fahrenheit be taken as unity and to a content of 42.7 per cent, by 
weight of absolute alcohol. Absolute alcohol would contain 200 
per cent, of 'proof spirit' according to the United States system, 
instead of 175.25 per cent, in the English system." 

This difference between the British and United States standards 
has served to bring about a pronounced confusion in the definition 



12 ''Proof Spirif'—What Is W { Vm"ry'!V92o: 

of "proof spirit," and a survey of a number of text and reference 
books on pharmacy and the alhed sciences has disclosed much mis- 
information on the subject. 

Simon's "Manual of Chemistry," nth edition, 1916, describes 
"proof spirit" of the LTnited States Custom House and Internal 
Revenue Service as being identical with diluted alcohol U. S. P. 
Neither the diluted alcohol of the ninth revision nor that of any of the 
preceding revisions which were consulted is of "proof spirit" strength. 

Wilcox's "Materia Medica and Therapeutics," loth edition, and 
Culbreth's "Materia Medica and Pharmacology," 6th edition, 19 17, 
also err in giving "proof spirit" as a synonym for Alcohol Dilutum 
U. S. P. 

Remington's "Practice of Pharmacy," 6th edition; 1917, is 
authority for the statement that "United States proof spirit differs 
from diluted alcohol and is stronger; it contains 50 per cent, (or, 
more exactly, 49.5 per cent.) by weight of absolute alcohol." Surely 
this misstatement, in a book which is so widely read and quoted, 
will be corrected in the next edition. 

Sadtler and Coblentz, in "Pharmaceutical and Medical Chem- 
istry," 4th edition, 191 8, have in mind the British standard and say 
that "proof spirit" has a specific gravity of 0.9198 at 15.5° C, and 
according to Fow^nes contains 49.24 per cent, by weight of alcohol." 

In Leffmann and LaWall's "Organic Chemistry," 1904, "proof 
spirit" is defined as containing, by weight, "50.8 parts of absolute 
alcohol to 49.2 parts of water and has a specific gravity of 0.920." 
This would be correct for the British standard, were it not for the 
fact that the quantities of alcohol and water are transposed. 
|.| The most glaring misinformation on the subject is found in 
Gould's "Medical Dictionary." The 4th edition defines "proof 
spirit" as "any liquor containing at least 49 per cent, of absolute 
alcohol." In the loth edition, 19 17, matters are made worse by 
definition under two headings: 

"Proof spirit — Alcohol containing 42.5 to 49.24 per cent, of 
absolute alcohol, ' ' and 

"Spirit, proof — Dilute alcohol with 40 to 50 per cent, of pure 
alcohol." 

Dorland, in his "American Pocket Medical Dictionary," nth 
edition, 1919, uses these two definitions verbatim and is thereby 
guilty of perpetuating the fallacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Therapeutic Uses for Chemicals. 



13 



Naturally, the majority of text and reference books have defined 
"proof spirit" properly. Where the subject has been elaborately 
treated, the suggestion is made that the term "proof spirit" be 
abandoned as being unscientific. This is a very proper and timely 
suggestion, and especially so, inasmuch as the coming era of prohibi- 
tion will lessen the amount of spirits to be gauged. Whiskey, the 
liquid for which the gunpowder or "proof" test was originally de- 
vised, has fallen into disrepute and with it should go the term "proof 
spirit." 

Finally, "proof spirit" is correctly defined as containing 50 per 
cent, by volume of absolute alcohol. This corresponds to 42.7 
per cent, by weight. It has a specific gravity of 0.9341 at 60"^ 
Fahrenheit. 

Che^micai. Laboratory, 

Phii^adbivPhia Coi.i.e;ge oj' Pharmacy, 
November 24, 19 19. 



NEW THERAPEUTIC USES FOR WELL-KNOWN 
CHEMICALS. 

By B. FulIvKRTon Cook, Ph.M., 
philadei.phia, pa. 

Benzyl Benzoate. — In an extensive study of the action of opium 
alkaloids, David I. Macht, M.D., of the Medical Department of 
Johns Hopkins University, has demonstrated that these alkaloids 
divide into two classes, of which morphine is the most important 
of those belonging to the pyridin-phenanthrene group and papaverine, 
the principal representative of the benzyl-isoquinoline group. 

The morphine group, including codeine, or methyl-morphine, 
dionine or ethyl-morphine, heroin or diacetyl-morphine, apomor- 
phine, apocodeine, eucodine or methyl-codeine, peracodine or di- 
hydrocodeine, and codeonal or codeine diethyl-barbituiate, all tend 
to stimulate the contractions and heighten the tonus of smooth 
muscles, but papaverine, or its related alkaloids, narcotine, narceine, 
and hydra stine, all produce an inhibition of the contractions of 
smooth muscles and lower their tonus. 

He also fully proves that this action of the papaverine group was 
due to the benzyl portion of the molecule and this led to an effort 



14 Therapeutic Uses for Chemicals. {^""jlnnlry.^^gw. 



to find a non-narcotic benzyl combination which would produce ' 
similar therapeutic action and resulted in the discovery that the 
esters, benzyl acetate and benzyl benzoate, possessed such prop- 
erties. 

This was first shown by experiments upon animals and subse- 
quently by many clinical tests and has led to the suggested use of 
the latter where antispasmodic action upon the smooth muscles is 
desired. 

It was found that while the acetate was of equal therapeutic 
value it produced slight irritation upon the stomach and the ben- 
zoate has therefore been recommended for general trial. It is em- 
ployed in dysentery, biliary, renal and uterine colic, in arterial 
spasms, bronchial spasms, as in asthma, in dysmenorrhoea and other 
excessive spasms of smooth muscles. 

Benzyl benzoate has long been used as a solvent in perfumery, 
especially for synthetic musk, and also for the incorporation and 
fixing of the flavor in chewing gum, where it prevents loss by evapo- 
ration during the heating and kneading of the mass, and it is in- 
teresting to learn that its therapeutic value was suggested by chem- 
ical and physiological experiments, conducted in a modern research 
laboratory, whereby the value of such work is again conclusively 
demonstrated. 

Pharmaceutically, benzyl benzoate must be treated very much 
like an oil. Its dose is small, 2 to 5 minims, and it has been most 
largely administered in 20 per cent, alcoholic solution containing 
2 per cent, of soap which makes a solution that is readily miscible 
with water. It has also been dissolved in fixed oil and dispensed in 
capsules. Dr. Litzenberg (/. A. M. A., 73: 601, 1919) sug- 
gests the following prescription for its administration for dys- 
menorrhoea. 

I^. 

Benzyl Benzoate 10 mils 

Mucilago Acaciae 5 mils 

Elix. Eriodicty. Aromat. q. s 50 mils 

Give from one-half to two teaspoonfuls as necessary. In the 
/.A.M. A., 73: 599 and 601, a more extensive review and many 
additional references may be found. 



Benzyl Alcohol (Phenmethylol) . — During experimental work on 
benzyl combinations, in the study of their antispasmodic action, 



^"jJnuary^^Q™:} Tkerapeutic Uses for Chemicals. 15 

Dr. David I. Macht (Pharmacologic Laboratory of Johns Hopkins 
University) incidentally tasted a minute quantity of benzyl alcohol 
and discovered that his tongue was completely anesthetized by it, 
the numbness, coolness and hardness, similar to the action of co- 
caine, continuing for over two hours. 

This accidental discovery was followed by numerous experiments 
on animals and subsequently in minor operations and dentistry, 
with results that compare favorably with any of the known local 
anesthetics and in some respects greatly to the advantage of the 
benzyl alcohol. 

Fortunately, benzyl alcohol is soluble in water and normal salt 
solution to the extent of 4 per cent, and this is sufficiently strong 
for use as a local anesthetic by injection. When used as an anes- 
thetic in from i to 4 per cent, solutions in normal salt, it has never 
been found to cause any marked irritation or destruction of tissue, 
certainly less than that produced by equivalent amounts of cocaine 
or quinine and urea hydrochloride solutions. 

The solutions may be sterilized by boiling without causing de- 
composition or loss of benzyl alcohol. When used on the eye it was 
found desirable to add a small amount of epinephrin (i in 20,000), 
thus avoiding all irritation. A comprehensive study of its anesthetic 
and pharmacologic action will be found in the Journal of Pharma- 
cology and Experimental Therapeutics, 191 8, p. 263. 

Solution of Zinc Chloride. — William Wayne Babcock, Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Medical Corps of the United States Army, stationed 
at General Hospital No. 6, Fort McPherson, Georgia, has recently 
reported the successful use of solution of zinc chloride (prepared 
by saturating U. S. P. hydrochloric acid with zinc) in the treatment 
of chronic infected wounds of soft tissue and also of bone involve- 
ment. 

The patients were all returned from the war areas and had 
already received months of treatment, usually with Dakin's Solution, 
and had been operated upon at least several times. The wounds 
showed a variety of infecting micro-organisms, and the solution of 
zinc chloride was used as a sterilizing agent, the tissue, which it 
simultaneously destroyed, being completely removed as a part of the 
operation. This procedure permitted the immediate closing of 
wounds, the avoiding of painful dressings, and a large percentage of 
permanent recoveries. 



Therapeutic Uses for Chemicals. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



The technique is as follows, the operation being conducted under 
local or general anesthesia: 

Wound Preparation. — The wound areas having previously been 
thoroughly cleansed by daily washing and shaving, the skin is thor- 
oughly scrubbed with a solution consisting of 2 parts of compound 
solution of cresol, 10 parts of oil of turpentine and 88 parts of gaso- 
line, and then painted with 3 per cent, tincture of iodine. 

Wound Sterilization. — Immediately after the cleansing, the 
sinuses, cavities and wound surfaces are sterilized by the use of the 
solution of zinc chloride, injecting it under pressure, or packing 
with cotton pledgets dipped in the solution, and great care is taken 
to see that all unhealed and granulating surfaces are reached. 

Five minutes is allowed for the penetration of the zinc solution, 
and if it has been injected, under pressure, into bone sinuses, a 
tourniquet must be applied and the solution allowed to enter the 
circulation only slowly, otherwise collapse will result. Because 
of the caustic character of this solution and the danger of direct 
introduction into the circulation it cannot be used in fistulas con- 
nected with the bladder, or intestine, nor can it be used in the pres- 
ence of erysipelas, or other acute spreading infection. 

Color Dilineation. — At the end of five minutes, the following 
solution is applied, in the same manner as the zinc chloride solu- 
tion : 



When this solution evaporates it leaves the exposed granular 
surfaces dark blue-black, dry, bloodless on manipulation, and sterile, 
and beneath a grayish white tissue which has been sterilized and 
devitalized by the zinc chloride. 

Excision of Infected Area. — The entire diseased area is now re- 
moved, the wound closed, and a moist, non-irritating, antiseptic 
dressing applied for the first week, or until all tissue reaction has 
subsided. The solution used consists of: 



Saturated Alcoholic Solution of Methylene Blue 

Potassium Hydroxide 

Phenol 

Ether, sufficient to make 



100 



3 
5 



Hydrated Chloral 
Alcohol 



Glycerin 

Saturated Solution of Boric Acid 



I 

10 



25 
65 



"^""j/nuary^^^iS: } Denaturing Bay Rum and Toilet Waters. 17 

This is injected into the gauze dressings every two or four hours 
by means of rubber tubes which are inserted when the dressing is 
appHed. 

The part where the operation occurred should be kept quiet, 
elevated and warm, and there should be no probing, squeezing, or 
introduction of tubes. The dressings should be changed daily and 
the adjacent skin must be kept clean and coated with a 2 per cent, 
yellow mercuric oxide ointment. 

Note. — ^The details of this treatment and the formulas have been 
taken from a report on the subject read by Dr. Babcock at the 
recent meeting of the A. M. A. but not yet published. 



DENATURING OF BAY RUM AND TOILET WATERS. 
By George M. Beringer. 

At the conference in Washington on December first, between the 
Prohibition Commissioner and members of the Technical Staff 
of the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the manufacturers of per- 
fumery, toilet articles and barber supplies, it developed that the De- 
partment had made up its mind that bay rum and toilet waters 
made with non-beverage alcohol hereafter must be denatured by 
the addition of some modifying substance that would render these 
toilet articles unfit for beverage purposes. 

Chief Chemist Adams, of the Bureau, stated that the Depart- 
ment was favorably considering a requirement that one-fourth 
grain of tartar emetic must be added to each fluid ounce of bay 
rum and toilet waters. The opinion of the Department as to the 
feasibility and safety of the use of tartar emetic as a denaturing 
substance was based upon a few days' trial in a way that could not 
be at all considered as worthy of the designation of a scientific in- 
vestigation. No effort has been made to determine whether ab- 
sorption followed the external application of bay rum so medicated 
or whether there was any evidence of the poison having entered the 
system or of its elimination through the secretions. 

The technical experts present were unanimous in their objec- 
tions to the use of tartar emetic and pointed out its toxic action and 
the danger of poisoning either through accidental or intentional 
consumption as a beverage. - ^ 

It is to be regretted that in the face of this information and^ with 



1 8 Denaturing Bay Rum and Toilet Waters, {^'"jar 



only such a scant investigation the Department should persist in 
further advocating the addition of tartar emetic in this quantity 
as a modifying agent for this class of toilet preparations. 

We note a published statement that the Department has de- 
cided that "No application to use non-beverage alcohol in the manu- 
facture of bay rum without regard to alcoholic content, or of toilet 
waters containing less than 50 per cent, of alcohol, will be approved 
by the Internal Revenue Bureau, after January 16, 1920, unless 
same are modified by the addition either of one-fourth grain of 
tartar emetic to the fluid ounce or a satisfactory quantity of some 
other modifying agent to be suggested by the manufacturer, who in 
presenting the suggestion to the Bureau, shall submit sufficient data 
to satisfy the officials of its efficiency. The requirement placing 
the burden upon the manufacturer to make the necessary tests 
of the modifying agents proposed as alternatives is made necessary 
because of the small technical staff at the disposal of the Bureau." 

For more than three hundred and fifty years antimony has been 
recognized as a poisonous metal, and all its salts as active poisons. 
Its close relation chemically to arsenic and the analogy between 
the symptoms produced by arsenic and antimony have long been 
recognized. It is not safe to rely upon the probability of emesis 
to eliminate tartar emetic, as it is a well-known fact that at times 
there may be a complete absence of vomiting or only a slight nausea, 
but the toxic action of the drug may later be exhibited in other ways 
than by vomiting and diarrhea. Paralysis as well as direct action 
on the heart and respiration and convulsions are among the symp- 
toms that have been recognized, even from moderately small doses, 
and as little as one-third of a grain is recorded as having caused 
death. Even when applied externally it has been known to pro- 
duce local irritation and pustular eruptions. 

It is not improbable that the continuous external application 
of a toilet water so medicated may produce chronic antimonial 
poisoning, nor is it at all certain that such use would not have a 
deleterious action upon the hair as well as the skin. 

It is inexplicable that, in the light of recent experience and the' 
numerous deaths resulting from the use of poisoned whiskey sub- 
stitutes, a department of the government should propose the 
use of such a toxic agent for the denaturing of toilet waters for the 
purpose of preventing their possible consumption for alcoholic 
beverages. 



'^""j/nulry^^™: } Denaturing Bay Rum and Toilet Waters. 19 

At the conference of the technical experts present in Washington 
a number of materials were discussed as possible modifying agents 
for this class of preparations. Among those mentioned were the 
chlorides of zinc and cadmium. Objections were made to the use 
of these mineral salts upon the ground that they would possibly 
act upon and modify the perfume constituents, and also cause pre- 
cipitates in the preparations, and there was likewise an uncer- 
tainty as to the toxicity of these salts. 

Saccharin in relatively large quantities was suggested as a 
modifying agent. The extreme, disagreeable sweetness and acridity 
that this would produce would possibly render such medicated bay 
rum or toilet water unfit for beverage purposes, but the persistent 
sweetness produced when applied to the face and lips would be ob- 
jectionable and render the product unfit for its legitimate use. 

Formaldehyde was another of the possible agents considered, 
but objection was made as to the possibility of this having a dele- 
terious action upon the perfume oils and chemicals of the formulas. 

Salicylic acid was another suggestion that did not meet with a 
cordial reception because of its proneness to react with other chem- 
icals and to undergo change and possible darkening in solution. 

Phenolphthalein was suggested by someone, but its well-known 
color reactions with alkalies preclude serious consideration. After 
shaving or washing with soap the application of a toilet water so 
medicated would produce a distinct purple or red discoloration of 
the skin as well as staining towels and clothing to which it might 
be applied. 

Among vegetable drugs possibly useful as denaturants, soap bark 
;and colocynth are worthy of consideration; the latter especially ap- 
pears to give satisfactory results from our experiments. In the 
proportion of two grains to the fluid ounce it renders the filtered 
bay rum sufficiently disagreeable and unpleasant to render it unfit 
for beverage purposes and does not appear to affect injuriously 
either the color or odor of the preparation. It would appear as 
likely to serve as a suitable modifying or denaturing agent for per- 
fumes and alcoholic liquid toilet preparations. 



20 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



A REVIEW OF THE ADVANCES IN PHARMACY. 
By John K. Thum, Ph.M., 

the: I.ANKENAU HOSPITAL, PHILADEI.PHIA. 

Thb Activity ov American Digitaus. — J. H. Pratt and H. 
Morrison, of Boston, both doctors, had their attention called to the 
possibility of using American digitalis as early as 1910, when a 
tincture made from leaf grown in the Rocky Mountains was found, 
in their laboratory, to be nearly twice as strong as the tincture in 
use at that time in the Massachusetts General Hospital. This 
tincture was prepared by a prominent American manufacturing 
pharmaceutical house in January, 1909; and as it was not tested 
until December, 19 10, it was probably two years old and had prob- 
ably lost some of its original potency. 

The authors mention that Duffield, in the American Journai^ 
OF Pharmacy, 41: 55, 1869, speaks of tests that he had made of 
American-grown digitalis, prepared by the Shakers of Mount Lebanon. 
By crude chemical methods he found that the percentages of active 
principles were higher than in samples of English leaf, and these 
in turn higher than in German leaves that he examined at the same 
time. He said that our home-grown digitalis, if properly dried and 
gathered, was superior. Unfortunately, his investigation led no 
one to study and report the therapeutic value of the American digi- 
talis leaf. 

In 1911, Dr. Hale published the result of some of his work which 
shows that first-year leaves from American leaves from Arlington, 
Va., and those grown in Madison, Wis., and Seattle, Wash., were 
stronger than the select English leaves that he tested at the same 
time for comparison. He also found that second-year leaves grown 
in Seattle were somewhat weaker than the English digitalis. 

Rowntree and Macht (Jour. A. M. A., 66: 870, 1916), using the 
cat method of Hatcher and Brody, made the discovery that digitalis 
from the drug garden of the University of Wisconsin was more 
active than any of four lots of Allen's English leaves tested. Some 
of this same lot of Wisconsin leaf was tested by Dr. Pratt, a 10 per 
cent, infusion being used. The Minimum Lethal Dose of this in- 
fusion was 0.012 Mil. per gram frog weight. Dr. Pratt states that 
this was stronger than the majority of English and German leaves 
examined in his laboratory. Roth tested some American-grown 



"^""ja^nuary^^?]?: ! Admuces ifi Phamacy. 21 



digitalis and obtained results that compare favorably with that of 
any grown anywhere else. He believes that the wild digitalis 
which is found in the Northwestern States may be utilized as a source 
of supply for making the various preparations of digitalis and that 
by using ordinary methods in handling and preparing the leaves 
a highly active product may be secured, one that would compare 
favorably with the activity of cultivated leaves grown under more 
favorable conditions. 

In their experimental work Drs. Pratt and Morrison used the 
one-hour frog method recommended by the United States Pharma- 
copoeia. In one series twenty-two frogs were required to determine 
with sufficient accuracy the minimal dose required to produce 
systolic standstill. The temperature of the water in which the frogs 
were kept before and during the experiment was carefully regulated, 
and the temperature of the air in the room was noted and recorded. 
Twenty-eight samples of American-grown digitalis were tested. 
It is believed that differences in strength in leaves grown in different 
localities is due to soil and climate. Digitalis does not grow well 
on limestone lands. This was noticed by lyloyd when he tried to 
cultivate the leaf in Kentucky. It is generally found in profusion 
on land containing iron and manganese. Digitalis does not grow 
in Switzerland and it is attributed to lack of iron and manganese in 
the soil. The authors conclude that the best American digitalis, 
both wild and cultivated, is equal in activity to the best European 
digitalis. They are also strongly of the opinion that all digitalis 
should be tested biologically before it is gathered in large quantities , 
for medicinal use. — Jour. A. M. A., 73: 1606, 1919. 

A ClinicaIv Study on th^ Use; of CaIvOmki. Inunctions. — 
Mercury inunction has been used for the treatment of syphilis ever 
since the beginning of recorded medical history, and always in the 
form of an ointment made with the metallic mercury. There has 
always been objections to its use, however, by fastidious persons, 
and justly so, on account of its uncleanliness, its betrayal of what 
the patient is suffering from, and the frequency with which it sets 
up irritation of the skin. These points have been often dilated 
upon. Recently, Wile and Elliott and Schamberg, Kolmer, Raiziss 
and Gavron have suggested the use of calomel. Their reason for 
advocating its use is that it overcomes the foregoing objectionable 
features of blue ointment. As calomel is more cleanly, and as they 



22 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

January, 1920. 



felt that it is as easily absorbed through the skin as the ordinary- 
blue ointment, they advised that it be used for inunction purposes 
and advanced a formula consisting of: 



The arguments of the above authors as to its absorbability seemed 
so convincing that Cole and Littman, of Cleveland, began to use 
it in their private practice. This was in the spring of 191 7. Since 
then the use of calomel has become so popular that a manufacturing 
house has brought out an ointment of calomel which is a little more 
pleasant than the ordinary preparation, though probably no more 
efficient. After using this for some time Cole and I^ittman began to 
feel that it was not doing what was expected of it. For one thing, 
the patients never became salivated with it, which struck them as 
significant. They also noticed that many times patients did not 
react to this treatment as they had to blue ointment inunctions or 
injections of mercury. These results, or lack of results, led them 
to carry out a series of tests in a scientific manner to determine the 
efficacy of calomel inunctions. Fresh clinical syphilis in the venereal 
wards of the Cleveland City Hospital was used for the demonstra- 
tions. Tests on fifty-four cases were carried out in as unprejudiced 
manner as possible. The investigation was undertaken at the sug- 
gestion of the Therapeutic Research Committee of the Council on 

< ..Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association. 

, <\ , The cases were carefully watched: routine Wassermann tests 
'bn the blood, Spirochceta pallida examinations and spinal fluid ex- 
aminations were made in every case. Care was taken in all in- 
stances in using the ointments that patients were always under the 
observation of an orderly or of a nurse to see that the inunction was 
rubbed in through a space of at least thirty minutes for six nights 
in each week, with a hot bath on the seventh night, and without other 
medication. In nearly all the cases the calomel ointment described 
above was used, it having been prepared by the hospital pharmacist. 
In a few cases a proprietary calomel ointment was used. It was 
often difficult to keep the patients under this treatment as long as the 
investigators would desire as some of them noticed that they did 
not improve under this manner of treatment. To quiet them they 
were given saline injection as a placebo so that they would be under 



Hydrargyri chloridi mitis 

Lanolini 

Adipis benzoinati 



3 .00 Gm. 

1 .00 Gm. 

2 .00 Gm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

January, 1920. ) 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



23 



the impression that they were receiving arsphenamin medication 
in conjunction with the inunctions. 

An analysis of the results show that there was practically never 
any improvement in primary lesions when these inunctions were 
used. The lack of salivation was in startling contrast to results 
after the use of the old reliable blue ointment. They conclude that 
calomel inunctions are almost completely inefficient against primary 
and secondary syphilis. Furthermore, such inunctions very rarely 
produce salivation or gingivitis. This means poor absorption and 
explains its chnical inefficiency. The calomel also produces derma- 
titis. The investigators strongly urge the discontinuance of the use 
of calomel ointment for the treatment of syphilis. — Jour. A. M. A., 
p. 1408, 1919. 

A New Ge;rmicidh for Usk in the Gknito-Urinary Tract: 
"Mercurochromk, 220." — Drs. Young, White and Swartz, of 
the Brady Urological Institute of Baltimore, have been making a 
study of antiseptics with the end in view of discovering something 
particularly applicable to the genito-urinary tract. Noting the 
results of the use of the flavines in the treatment of venereal diseases 
they became impressed with the possibilities of using dyes as a basis 
for the development of germicidal and therapeutic compounds, 
their object being to obtain drugs that would possess the penetrating 
qualities of dyes and at the same time be destructive to germs and 
comparatively non-toxic and non -irritating. This research resulted 
in a number of compounds and from among them the substance men- , 
tioned above was selected for extensive study. In "Mercurochrome. 
220," the investigators assert they have evolved a drug of demoil- ;' . 
strated germicidal value. The rapidity with which some old in- 
fections of the bladder, kidney and pelvis have been cleared up after 
its use is striking, and they lay special stress on its absence of ir- 
ritating and toxic qualities, and the ease with which the patient 
may retain a one per cent, solution for hours without discomfort. 
This, they say, is more than sufficient to establish the possibilities 
of the drug in these conditions. They state this is the first time that 
a drug has been developed having great germicidal strength and 
which can be borne or tolerated in the human bladder for several 
hours. This is an ideal which has long been striven after. In 
synthesizing this drug they had in mind the production of one that 
would have the following properties: (i) Ready penetration of the 



24 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



tissues in which the infection exists; (2) lack of irritation of the drug 
to tissues; (3) high germicidal activity; (4) ready solubility in water 
and stability of the solution; (5) freedom from precipitation in 
urine; (6) sufficiently low toxicity to avoid systematic effects from 
the small amount of the drug that may be absorbed. 

Mercurochrome is obtained by substituting one atom of mer- 
cury in the molecule of dibromfluorescein. Chemically it is dibrom- 
oxymercuryfluorescein, or its sodium salt. It contains about 26 
per cent, of mercury. The free acid is a red powder insoluble in 
water but readily soluble in sodium hydroxid solution, with the 
formation of a deep cherry-red color. Its solutions show fluores- 
cence on dilution. The dry salt forms iridescent green scales, 
slightly hygroscopic and readily soluble in water. The solution is 
stable and is not affected by moderate heat or exposure to the air. 
Strongly acid urine gives a slight precipitate of the free dye. There 
is entire freedom from precipitation when a one per cent, solution of 
the drug is mixed with an equal volume of medium rich in protein 
such as hydrocele fluid. The solution stains the skin a bright red 
color, but this can be removed by rubbing first with a 2 per cent, 
solution of potassium permanganate, and then with a 2 per cent, 
solution of oxalic acid. In actual practice it has been found that 
this tendency to stain is annoying to patients in that extraordinary 
care must be taken in regard to underclothing, sheets and toweling, 
as it is impossible to remove the stains. A i : 1000 solution of 
the drug will kill B. coli and Staphylococcus aureous in urine in one 
minute. It has practically 50 times the germicidal strength of acri- 
flavine in urine medium for exposures of one hour. Solutions of 
cne per cent, can be held in the human bladder for from one to three 
hours without irritation. The drug has proved to be of great value 
in the treatment of chancroids and as a dressing after incision of 
buboes. It promises to be of great value in the treatment of gon- 
orrhea. Its use in chronic affections of the bladder gave remarkable 
results, purulent cystitis disappearing in a surprising manner with 
freedom of pus and bacteria in a few days. — Jour. A. M. A., Vol. 73, 
No. 20, 1919. 

Fixed Oil of Fenugreek. — Besides an essential oil, fenugreek 
seeds contain about 7 per cent, of a fatty oil, color golden, and with 
a characteristic unpleasant smell and taste. Its specific gravity is 
0.9471 at 15° C, saponification value 189.5, ^.nd iodine value 132.8. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920, ) 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



25 



According to the investigator this oil contains 6.25 per cent, of leci- 
thin and 0.5 per cent, of phytosterins. The fatty acids are mainly 
linoleic and oleic acids, and 1.5 per cent, of volatile fatty acids. 
It was noticed that when the oil is spread in a thin layer and exposed 
to the air, it quickly dries to a golden yellow, transparent varnish, 
which is insoluble in ether. Therefore, it rightfully belongs to the 
class of drying oils. — H. B. Wunchendorff, /. pharm. chim., 1919; 
through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Aug. 16, 1919. 

Benzoic Acid f'rom Cows' Urine. — No doubt due to the un- 
settled and chaotic conditions brought about by the Great War, 
an old source of benzoic acid has recently again been made use of. 
Since the discovery of the possibility of making this acid synthetically 
from toluol, the natural source does not appear to have been very 
much encouraged and rightly so as cost of production is a very 
important factor in manufacturing. However, it has been suggested 
by the authors of this paper that its manufacture is still commercially 
feasible in Canada. They found that hippuric acid equivalent to 
one pound of benzoic acid per diem is obtainable from fifteen cows. 
The urine is acidified with hydrochloric acid and cooled to 0° C, 
when the hippuric acid crystallizes out. They believe this process 
could be profitably worked out in winter by Canadian dairy farmers. 
— P. J. Moloney and F. T. Shutt, Trans. Roy. Soc, Canada, 19 18- 
1919, 31, 12 (3), 149; through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, 
Aug. 16, 1919. 

Modified Formula for Calomeiv Prophylactic Ointment. 
— The claim is made by Duret that the following combination gives 
a preparation of far greater prophylactic value against syphilitic 
exposure than the original formula of Metchnikoff, which is now 
officially recognized in France. Buret's formula is as follows: 



Precipitated Calomel lo.o 

Crystalline Magnesium Chloride 10. o 

vSodium Bicarbonate 7 .0 

Thymol 0.15 

Camphor 0.35 

Glycerole vStarch 15 

Nut Oil 15.0 

Anhydrous Wool-fat 20.0 

Distilled Water 25 .0 



26 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



This combination is brought together as follows: The mag- 
nesium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are triturated with the 
water; the calomel is added and then the glycerole of starch. The 
anhydrous wool-fat is melted with lo grams of the oil; the camphor 
and thymol are now dissolved in 5 grams of the oil and added to the 
melted mixture ; this then added to the calomel mixture and the whole 
thoroughly mixed in a mortar until a uniform mixture is produced. — 
P. Duret, Annales Institut Pasteur, 1919; Repertoire de Pharm., 
30: 196. 

Venom of Bee Stings. — M. Arthus noted that the symptoms 
produced by poisoning with the secretion from the poison glands 
of bees show that the venom is a proteotoxin. In many respects 
it is similar to scorpion venom. It has a hypotensive action, similar 
to the scorpion venom, and which is sometimes very considerable 
although it differs from this venom in that it has no sialagogue or 
mydriatic action. The investigator also noted rabbits treated with 
this toxin gave unmistakable evidence of having marked intestinal 
peristalsis.- — /. pharm. chim., 20: 41, 1919. 

Constituents of Lemon Juice. — R. Huerre, in an investigation 
of the juice of this fruit from three different lots of lemons, found that 
neither oxalic nor tartaric acids were present in the juice. The 
specific gravity ranged from 1.048 to 1.064. Expressed in terms of 
citric acid the total acidity was from 7.14 to 7.8 per cent. One 
hundred Mils, gave a yield of from 7 to 7.5 grams of citric acid; 
from 0.40 to 0.60 gram of malic acid; from 0.40 to 0.50 gram of cane 
sugar; from 1.8 to 2 grams of invert sugar; and from 1.6 to 1.8 grams 
of ash on incinerating the dry extractive.—/, pharm. chim., 20: i, 
1919; through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Aug. 16, 191 9. 

Oil as a Substitute for Alcohol for Flavoring Extracts. 
— An interesting suggestion is made by A. Thurston in the Midland 
Druggist in reference to the suitability of using fixed or fatty oils as 
solvents for culinary flavors in place of the heavily taxed and ex- 
pensive alcohol. The approach of absolute prohibition makes some 
investigation along this line rather timely. He states that such oils 
as cottonseed, olive, or neutral lard oils will be found satisfactory 
for this purpose. In his estimation these fixed oils hold the flavor 
much better than alcohol. Their use also has the added advantage 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



27 



that they act as shortening to any baked pastry. To make an oily 
extract of vanilla or tonka beans he advises that i part of the solid 
be heated on a water bath to from 70° to 80° C. with 10 parts of oil 
for 30 minutes, and then strained. If vanillin or coumarin is used 
he suggests that a solution of these can very readily be made in the 
proportions of i in 40 or i in 50; these will give a flavor about 10 
times stronger than an oily extract of the beans. — Midland Druggist, 
I9i9> PP- 53, 88. 

iNCOMPATiBiiviTms OF STRYCHNINE Sui^PHATE. — Among the 
requirements of strychnine sulphate in the French Codex is one that 
it must be neutral, in contradistinction to the U. S. P. requirement 
which allows some latitude, it stating that strychnine sulphate 
should be neutral or slightly acid. A perfectly neutral salt naturally 
will be somewhat incompatible in a solution such as the following 
which is in great vogue among French physicians as a hypodermic 
injection: Sodium cacodylate, 0.50; strychnine sulphate, 0.02; 
distilled water, to make 10 Mils. At first this solution makes up 
clear but after a short time a crystalline precipitate of strychnine 
cacodylate slowly makes its appearance and adheres to the sides of the 
bottle or ampul. This is due to the lack of solubility in water of the 
strychnine cacodylate formed by double decomposition. There are 
a number of proprietary ampuls of this combination on the market 
which, although they have the correct amount of these very active 
ingredients, do not show any evidence of precipitation of this potent 
salt. This is brought about by substituting for part of the distilled 
water a small amount each of glycerin and alcohol. The modi- 
fied formula for this injection gives a solution which is permanent 
and without any possibility of dangerous consequences. 

Strychnine Sulphate 0.02 



One Mil., which is the dose of this hypodermic injection, con- 
tains 5 centigrams of sodium cacodylate and 2 milligrams of neutral 
strychnine sulphate. — E. Cabannes, Repertoire de Pharm., 30: 
193, 1919^ through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Aug. 23, 1919. 



Sodium Cacodylate . . . . 
Alcohol, 90 per cent... 

Glycerine 

Distilled Water, boiled 



to make 10.00 Mils. 



0.50 
4.00 
2 .00 



28 



Botulism: I. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920 



BOTUUvSM: I.i 

The striking symptoms and high fataUty of botuHsm have given 
to this disease, as to rabies, an interest and a conspicuousness far 
beyond its relative importance as a cause of death. Two recent 
fatal outbreaks of "food poisoning," one in Ohio, the other in Michi- 
gan, have been attributed, it seems with justice, to botulism in- 
toxication from ripe olives packed in California, and these tragedies 
have increased the uneasiness felt by some persons about the dan- 
gers from this cause. American investigators in the past few years^ 
have added much to our knowledge of botulism, and several recent 
articles, especially, have helped to define the conditions under which 
this serious form of food poisoning may take place. 

It has been shown that the name of botulism, or sausage poison- 
ing, is quite inappropriate to this form of bacterial intoxication as 
it occurs in the United States. Canned string beans, asparagus, 
corn, apricots, ripe olives and cheese have been implicated at various 
times and places, while meat products have seldom been casually 
connected with such cases. Apparently, the majority of outbreaks 
on record in this country have been due to household canned foods, 
and one of the points in dispute has been whether a similar danger 
is to be feared from factory canned foods. The difference of opinion 
among workers in this field is exemplified by correspondence re- 
cently appearing in the Journal from two correspondents.^ Some 
of the points raised in the correspondence are of general interest. 

There is no doubt that the early statements of van Krmengem, 
the discoverer of B. botulinus, about the low heat resistance of this 
organism are incorrect if applied to all conditions or all strains. 
Most of the American strains, so far from being killed by heating 
to 80 C. for one hour, will withstand much higher temperatures, 
some even resisting the temperature of boiling water for a consid- 

1 From Journal Amer. Med. Assoc., December 13, 1919. 

2 Georgina S. Burke: "The Effect of Heat on the Spores of Bacillus Botu- 
Its Bearing on Home Canning Methods," Part i, J. A. M. A., 73: 88 (Jan. 

11), 1919. "The Relation of Forage Poisoning to Botulism," editorial, J&^'f/., 73: 
611 (Aug. 23), 1919; "Spoiled Canned Food," 73: 914 (Sept. 20), 1919. Charles 
Thom, Ruth B. Edmondson andL. T. Giltner: "Botulism from Canned Aspara- 
gus," Ibid., 73: 907 (Sept. 20), 1919. John Weinzirl: "Bacteriology of Canned 
Foods," abstr., 7&«^^., 72: 1031 (Aprils), 1919. "Bacillus Botulinus Poisoning in 
Detroit," General News, Ihid., 73: 18 (Nov. i), 1919. 

3 Georgina S.Burke: "Spoiled Canned Foods and Botulism," J. A. M. A., 
73: 1078 (Oct. 4), 1919. John Weinzirl: Ibid., 73: 1789 (Dec. 6), 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Botulism: I. 



29 



erable period. The history of the canned foods impHcated in botu- 
Hsm poisoning shows that the spores of B. hotulinus pass through the 
ordinary processes of household canning without destruction. It 
seems to be a fact that, as far as recorded cases go, only two or three 
instances of botulism have been traced to factory canned goods, 
as against a much larger number attributed to foods prepared in 
the household. Whether this difference is due to the superior 
germicidal efficiency* of factory methods of heating or to the circum- 
stance that spoiled or swelled canned goods are more likely to be 
eliminated in the course of ordinary trade procedures or to a com- 
bination of these factors cannot be definitely established at this 
time. It does not seem, however, that we are justified in asserting 
that a danger is entirely absent because it is exceedingly slight. 

The main point of difference between the correspondents men- 
tioned seems to hinge on the interpretation given by Weinzirl to 
the results of an extended bacterial examination of canned foods 
undertaken in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Harvard 
University.^ The investigation forms part of a comprehensive 
study of canned foods, which is being carried out under the direc- 
tion of Dr. M. J. Rosenau with the aid of a grant supplied by the 
National Canners Association. The conclusion drawn by Wein- 
zirl to which particular exception has been taken is that "food 
poisoning organisms, such as B. hotulinus, B. 'enteriditis, etc., are 
not found in commercial canned foods." It is unfortunate that 
this matter was not allowed to rest in the form in which it appears 
in the summary of results. "Members of the paratyphoid-enteri- 
ditis group were not found, nor was B. hottilinus ever isolated." 
This plain description of findings becomes transmogrified by Wein- 
zirl in his "conclusions" into a general statement which would hardly 
be justified even by a more extensive investigation than that here 
under discussion, and which in its present form might lead to serious 
misinterpretation . 

On the other hand, it must be admitted that a rather too posi- 
tive tone pervades portions of Mrs. Burke's letter. It is hardly 
justifiable to insinuate, however vaguely, that a group of workers 
is influenced by any consideration other than the desire to seek the 
truth and find it. 

It seems hardly fair or wise to cast discredit on the work of a 

" John Weinzirl: "The Bacteriology of Canned Goods," /. M. Research, 39: 
349 (Jan.), 1919. 



30 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



group of scientific investigators, comprising some of the best-known 
names of the country, apparently on the ground that the money 
for the work has been provided by a commercial association. The 
word "commercial" is frequently used as a general term of oppro- 
brium, but, as Roosevelt would have said, there is a "good" as well 
as a "bad" commercialism. It is not our understanding that money 
was given to Harvard University for the purpose of "exonerating" 
factory canned goods from any charge whatsoever, but simply for 
the purpose of discovering actual conditions and, so far as those con- 
ditions might be undesirable, of discovering and applying appro- 
priate methods of improvement. It can hardly be assumed that the 
officials or any of the members of the National Canners Associa- 
tion would favor for an instant a plan to ignore or overlook any 
danger of botulism poisoning that might exist. Their interests, 
"commercial" as well as simply human, lie wholly in the direction 
of discovering what the danger is, how it arises, and how it can 
best be avoided or overcome. Denial or concealment is the last 
policy sound business judgment would dictate. 



REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON 
ATOMIC WEIGHTS FOR 1919-20.* 

The last regular report of this committee, apart from an annual 
recommendation to continue the use of the table of atomic weights 
then presented, was published in 19 16. The interruption in the 
series of reports was, of course, due to the World War, which created 
difficulties of a serious kind among all international organizations. 
Cooperation with Germany became impossible, partly because of 
the difficulty of correspondence, and partly because of the personal 
hostilities created by the conduct of the war. There was also an 
inevitable slackening of scientific activities, and this was well shown 
by the unusually small number of new researches in the field of 
atomic weights. Now that peace is in sight, it seems wise to resume 
the preparation of these reports, even though they may not be for 
some time quite so truly international as heretofore. The de- 
terminations published since the preparation of our last report may 
now be summarized as follows: 

* Reprinted from Journal of the American Chemical Society, Dec, 191 9. 



''"jjnulry'; m^: } Repoft 071 Atomic Weights. 3 1 

Hydrogen. — A very thorough investigation by Burt and Edgar ^ 
on the volumetric composition of water has given the volume ratio 
of hydrogen to oxygen as 2.00288 : i. From this value, taking the 
normal liter weights of oxygen and hydrogen as 1.42900 and 0.089873 
Gm., respectively, the atomic weight of hydrogen becomes 1.00772, or, 
rounded off, 1.0077. Guye,^ from a discussion of Burt and Edgar's 
data, accepts this value as lying between the two extremes of 1.00767 
and 1.00773. If> however, instead of trusting to the densities of the 
gases and their physical constants exclusively, we take into account 
the admirable researches of Morley, Noyes and others, upon the 
synthesis and analysis of water, ^ the most probable general mean 
for the atomic weight of hydrogen becomes 1.0078, which differs 
from the volumetric value by only 1/ 10000; that is, the two dis- 
tinct lines of attack upon the problem agree within the limits of 
actual uncertainty. For ordinary purposes the approximate value 
1.008 is close enough. It must be remembered that the tables 
prepared by this committee are for the use, not so much for special- 
ists, as for working chemists in general ; and too much refinement will 
only lead to confusion. No determinations of these or any other 
constants can be absolute and final. All are subject to errors which 
may be reduced nearly, but not quite, to insignificance, but never 
eliminated entirely. For example, in the determination of atomic 
weights from gaseous densities it is not possible to guarantee the 
absolute purity of the gases, or to avoid errors in weighing, in re- 
ductions to a vacuum, or in the values given to the physical constants 
that are used in the final computations. Some of these errors may 
be so small as to be negligible, and in the aggregate they may tend 
either to reinforce or to compensate one another, but their extreme 
magnitude can be estimated with some approach to accuracy, and 
expressed by means of the usual ± sign. At present an accuracy 
to within 1/ 10000 is the best we can expect to obtain.^ 

Carbon. — ^Two investigations on the atomic weight of carbon 
were reported from the Geneva laboratory in 19 18. First, Stahr- 

1 Phil. Trans., 216A: 393, 1916. This research was noted in the previous 
report for 191 7. Its review by Guye renders its repetition desirable here. 

2 /. chim. phys., 15: 208, 191 7. 

3 Computation by F. W. C. 

^ For an elaborate discussion of sources of error in atomic weight determina- 
tions, see Guye and his colleagues (M. Germann, Moles and Renard) in /. chim. 
phys., 14: 25, 195, 204, 1916; 15 : 60, 360, 405, 1917; 16: 46, 1918. 



32 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



foss^ determined thfe density of acetylene, ethane and ethylene. 
Acetylene proved to be unsatisfactory, because of its tendency to 
polymerize. From ethane he obtained the value C = 12.006, 
and from ethylene C = 12.004. On account of some uncertainties 
in the reduction, he prefers, provisionally, the value C = 12.00. 

Secondly, Batuecas^ determined the density of ethane, and re- 
duced his observations by 3 methods, giving C = 12.005, ^ 1-999 
and 1 1.996. The last two being concordant he regards as preferable, 
and their mean, C = 11.998, he adopts. It will be remembered 
that Richards and Hoover, by purely chemical methods, found C = 
12.005; and a later combination of all determinations published 
before 19 18 gave the chairman of the committee the mean value 
C = 12.0025. For ordinary purposes the rounded-off value C = 
12.00 may be used, and is so given in the table. 

Bromine. — Three sets of determinations of the molecular weight 
of hydrogen bromide have been made in Guye's laboratory at Geneva, 
by Moles, ^ Reiman,^ and Murray.^ The acid used was prepared 
by several distinct methods, and all gave concordant results, which 
may be summarized as follows, when H = 1.0078: 



These values are wonderfully concordant and the variations are 
far within the allowable limits of experimental error. In a recent 
combination, by the chairman of this committee, of all the available 
data relative to the atomic weight of bromine, the value found was 
Br = 79.9228, in complete harmony with the Geneva determina- 
tions. For ordinary purposes the rounded-off figure 79.92 is enough. 

Boron and Fluorine • — In a very original investigation Smith and 
Van Haagen^^ have simultaneously redetermined the atomic weights 
of boron and fluorine. Their starting point was anhydrous borax, 

^ /. chim. phys., 16: 175, 1918. 
6 Ibid., 16: 322, 1918. 

^ Ibid., 14: 389, 1916. See review by Guye ill the same number, p. 361.' 
8 Ibid., 15 : 293, 1917. 

^ Ibid., 15: 334, 1917. Reiman and Murray assume H = 1.008; Moles 
prefers 1.0076. 

1° Carnegie Inst. Pub., 1918, p. 267. 



Mol. Wt. HBr. 



At. Wt. Br. 



Moles . . 
Reiman 
Murray 



80.9332 

90.932 

80.930 



79 9254 
79.9242 
79.9222 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



33 



Na2B407, and their chief difficulty was in insuring the complete 
dehydration of that compound. The salt was then converted, in a 
series of successive experiments, into sodium sulphate, carbonate, 
nitrate, chloride and fluoride, which gave 8 independent values for 
boron ranging from 10.896 to 10.905, in mean, 10.900. This value 
was computed with Na = 22.997, ^ = 35457» ^ = 32.064, N = 
14.010 and C = 12.005. The authors finally discuss all previous 
determinations and show wherein they were affected by errors. 
The new value 10.900 should be adopted as the most probable. 

In this research sodium fluoride was compared not only with 
borax but also with the sulphate, and the 8 values found ranged from 
19.002 to 19.008, in mean 19.005. The rounded-off value F = 19.0 
may be retained for all practical purposes. 

Lkad. — Oechsner de Coninck and Gerard^ ^ have attempted to 
determine the atomic weight of lead by calcination of the nitrate, 
and find Pb = 206.98 when N2O5 = 108. This determination is 
evidently of no present value. With this exception the other recent 
researches relative to this constant have referred to isotopic lead, 
and the normal element is considered only in comparison with it. 
Richards and Wadsworth,^^ for instance, find for normal lead Pb = 
107.183, and Richards and HalP^ give Pb = 207.187, values slightly 
lower than the accepted 207.20 as determined by Baxter and Grover. 
Similar determinations by A. L. Davis^^ gave discordant results. 
As for isotopic lead its atomic weight is so variable as to show that 
it is nearly, if not always, a mixture of isotopes, and not a constant 
which can as yet be placed in the table. The values found have very 
great significance, but they are far from final. 

GaIvIvIUM. — By the analysis of carefully purified gallium chloride, 
Richards, Craig and Sameshima^^ find Ga = 70.09 and 70.11. These 
determinations, however, are only preliminary, but they justify the 
provisional adoption of the value 70.10. The original values given 

11 Compt. rend., 163: 415, 1916. 
^2 /. Am. Chem. Soc, 38: 2613, 1916. 
13 Ihid., 39: 537, 1917. 
/. Phys. Chem., 22: 631, 1918. 

For discussions regarding the atomic weight of isotopic lead see the Presi- 
dential address of Richards before the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, in December, 1918. Also F. W. Clarke, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 
4: 181, 1918. 

" Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 4: 387, 1918. 



34 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



by the determinations of Lecoq de Boisbaudran vary from 69.70 
to 70.12, the last one being very near the new value. 

Zirconium. — From the ratio between zirconium chloride and sil- 
ver, Venable and BelU^ find Zr = 91 .76. Although this determination 
is regarded as preliminary, the authors, by pointing out sources of 
error in all previous values, believe the new one to be the most prob- 
able. It seems best, however, to await the complete investigation 
before changing the value heretofore accepted. 

Tin. — Baxter and Starkweather,^^ by electrolyses of stannic 
chloride, find Sn = 118.703 when CI = 35.457. This is in complete 
agreement with Briscoe's determination, Sn = 118.698. The value 
118.70 has already been adopted by the committee. 

TelIvURIum. — Staehler and Tesch,^^ from careful syntheses of 
tellurium dioxide, find Te = 127.51, which is confirmatory of the 
accepted value 127.5. 

Yttrium. — Hopkins and Balke,^'' by conversion of YtQOs into 
Yt2Cl3, find Yt = 88.9. The ordinary sulphate method is shown to 
be inaccurate. In a later investigation Kremers and Hopkins 
determined the ratio between yttrium chloride and silver, and found 
Yt = 89.33. Since this method is the most trustworthy, the value 
given by it should be adopted. The other sulphate determinations 
are questionable. 

Samarium. — The atomic weight of samarium has been determined 
by Stewart and James from the ratio between the chloride and silver. 
The value found is 150.44, which is essentially that given in the table. 
No change is needed. 

Dysprosium. — Engle and Balke,^^ by conversion of the oxide 
into the chloride, found Dy = 164.228. I^ater, by the same method, 
Kj'emers, Hopkins and Engle^^ found Dy = 163.83. This dis- 
cordance, like that already shown for yttrium, led the last-named 
chemists to determine the ratio between dysprosium chloride and 
silver, which gave 162.52. The earlier method is discredited and 

17 J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 39: 1598, 1917. 

18 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 2: 718, 1916. 
1^ Z. anorg. allgem. Chem., 98: i, 1916. 

20 /. Am. Chem. Soc, 36: 2332, 1916. 

21 Ibid., 41 : 718, 1919. 

22 /. Am. Chem. Soc, 39: 2605, 1917. 

23 Ibid., 39: 67, 1917. 

24 Ibid., 40: 598, 1918. 



A m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



35 



the last value, rounded to 162.5, seems to be the one best entitled 
to acceptance. 

Erbium. — For this element, by the oxide-chloride method, 
Wichers, Hopkins and Balke^^ obtained values ranging from Er = 
168.00 to 168.84. The method of determination is thus again 
shown to be untrustworthy. 

Thorium. — In a long series of concordant analyses of thorium 
bromide, Honigschmid^^ finds Th = 232.152 from the silver ratio 
and 232.150 from the silver bromide ratio when Br = 79.916. The 
value Th = 232.15 should be adopted for general use. He also 
studied thoria from uranium ores, which contained ionium. For 
this mixture he obtained an atomic weight slightly in excess of 231.50. 
This may approximate to the unknown atomic weight of ionium. 

Uranium. — The later series of determinations of the atomic 
weight of uranium by Honigschmid and Horovitz^^ was based like 
their earlier series upon analyses of the tetrabromide. Two sets of 
analyses were made, one upon a bromide which had been fused in 
bromine vapor, the other in nitrogen. The value obtained ranged 
from U = 238.04 to 238.16, the latter being in harmony with their 
former determinations. The rounded figure 238.2 is given in the 
table. 

HE1.IUM. — Taylor, 28 using the microbalance for determining the 
density of helium, finds He = 4.0008. Guye,^^ in a recalculation 
of the data, finds He = 3-998. The value 4 should be retained. 

Argon. — From the density and compressibility of argon, Leduc^^ 
finds A = 39.91. He regards the second decimal as uncertain, and 
advises the adoption of the rounded value 39.9. 

In the following table of atomic weights proposed for 1920, few 
changes have been made from the values given in the U st preceding 
table. The new values are A = 39.9; B = 10.9; Ga = 70.1; Th = 
232.15; and Yt = 89.33. addition to these the atomic weight of 
nitrogen should be changed from 14.01 to the more precise value 
14.008. The latter figure represents all the best determinations^ 

26 /. Amer. Chem. Soc, 40: 1615, 1918. 

2s Z. Electrochem., 22: 18, 1916. 

2 Monatsh., 37: 185, 1916. 

28 Phys. Rev., 10: 653, 1917. 

23 /. chim. phys., 16: 46, 1918. 

»° Compt. rend., 167: 70, 1918. 



36 



Report on Atomic Weights. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
January, 1920 



International Atomic Weights, 1920. 



Atomic 

Symbol. Weight. 

Aluminum Al 27.1 

Antimony Sb 120.2 

Argon A 39.9 

Arsenic As 74 • 96 

Barium Ba 137. 37 

Bismuth Bi 208.0 

Boron.. B 10.9 

Bromine. Br 79. 92 

Cadmium Cd 1 1 2 . 40 

Caesium Cs 132.81 

Calcium Ca 40 . 07 

Carbon C 12. 005 

Cerium Ce 140.25 

Chlorine CI 35.46 

Chromium Cr 52.0 

Cobalt Co 58.97 

Columbium Cb 93 . i 

Copper Cu 63.57 

Dysprosium Dy 162.5 

Erbium Er 167.7 

Europium Eu 152.0 

Fluorine F 19.0 

Gadolinium Gd 157.3 

Gallium Ga 70 . i 

Germanium Ge 72.5 

Glucinum Gl 9.1 

Gold Au 197.2 

Helium He 4 . 00 

Holmium Ho 163.5 

Hydrogen H i . 008 

Indium In 114. 8 

Iodine I 126.92 

Iridium Ir 193. i 

Iron Fe 55-84 

Krypton ^...Kr 82.92 

lanthanum La 1390 

Lead Pb 207.20 

Lithium Li 6 . 94 

Lutecium Lu 1750 

Magnesium Mg 24.32 

Manganese Mn 54 . 93 

Mercury Hg 200 . 6 



Symbol. 

Molybdenum Mo 

Neodymium Nd 

Neon Ne 

Nickel Ni 

Niton (radium emanation) Nt 

Nitrogen N 

Osmium Os 

Oxygen O 

Palladium Pd 

Phosphorus P 

Platinum Pt 

Potassium K 

Praseodymium Pr 

Radium Ra 

Rhodium Rh 

Rubidium Rb 

Ruthenium Ru 

Samarium Sa 

Scandium Sc 

Selenium Se 

Silicon Si 

Silver Ag 

Sodium Na 

Strontium Sr 

Sulphur S 

Tantalum Ta 

Tellurium Te 

Terbium Tb 

Thallium Tl 

Thorium Th 

Thulium Tm 

Tin Sn 

Titanium Ti 

Tungsten W 

Uranium U 

Vanadium V 

Xenon Xe 

Ytterbium (Neoytterbium) Yb 

Yttrium Yt 

Zinc Zn 

Zirconium Zr 



Atomic 
Weight. 

96.0 

144 -3 

20. 2 

58.68 
222 .4 

14.008 
190.9 

16.00 
106.7 

31.04 
195-2 

39.10 
140.9 
226.0 
102 .9 

85.45 
loi . 7 
150.4 

44.1 

79.2 

28.3 
107.88 

23 .00 

87-63 

32.06 



181 
127 

159 
204 



232 . 15 
168.5 
118. 7 

48.1 
184.0 
238.2 

51 o 
130.2 
173-5 
89-33' 
65.37 
90.6 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Olive Oil Situation. 



37 



and is probably correct to within i in the third decimal place. For 

so small a value the change is insignificant. 

[Signed], F. W. Ci^arke, 

T. E. Thorpe, 
G. Urbain. 



OUVE OIL SITUATION IN ITALY. i 
By a. a. Osborne^, 
secretary to the commerciai. attache), rome, aug. 23, 1919. 

Last year's total yield of olive oil in Italy, although it exceeded 
the average annual yield for the past ten years, was not sufficient to 
provide for the total yearly consumption, according to a communi- 
cation to // Sole. The monthly consumption of edible olive oil in 
Italy ranges at present from 120,000 to 130,000 quintals. This 
means that the average annual requirements amount to 1,500,000 
quintals. The most favorable estimates of next year's production 
go no higher than 1,300,000 quintals. 

The apparent deficiency of 200,000 quintals in olive oil produc- 
tion (obtained from the excess of requirements over production as 
they are both given above) must be made this year to supply oil to 
the redeemed territories, where the inhabitants have been almost 
without edible oils and fats during the war and are eager to secure 
them now in large quantities. The continued and prospective 
scarcity of butter likewise will result in a demand for oil to take 
its place. 

The writer goes on to point out that a substantial portion of 
Italy's olive oil requirements must be met by importations. For im- 
ported olive oil, the market prices must naturally be paid, which are 
not subject to regulation by the Italian Government. The only price 
policies left open to the Government regarding this imported oil 
are two: (i) To sell the imported oil to the consumer at the domes- 
tic price, the Government bearing the loss; (2) to raise the fixed 
price of domestic oil so as to accord with the price paid for the im- 
ported oil. 

^ From Commerce Reports, Oct. 16, 191 9. 



38 



Gum Tragacanth. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



GUM TRAGACANTH. 1 

In the course of a report furnished by the Revenue Commis- 
sioner in Mesopotamia it is stated that the most valuable of the 
gums collected is tragacanth, which is produced by tapping small 
shrubs which grow all over the mountains of Southern Persia, and 
from there through the entire mountainous region which runs north- 
west along the frontiers of Mesopotamia, comprising such areas as 
northern Arabistan, the Luristan-Pust-i-Kut country, and Kurdi- 
stan. The most important collecting center for Bagdad is Sulei- 
manaya, the capital of the Suleimanaya district of Kurdistan, ^ 
situated about i8o miles to the northeast of Bagdad. In this area 
there is a regular trade in this gum for the Bagdad market. The 
gum is called "Al-kitirah" in Arabic. The method of tapping the 
bushes is as follows: The Kurds first burn all the leaves off the 
bushes, then expose the roots, cut incisions in the roots, and leave 
for a week or so ; they then return and collect the gum which exudes 
from the roots. The first tapping produces white gum of the best 
quality, second and subsequent tappings gums of yellow colors and 
inferior quality. Excessive tappings weaken, and may sometimes 
kill the bushes. The Kurds bring in the gum to Suleimanaya 
where it is bought by local merchants who export it to Bagdad 
on pack transport in caravans, and sell to Bagdad merchants. These 
merchants export to England and foreign countries. The local 
customs authorities levy a 12V2 per cent, tax on the market value 
in Suleimanaya. 

The northern mountainous Kurdish country in the Mosul Vilayet 
is a mass of mountains and valleys. The mountains are covered 
with scrub evergreen oak forest, and the higher hills and plateaux 
are full of these gum bushes. No organized trade, however, ap- 
pears to exist, although Persian merchants are said to have come 
down off and on in the past to exploit these gums. The distance 
from the Mosul town to this gum-bearing country is from 50 to 
100 miles. All transport at present is on pack animals, but three 
unmettaled roads up to the hill country have been constructed. 
The country is meanwhile wild and unsettled, but with the intro- 
duction of law and order, the opening up of the country by means 
of roads and the construction of a railway to Mosul, which means. 

* From The Chemist and Druggist, November i, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Determining Pentosans. 



39 



direct rail from Mosul to Basrah, the exploitation of gums in this 
country should be possible in the near future. An article written 
in 1903 in a book about agriculture in the Bagdad Vilayet, states 
that the export from Bagdad in 1887 was 641,250 kilograms 
( = 130 tons) and in 1890 it had decreased to 39 tons. 

A second kind of gum is produced from a large tree which grows 
throughout the part of Kurdistan now under British occupation. 
The tree grows to a great size, 50 feet high and up to 8 feet in girth. 
It is found scattered throughout the valleys only, especially near the 
villages in the forests. ' The tree produces edible fruits, sold for 
food and extraction of oil in Mosul, Bagdad, and all other local 
markets of any size in northern Mesopotamia, and also this gum, 
called "elk" (elch) in Arabic. The method of tapping this elch 
gum^is by making long incisions in the trunks of the trees, placing 
some receptacle underneath to catch the exudation. A regular 
trade exists in the Suleimanaya district of Kurdistan, but there is 
none at all in the north of Kurdistan, which falls in the Mosul Vila- 
yet, although "Button" trees abound in the valleys of that country. 
The bulk of this elch gum is exported direct from the Suleimanaya 
district by caravan to Alleppo, where it is used for sizing cloth. 
Some portion comes to Bagdad city, and there is no foreign export 
from Bagdad; it is all used locally for (a) sizing cloth, (6) in local 
medicines, {c) as a local chewing gum, {d) in the manufacture of 
arrack liquor from dates. The price of this gum in Bagdad at 
present is Re. i .8.0 per lb. There is no doubt that very large amounts 
of this gum could be collected from the areas mentioned, under 
conditions similar to those already described for tragacanth. 



A MODIFICATION OF THE PHBNYLHYDRAZINK METHOD 
OF DETERMINING PENTOSANS.* 

By Paui^ Menaul and C. T. DoweIvL. 

Everyone who has made determinations of pentosans by the 
phloroglucinol method realizes that a shorter and less expensive 
method is very much needed. This is especially true at this time 
when it is almost, if not impossible, to buy phloroglucinol even at 

* Reprinted from The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 
November, 1919. 



40 



Determining Pentosans. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

January, 1920. 



the high price asked for it. Our purpose in this short investigation 
was to try to overcome this difficulty by modifying the phenylhy- 
drazine method so as to make it shorter and at the same time obtain 
results by this method which would agree with the provisional 
phloroglucinol method. 

Recent investigations make it more and more evident that many 
compounds other than the pentoses and pentosans give furfurol 
when they are distilled with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and hence 
neither the phloroglucinol method nor any other method of de- 
termining the furfurol coming from such a distillation will enable 
one to say definitely that the original substance contained a certain 
per cent, of pentosans. 

We thought it should be possible to precipitate the furfurol 
with phenylhydrazine and determine the excess of phenylhydrazine 
in the filtrate by the use of some compound which would oxidize 
the phenylhydrazine. Tests were made using solutions of phenyl- 
hydrazine sulphate and iodine, potassium dichromate, ferric sul- 
phate, sodium hypobromite and Fehling's solution. With the iodine 
almost theoretical results were obtained when a large excess of it was 
used. The amount of ferrous salt found was always less than the 
theoretical. No better results were obtained with the other oxidizing 
agents. These results are in harmony with what Chattaway^ found 
in his work on the hydrazines. R. Adan^ found that the reaction 
between phenylhydrazine, zinc and copper sulphate always gave 
less than the theoretical amount of nitrogen. He stated that sec- 
ondary products such as chlorophenylhydrazine and diazo compounds 
were formed when hydrochloric acid was present. B- Bbler^ found 
that a quantitative yield of nitrogen was obtained in the reaction 
between an ammoniacal solution of copper sulphate and hydrazine. 
We thought that this reaction might be quantitative for phenyl- 
hydrazine also if no chloride or other halogen ion was present in 
the solution to cause the side reactions found by Adan. The dis- 
tillation, was therefore made using sulphuric instead of hydrochloric 
acid and using sodium sulphate instead of sodium chloride to lessen 
the solubility of the precipitate.^ In the distillation the volume in 

^ /. Cliem. Soc, 91: 1323, 1907; 95: 1065, 1909. 

2 Bull. soc. chim. Belg., 21: 211, 1907; abstracted in J. Chem. Soc, [II] 91: 
657i 1907. 

3 Z. anorg. Chem., 47: 371, 1905 ; abstracted in /. Chem. Soc, [II] 90: 53, 1906. 
* Recommended in U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, 

Bulletin 49. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. j 



Determining Pentosans. 



41 



the flask was kept practically constant by adding water as the dis- 
tillation proceeded. 

After the addition of the phenylhydrazine to an aliquot of the 
distillate the solution was stirred for the required time by bubbling 
carbon dioxide into it. An aliquot (50 Cc.) of the filtrate from the 
hydrazone was put by means of a dropping funnel into a 250 Cc. 
Fresenius nitrogen bulb/ which had been previously filled with a 
10 per cent, solution of ammoniacal copper sulphate and heated to 
expel the air. A 100 Cc. burette was connected to the tube of the 
Fresenius bulb and a glass tube provided with a stopcock connected 
the neck of the bulb with a Schiff's nitrometer containing sulphuric 
acid. The aliquot of the filtrate was brought into the bulb through 
the dropping funnel by closing the cock leading to the nitrometer 
and lowering the burette. The bulb was then heated so as to keep 
the reaction mixture near the boiling point until the reaction was 
complete. . . 

Results obtained, using the above method to determine the pen- 
tosans in three samples of grain sorghum which were cut at different 
stages of growth, are given in the table below. Results obtained by 
Mr. Freidemann of this laboratory using the same samples and the 
phloroglucinol method are given for comparison. Neither Mr. 
Freidemann nor Mr. Menaul knew what results the other had ob- 
tained until the work had been finished. 

Table Showing Weights of Pentosans in One Gram of Sorghum. 



Other determinations showed that the addition of sodium sul- 
phate to the distillate with the phenylhydrazine was not necessary. 
The same volume of nitrogen was obtained by taking two parts 
of the distillate to one of which sodium sulphate had been added 
and not to the other. 

The time required to make a determination of the excess of 
phenylhydrazine in the filtrate is about 20 min. This method then 
makes it possible to use a much cheaper substance than phloroglu- 



No. 



Phloroglucinol 
Method. 
Gram. 



Phenylhydrazine 
Method. 
Gram. 



I.. 
II. 
Ill 



o. 1790 

o- 1523 
o. 2149 



0.1788 

o. 1526 
o. 2150 



5 See catalogue of Central Scientific Company, p. 371. 



42 



Notes on Aluminium Flares. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



cinol and to make a determination of pentosans in a much shorter 
time. 

Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Stillwater, Oklahoma. 

NOTES ON ALUMINIUM FLARES.^ 

By Ernest H. Brittain. 

The use of magnesium ribbon and powder in flashlight photog- 
raphy is famiUar to every chemist, but it is not so generally known 
that aluminium is more frequently used in the various signal lights, 
rocket stars, ground flares, etc., which became so familar during the 
great war. Aluminium is used in the form of fine powder similar 
to the aluminium bronze used in making aluminium paints, etc., 
and for pyrotechnic purposes is compounded with barium or potas- 
sium nitrate and other ingredients in varying proportions, accord- 
ing to the specific purpose for which the flare may be required. 
Sometimes a mixture of aluminium and magnesium is used, as in 
the "star compositions" used in signal rockets. The aluminium 
powder should be very fine, capable of passing through a 120-mesh 
sieve, and should be as free from oil, grease, or soap as possible. It 
must also be free from grit, sand, or other impurities. There are 
two kinds of aluminium powder on the market — a dull grey variety 
and a bright, lustrous, silvery kind (but every gradation between 
is also made). The lustrous kind is used for aluminium paints on 
account of this property, and its luster is due to the use of oil or 
grease in manufacture. This kind is not so suitable for pyrotech- 
nical purposes as the dull grey, since it is more dangerous when 
compounded. Even dull aluminium powders frequently contain 
considerable percentages of oil, oil being used by the manufacturer 
as a safety precaution. The powdering of aluminium is a dangerous 
business, as spontaneous combustion is not infrequent, and with 
the intense heat of burning aluminium, to say nothing of the explo- 
sive violence of such conflagrations, any measure of precaution is 
welcomed by the manufacturer. The exact cause of these spon- 
taneous ignitions is unknown, but the use of oil in powdering seems 
to prevent them to a considerable extent. Even then the mills 
are operated in the open, or only under rough sheds, and left unat- 

^ From The Chemist and Druggist, November 22, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Notes on Aluminium Flares. 



43 



tended while running for considerable periods, the progress being 
watched from a safe distance. The oil, which is often impure, is 
undesirable for flare purposes, as small percentages have a detri- 
mental effect upon the brilliancy and vigor of the flare composi- 
tions, as well as introducing an additional element of risk into these 
explosive combinations. This applies more to aluminium than to 
magnesium, for paraffin wax can be, and is, used in considerable 
proportions in magnesium combinations. Paraffin wax does not 
introduce an element of risk here, but it undoubtedly has a greater 
retarding effect upon aluminium than on magnesium. A typical 
star composition is composed of: 



Magnesium in powder (60 mesh) . 27 parts 

Aluminium in powder (120 mesh) 9 parts 

Barium Nitrate (100 mesh) 58 parts 

Paraffin Wax 6 parts 



The paraffin wax is melted and the aluminium and magnesium 
incorporated (away from any naked lights) . The mixture should be 
maintained at about 70° C. till the metallic powder is thoroughly 
coated with the melted wax. Allow to cool, pass through a sieve, 
and then mix with the barium nitrate. The barium nitrate must 
be anhydrous and in fine powder. The whole should be sifted to 
ensure uniformity. The composition is then pressed into suitable 
containers, with priming and quick-match for ignition. For use 
as a ground flare a short length of ordinary rolled cardboard tube 
plugged at one end with clay will do quite well. The priming may 



be: 

Sulphur 2 parts 

Saltpetre 6 parts 

Orpiment (or black Antimony) i part 

made into a paste with shellac solution. 

Another formula, used as a ground light, is as follows : 

Barium Nitrate 3,000 grams 

Aluminium (120 mesh) 800 grams 

Aluminium (60 mesh) 400 grams 

Castor Oil 60 grams 



An excellent flare, fairly slow in burning, but giving a good light, 
and used in illuminating enemy working parties, is composed of: 



44 



Notes on Aluminium Flares. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



Barium Nitrate . . . 

Aluminium 

Potassium Nitrate 

Sulphur 

Powdered Shellac. 



55 parts 
2o parts 

4 parts 
2o parts 

I part 



If the shellac is increased to 3 per cent, or 5 per cent,, the flare 
is slower in burning, but loses its brilliancy. In general, the bril- 
liancy and fierceness of burning increases with the percentage of 
aluminium up to fifty, and is decreased by the addition of such sub- 
stances as sulphur, or shellac, or borax, or castor oil. The fiercest 
and brightest aluminium combination consists of: 

Aluminium in fine powder i part 

Barium Nitrate . i part 

If this mixture is packed in an iron tube, say V4 in. bore, and 
with walls of Vifi in. thickness of metal, it will melt and burn the 
iron like so much paper. As combustion proceeds down the tube 
the walls fuse and molten globules of white-hot metal fall to the 
ground. If a tube of any considerable length be used it should be 
stuck in the ground at an angle, as the molten metal falling vertically 
may fire the composition at the base of the tube and cause a power- 
ful explosion. Though the proportions in the above formula give 
an excess of aluminium over what would be necessary for chemical 
equivalents, the mixture is much fiercer and brighter. 



gives a mixture which more nearly corresponds to molecular equiva- 
lents. 

Potassium nitrate may be used instead of barium nitrate in 
these combinations. The burning is slightly slower, and the light 
of a different character, as may be imagined, the lilac potassium 
flame being different from the green of barium. In the same way 
the mixing of borax in a flare gives the yellow sodium flame, but the 
intensity of the aluminium flame makes these colored effects only 
slight variations from the characteristic dazzling "whiteness." 
Aluminium flares are not quite so "white" as magnesium ones, but 
the heat of combustion is much higher. Simple mixtures of alumin- 
ium powder and barium nitrate in dry powders do not bind well ' 



Aluminium 

Barium Nitrate 



I part 
3 parts 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



The Santonin Market. 



45 



for packing in containers or tubes, and tight packing is essential 
to regularity and length of burning. Consequently such substances 
as boiled or castor oil, paraffin wax, shellac, borax, bird-lime and 
even small percentages of sodium nitrate (which is deliquescent), 
are incorporated, and allow of more compact packing. These 
flare combinations will all stand quite a lot of direct pressure, but 
glancing blows or friction should be avoided. They are less sensi- 
tive than gunpowder, but must nevertheless be looked upon as 
explosives, and though they burn safely enough with free access 
to the air, under conditions of confinement they are liable to vio- 
lent explosion. 



THE SANTONIN MARKET. i 

The recent enormous advance in the price of this vermifuge, 
hitherto regarded as indispensible, took by surprise even those who 
have been closely following the upward movements from time to 
time. In view, however, of the fact that the sole source of supply 
is Eastern Turkestan, which part of the world would appear to have 
come wholly under the control of the Bolshevists, the successive 
advances in price which had hitherto taken place can hardly be 
said to have come as a surprise. But the last advance was staggering. 
Fifty pounds sterling per kilo. (is. per gram), or nearly twenty- 
two pounds fifteen shillings (more exactly, 22£ 13s. 6d.) per lb., 
is now the price of a drug which between twenty and thirty years 
ago was obtainable in cwt. lots at four shillings (4s.) per lb. This 
lowest price was the result of competition between the various pro- 
ducers of santonin prior to the amalgamation of the various factories 
in Turkestan, and consequent total elimination of competition. 
It is stated that the immediate cause of this late enormous advance 
has been, firstly, the total cessation of fresh imports, and, secondly, 
the gradual diminution of stock in London, there being, so far as 
is known, no stock held in any other part of the world which could 
become available in the direction of averting the threatened famine. 
The quite small stock of santonin held here is in the hands of the 
Eastern and Russian Trading Co., Ltd., which company, it is under- 
stood, is the sole representative of the combined Turkestan fac- 
tories, and will, when matters have settled down and have again 

^ From The Chemist and Druggist, November 15, 1919. 



46 



The Santonin Market. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

January, 1920. 



become more or less normal, handle the entire production of san- 
tonin of the factories, which factories will in turn practically con- 
trol the sale and production of santonin for the whole world. The 
reason why the Turkestan factories exercise control, and will con- 
tinue to do so, is found in the fact that the plant, Artemisia maritima, 
from the unopened flower buds (erroneously called wormseed) of 
which the article is produced, while growing freely in many parts 
of the world (it is said to be found fairly abundantly on the Essex 
saltings), only yield santonin in paying quantity when grown on 
the salt steppes of Turkestan. Of course, it is not impossible, 
although it is to be hoped not very probable, that the Turkestan 
factories are hopelessly ruined, in which case the prospects for the 
future supply would appear to be very remote. It is true that san- 
tonin was formerly manufactured in Europe before the Turkestan 
factories were built, the so-called wormseed traveling, it is under- 
stood, a couple of thousand miles by bullock cart before it reached 
railhead, thence by rail to a Baltic port, to Hamburg, whence it was 
sent to the one, two, or three makers on the Continent, the drug not 
having, we believe, been produced on a commercial scale, or in fact 
at all, in this country. In normal times the santonin produced by 
the Turkestan factories would also travel by the above route, at 
least as far as a Baltic port. Of course, with affairs in their present 
condition in Russia all this is a thing of the past. Firstly, the two 
Turkestan factories are not working; in fact, it is not known really 
for certain whether they are actually still in existence. Secondly, 
as far as the latest news — dating, we believe, from late in the year 
191 7 — there was practically no stocks of manufactured santonin 
left at the factories which do not appear to have been working 
since that date. It is believed possible that the Bolshevists, when 
they obtained control of the districts in which the factories are situ- 
ated, may have been stolen and hidden a thousand kilograms or 
so of santonin; this is, however, not known for certain, while it is 
equally uncertain whether such i,ooo kilos, even if the Bolshevists 
did secure same is still in existence. The primary cause of the late 
enormous advance in the price of santonin appears to have been the 
definite and total disappearance of a parcel of forty-nine cases, each 
containing 50 kilos, which were dispatched from the works some 
time in 191 7 via the Siberian Railway to Vladivostok, for shipment 
thence to Europe. This little lot of nearly two and a half tons, 
worth at least the present highly inflated price about 120,000 £, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Calcium Creosote. 



47 



appears to have absolutely disappeared en route. In all probability 
it was stolen, and the lot is quite possibly still in existence some- 
where. To add to the stringency of the situation, it is reported that 
there are urgent inquiries for santonin on the market from the United 
States, and if these had led to business the present quite limited 
stock in the hands of the sole importers would be exhausted. The 
sole hope in the situation is practically confined to the fact that the 
present enormous cost will quite certainly so reduce the actual con- 
suming demand that the very meagre stock available may at a pinch 
last out until matters change and fresh supplies come in, but this is 
indeed a vague hope. Also, what applies to the importation of san- 
tonin also equally applies to the importation of the so-called worm- 
seed, in view of the enormously large bulk of such wormseed. The 
Eastern and Russian Trading Co., Ltd., state that they have also 
a certain, not very large quantity of wormseed in stock, but they 
also state that the quality is not quite suited to the manufacture of 
santonin, this being probably due to the comparatively low yield 
of the drug, good manufacturing wormseed yielding about 2 per cent, 
of santonin. Apart from this fact, the difficulty of manufacture 
would probably arise, it being open to question whether any of our 
fine chemical makers would be prepared to undertake the production 
of santonin on a commercial scale, even assuming that satisfactory 
raw material were available. Perhaps some French manufacturer 
might be willing to oblige, but even then the question of suitable raw 
material would still be the crux. As far as can be judged from the 
foregoing, the enormous price of santonin would appear likely to be 
maintained for the present and in the near future, at any rate. 



CALCIUM CREOSOTE.^ 

Under the name of Calcreose has been introduced a dark brown 
powder, partially soluble in water, and said to contain in loose 
chemical combination equal weights of creosote and lime. Its 
therapeutic effect is similar to that of creosote, while it does not pro- 
duce gastric irritation. Dose, 0.25 to i.o Gm. (4 to 16 grains) 
every two to four hours (see The Prescriher, 191 8, p. 47). 

A formula for the preparation of a similar compound in liquid 
form is given in the Pharmaceutical Journal. One part by weight of 

^ From The Prescriher, December, 19 19. , 



48 



Guaiacol Iodide. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



creosote is mixed in a percolator with four or five parts of freshly 
slaked lime. After the mixture has cooled, water is poured on and 
allowed to run through slowly until the sp. gr. drops below i.oio, 
when a fresh portion of creosote is added and the process repeated. 
The resulting solution of calcium creosote is a reddish yellow liquid, 
becoming brown on keeping and depositing a precipitate of calcium 
carbonate on exposure. It has the odor of creosote, a sharp, peppery 
taste, an alkaline reaction, and marked antiseptic properties. It 
contains the equivalent of about 3 minims of creosote in each fluid 
drachm, and affords a means for the administration of creosote in 
relatively large doses without, as a rule, producing intolerance. 



GUAIACOL IODIDE: AN ORGANIC IODINE COMPOUND.i 

A combination of guaiacol and iodine is recommended by J. 
Maberly {Med. Jour. S. Africa, 14:367 (Feb.), 1919) as a convenient 
means for the administration of iodine in organic combination. This 
is prepared according to the following formula: 

Guaiacol, pure i minim.' 

Solution of Iodine (12I/2 grs. in one ounce S. V. R.) i minim. 

Rectified Spirit 20 minims. 

Distilled Water to 60 minims. 

The drugs are mixed in the order given above, a slight rise of 
temperature taking place on the addition of the water. The free 
iodine disappears and a stable compound is formed in which the iodine, 
or a portion of it, replaces hydrogen in the guaiacol. One drachm 
of guaiacol-iodide solution prepared as above represents 0.026 grain 
(about V40 grain) of iodine. 

The dose of this solution is one drachm, mixed with an equal 
quantity of simple syrup and two drachms or more of water. Maberly 
recommends its use in all cases in which iodine internally is indi- 
cated, such as glandular enlargements, etc. The dose is suitably 
reduced in the case of children. 



^ From The Prescriher, December, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Report of Naval Stores. 



49 



PRELIMINARY REPORT ON PRODUCTION AND STOCKS 
OF NAVAL STORES. 

The following preliminary report on the production and stocks 
of naval stores is made by the Bureau of Chemistry, United States 
Department of Agriculture: 

Production. 

The statistics compiled by the Bureau of Chemistry from in- 
dividual reports from producers show that there was made during 
the first half of the present season, up to August i, about 163,000 
casks of turpentine and 491,000 round barrels of rosin (500-pound 
barrels). Producers' estimates for the balance of the season from 
August I to the close of operations, indicate that about 1 74,000 casks 
of turpentine and 547,000 round barrels of rosin will be made during 
this period, indicating a total production for the season of 337,000 
casks of turpentine and 1,038,000 barrels of rosin. This does not 
include wood turpentine, wood rosin or rosin reclaimed from batting 
dross. The actual figures are as follows: 

On Hand at Stills Made This Year up Estimated Production On Hand at Stills 

April 1, 1919. to Aug. 1, 1919. Balance of season. Aug. 1, 1919. 

Turp. Rosin. Turp. Rosin. Turp. Rosin. Turp. Rosin. 

24,050 130,035 163,301 491,110 i74>433 547,165 19,364 115,702 

A comparison of these figures with the reports issued as of August 
I, 191 8, and March 31, 1919, show that the production during the 
first half of the present season was approximately the same as for 
the same period in 19 18. More trees are being worked this year than 
last year, but unseasonable weather conditions and excessive rains 
throughout the turpentine-producing sections kept production down 
during the early part of the season. The weather has been very 
favorable since September i, and it is believed that the production 
for the latter half of the season will be greater than shown by the 
estimates, indicating that, for the entire season, the production will 
be at least equal to, and possibly slightly greater than that of the 
1918-1919 season. 

Quantities at Stii.i.s. 

The quantity of turpentine and rosin on hand at the stills on 
August I, 19 1 9, was considerably less than on the same date last 
year, as shown by the following figures: 



50 Report of Naval Stores. 

Turpentine. Rosin. 

On Hand at Stills Aug. i, 1918 59,000 casks 170,000 bbls. 

On Hand at Stills Aug. I, 1919 19,000 casks 115,000 bbls. 

This decrease is undoubtedly due to the higher prices prevailing" 
this year and to the increase of exports. 

The stocks of turpentine at the stills decreased 16,000 barrels, 
and rosin decreased 45,000 barrels from March i, 191 9, to April i, 
191 9, the last month of the naval stores year, when practically 
nothing was made. This decrease is shown by the following figures: 

Turpentine. Rosin. 

On Hand at Stills March 1,1919 40,000 casks 175,000 bbls. 

On Hand at Stills April I, 19 19 24,000 casks 130,000 bbls. 

Production has been greater in Georgia and Florida this year, 
up to August I , than it was last year. In the other states it has been 
less this year than it was last. This, together with the fact that large 
quantities of old turpentine and rosin which had been made during 
previous seasons and tanked and stored at the stills, have been 
shipped into the three main eastern ports this year, probably ac- 
counts for the considerable increase in receipts reported at Savannah, 
Jacksonville and Pensacola, compared with last year. This is es- 
pecially true of turpentine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



Stocks in Hands of Consuming Industrie's on August i, 19 19. 

The total stocks of turpentine and rosin in the hands of the paper, 
paper size, paint and varnish, soap, greases and lubricants, shoe 
polish and leather dressings, rosin oil and pitch, printing ink, sealing 
wax and insulating materials, soldering flux, matches and wooden- 
ware, fly paper, linoleum, automobiles, buggies and wagons, and 
foundries and foundry supply industries on August i, 1919, were 
approximately as follows: 

Turpentine. Rosin. 

On Hand August I, 1 9 19 20,500 casks 182,000 bbls. 

On Hand April I, 1919 28,500 casks 203,000 bbls. 

Decrease 8,000 casks 21,000 bbls. 



Many producers and consumers have not furnished promptly 
the information on their production and stocks. Some have ignored 
repeated requests. In every case where producer or consumer has 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Current Literature. 



51 



either failed or deliberately refused to send in the reports, conserva- 
tive individual estimates on such delinquent concerns have been 
made. These estimates, which are included in the figures given, 
comprise only 6 per cent, of the total production shown. About 
lo per cent, of the total turpentine stocks and about 7 per cent, of 
the total rosin stocks shown as in the hands of consumers are es- 
timates on such individual concerns from which no information was 
received. 

The value of these estimates to the individual concern and to the 
entire consuming or producing industry depends on their accuracy 
and prompt issue. It was hoped to publish the figures several 
months ago, but their issue was held up by lack of cooperation on 
the part of certain producers and consumers. It is hoped that in the 
future a more willing cooperation on the part of producers and con- 
sumers may be secured, to the mutual welfare of the interests of 
both. However, the failure of a small percentage of producers or 
consumers to submit their data will not prevent the publication of 
these statistics, but only serve to delay their issue, as estimates must 
be resorted to in every such case. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ABSTRACTS. 

Estimation of Arse^nic in Substitute^d PhhnyIvArsinic Acids 
AND Thkir Reduction Products. — R. G. Fargher (/. Chem. Soc, 
1919, pp. 115-116, 982-992). — Ewins {Analyst, 42: 50, 1917) considers 
that the method devised by Lehmann {Apoth. Zett., 27: 545, 1912; 
Analyst, 37: 415, 1912) for the estimation of arsenic in salvarsan and 
neosalvarsan, while applicable to some derivatives, fails entirely 
in many cases, owing to the fact that the preliminary treatment with 
sulphuric acid and permanganate fails to bring about complete 
oxidation. It has now been found possible by the use of the modi- 
fication described below to extend this estimation to many substi- 
tuted phenylarsinic acids containing nitro-, amino-, hydroxy-, 
methoxy-, bromo-, and other groups. Some of the powdered sub- 
stance (0.2 Gm.) is weighed and intimately mixed in a 250 Cc. 
flask with i Gm. of potassium permanganate. Five Cc. of 50 
per cent, sulphuric acid are added, followed by a further 10 Cc. 



52 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



of concentrated sulphuric acid when the first reaction has ended. 
After a few minutes, lo Cc. of water are added, and the mixture is 
heated for half an hour to gentle boiling, precautions being taken 
against loss by spraying. The manganese dioxide is then removed 
by a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide, 30 Cc. of water are added, 
and the solution is again boiled for ten minutes, after which a dilute 
solution of potassium permanganate is added drop by drop until 
a faint, permanent pink tinge is obtained. This is discharged by 
the addition of a drop of dilute solution of oxalic acid. The solution 
is then cooled, 2.5 Gm. of potassium iodide are added, the whole 
being allowed to remain for an hour, and the liberated iodine titrated 
by means of thiosulphate. A blank experiment should be carried 
out alongside each estimation, and the final reading corrected ac- 
cordingly. The following are examples of the results obtained: 



As. 

Substance. Found. Calc. 

3-Nitro-4-liydroxyphenylarsinic Acid 28.4, 28.4 28.5 

^-Aminophenylarsinic Acid 34-5, 34. 5 34.6 

I : 2-Dihydrobenzoxazolone-4-arsinic Acid.. 28.6 28.9 

3-Nitro-4-aminophenylarsinic Acid 28.9, 28.8 28.6 

3 : 3'-Dimtro-4 : 4'-dihydroxydiphenylarsinic Acid.... 19.6, 19.5 19.5 

^-Bromophenylarsinic Acid 26.5 26.7 



(From The Analyst, November, 1919.) 

Analysis of Vaseline. — G. Armanni and A. G. Rodano {Annali 
chim. applic, 12: 50-51, 1919). — A method of distinguishing be- 
tween natural and artificial vaseline has been based upon the different 
solubilities of the two substances in a mixture of benzene and abso- 
lute alcohol (i : i). One part of the vaseline is dissolved in 20 parts 
of the hot solvent, and the solution allowed to stand for twenty- 
four hours in a cold place. If the vaseline be natural, there will 
only be a slight oily deposit, while artificial vaseline yields a flocculent 
or crystalline deposit resembling paraffin wax. In the case of mix- 
tures the amount of precipitate is proportional to the quantity of 
artificial vaseline present, and the method will detect less than 20 
per cent, of the latter. (From The Analyst, November, 191 9.) 

Microscopic Diagnosis of Amebic Dysentery. — For the fixation 
and staining of amebas, motile and encysted, Haig makes thin 
smears from the fresh stool, selecting, where present, a portion 
containing mucus and blood, on cover slips, and floated, without 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Current Literature. 



53 



drying, smear downward, on the following fixing solution: corrosive 
sublimate (saturated aqueous solution), 2 parts; absolute alcohol, i 
part. Fixation is complete in about thirty minutes. The smears 
are then placed film upward in iodized alcohol in order to remove 
the last traces of sublimate, washed in distilled water and then 
stained as follows: (i) Soak for several hours in a 4 per cent, solu- 
tion of iron alum (made with violet crystals) ; (2) wash in distilled 
water; (3) stain in Heidenhain's hematoxylin for several hours (or 
over night); (4) wash in distilled water; (5) place in i per cent, 
iron-alum solution until decolorization has reached a satisfactory 
stage; (6) wash in distilled water and counter stain with 5 per cent, 
aqueous eosin solution; dehydrate through the alcohols, clear in 
xylol, and mount on a slide in Canada balsam. (Lancet, London; 
through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Dec. 6, 191 9.) 

The Romanowsky Stain. — Romanese has worked out, he says, 
a simple and reliable substitute for the Giemsa method. The re- 
sults seem to be the same with it as with the original Giemsa fluid, 
while the ingredients are inexpensive and always at hand. He 
dissolves 0.75 Gm. methylene blue in 50 Cc. of 95 per cent, alcohol 
and 50 Cc. of glycerin, and adds 3 Cc. of a 10 per cent, solution of 
sodium carbonate in distilled water, and boils for fifteen minutes. 
Then he adds 35 Cc. of a i per cent, alcoholic solution of eosin and 
boils fifteen minutes. It is then removed from the fire and alcohol 
is added to bring the total amount to 100 Cc. It is then set aside, 
covered closely, for a week. (From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., October 
II, 1919.) 

Formic Acid in the Common Nettle. — It is commonly stated in 
text books that formic acid occurs in the stinging hairs of the com- 
mon nettle {Urtica dioica), but there is no satisfactory proof of the 
statement. When nettles are cut up and distilled with water the 
reactions for formic acid in the distillate are obtained, but it is now 
known that various parts of plants yield formic acid when treated 
in this way; therefore, it is not certain that the formic acid comes from 
the stinging hairs of the nettles; it may be derived from the general 
plant tissues. One of the chief chemical reactions of formic acid is 
its power of reducing salts of silver and mercury, but that s 
not necessarily conclusive proof in this case. The author appears 
to have settled the point definitely. By pressing the leaves of grow- 



54 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



ii]g nettles between dry filter papers impregnated with barium car- 
bonate the contents of the hairs are absorbed without contamination 
from juices from any other part of the plant. On appropriate treat- 
ment the product yielded barium and lead salts, which were crystal- 
line on glass slides, and the two formates were identified under the 
microscope. Another question is whether or not formic acid is the 
main cause of the intense irritation produced by nettle stings; the 
active irritant is regarded by one investigator as being probably due 
to an enzyme and not to formic acid. (L. Dobbin, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Edin.y II, No. 1 1 ; through Nature, September i8, 1919, p. 64; through 
The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Oct. 11, 191 9.) 

TuBKRCUivOSis Infection. — Calmette {Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 1919. 
pp. 60-68) has established that many kinds of bacteria circulating in 
the blood are eliminated by the intestine ; the bacillus of tuberculosis 
in particular is taken up by the liver and emptied into the intestine 
with the bile. Recent experiments have shown that tuberculosis is 
spread among cattle by the excreta, and this explains infection oc- 
curring in stables, and also the presence of tuberculosis bacilli in 
milk, even that from healthy cows. This fact also draws attention 
to the spread of tuberculosis through vegetables, due to contamina- 
tion with tuberculous manure, and its propagation on farms and in 
rural districts, {^rom The Chemist and Druggist, October 18, 191 9.) 

Dktkrmination of GivYCyrrhizin. — Dissolve 3 Gm. of ext. 
glycyrrhizae dried at 100° in 30 Cc. of water containing 5 drops 
of solution of ammonia, and filter. To 20 Cc. of filtrate add 2.5 
Cc. of sulphuric acid and allow to stand for twenty-four hours. 
Decant the limpid liquid upon a filter, wash the residue with a total 
of 30 Cc. of water, filter and reject the washings. Dissolve the 
residue with i to 2 Cc. of solution of ammonia, pass the solution 
through the filter, and wash with 10 Cc. of water containing 5 drops 
of solution of ammonia until the washings are colorless. Evaporate 
the solution on a water bath and dry at 100°. Add 0.04 Gm. per 40 
Cc. of washings and calculate the percentage. (Astruc and Picliard, 
/. pharm. chim., 18: 289-90; through The Chemist and Druggist, 
Oct. 18, 1919.) 

Rapid Diagnosis of Diphtheria Bacii^u. — Debre and Letulle 
expatiate on the differential importance of Babes' polar granules, 



) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. | 



Current Literature. 



55 



shown up by double staining, in true diphtheria bacilH. Their two 
years of experience with this method of differentiation has con- 
firmed its precision and rehabiHty. The pseudodiphtheria bacilli 
never show these granulations at the poles when stained by the 
technic described, which is a modification of Neisser's first method. 
The specimen is incubated at 55° C. for twenty hours and each loop 
of the culture is spread on two slides. One slide is treated with the 
Gram, the other after fixation by heat is covered with a solution 
made by dissolving i Gm. of methylene blue in 20 Cc. of 95 per cent, 
alcohol, and adding 950 Cc. of distilled water and 50 Cc. of glacial 
acetic acid. The smear covered with this solution is heated until it 
begins to steam. It is then heated a second time, and is then left in 
contact for five minutes. It is then rinsed rapidly with distilled 
water and covered with the second stain for ten or twelve seconds 
and rinsed quickly in distilled water. This second solution is made 
by dissolving 5.50 Gm. vesuvine in 250 Cc. of boiling distilled water, 
filtering while still boiling. The granules clustered at the poles of 
the bacilli, or only in some of them, show up a black oval, larger 
than the body of the bacillus. In their 800 tests they never found 
these polar granulated bacilli except with true diphtheria and they 
always found them then. They warn that one other bacillus may 
present these granulations. Bacillus cutis-commune. But they never 
found this in the throat in any of their tests. It differs from the 
diphtheria bacillus further in attacking saccharose. In case of 
diphtheric lesions elsewhere than in the throat, it might be advisable 
to test a loop on a sweetened litmus culture medium to exclude this 
bacillus. (From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Oct. 25, 1919.) 

PrESKnck o:^ Aconitic Acid in Sugar-Cane Juick, and Ne^w 
Reaction for the^ Detection of the Acid. — C. S. Taylor (/. 
Chem. Soc, 1919, 115, 886-889). — The presence of aconitic acid in 
sugar-cane juice was inferred by Behr {Ber., 1877, 10, 351) but not 
conclusively proved. In the author's experiments aconitic acid was 
isolated from both healthy and diseased sugar cane, though it could 
not be obtained in crystalline condition from the latter. It is pres- 
ent in the form of a salt and not in the free state in the cane juice. 
In addition to the usual qualitative test it was found that aconitic 
acid when treated with acetic anhydride gives a pink coloration, 
which changes rapidly to deep red and then to magenta. On heat- 
ing the mixture a bluish green liquid is obtained, which becomes 



56 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



brown and almost opaque. The magenta liquid apparently con- 
sisted of two colored substances, a red compound soluble in water, 
and a blue compound readily soluble in ether, but both were exceed- 
ingly unstable and were rapidly decomposed by water, acids or alka- 
lies. Apparently the color reaction is due to condensation of the 
carboxyl groups of the acid, with possibly elimination of water or 
addition of acetic anhydride. Applied as a test the reaction is ca- 
pable of detecting o.oi Mgm. of aconitic acid. None of the other 
acids in sugar-cane juice give the reaction, but citric acid may be 
detected by melting it in a test-tube, when traces of aconitic acid are 
produced, which then react with the acetic anhydride. (From The 
Analyst, Sept., 1919.) 

Estimation of Lactic Acid by Oxidation. — O. Schuppli 
(Trav. Chim. Aliment. Suisse de Hyg. Pub., i9i9,p. 4.4.] Ann. Chim.anal. 
AppL, 1: 222, 1919). — Szeberenyi has devised a method of esti- 
mating lactic acid by oxidizing it by chromic acid into acetic acid, 
carbon dioxide and water, distilling the acetic acid in a current of 
steam, and titrating the distillate with standard alkali solution. 
Other organic acids, including malic, tartaric and oxalic acids, are 
completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In test experi- 
ments it was found that 97 per cent, of lactic acid was oxidized into 
acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water, and 3 per cent, completely 
oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. The author finds that this 
method gives satisfactory results with solutions of pure organic 
acids, but that when applied to wines it gives higher results than 
those obtained with Moslinger's method, owing to some of the other 
constituents undergoing incomplete oxidation, and yielding volatile 
acids. This was confirmed by experiments with cane sugar. (From 
The Analyst, Sept., 1919.) 

L0ROG1.0SSIN, A New Glucoside in Loroglossum Hircinum. 
• — The biochemical method has given the authors indication of the 
presence of one or more glucosides in the aerial organs of all the 
native French orchids investigated. These included members of the 
genera Aceras, Cephalanthera, Epipactis, Limodorum, Neottia, Pla- 
tanthera, Ophrys, Orchis and Loroglossum. A considerable quantity 
of Loroglossum hircinum was cultivated before the war, but the 
investigation of the material has been possible only recently. It 
has yielded a new 5-glucoside, loroglossin, crystallizing in colorless, 



Am. Jour. Pharnx. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Current Literature. 



57 



odorless, very bitter, long needles; melting at 137° Corr.; [a]^ 
42.97°. It is very soluble in water and in alcohol, sparingly soluble 
in acetone and in acetic ether. It does not reduce Fehling's reagent 
until hydrolyzed. This occurs when it is heated with dilute sul- 
phuric acid and on contact with emulsin. The glucoside is accom- 
panied in the plant by a considerable amount of glucose. The method 
by which it is separated is fully described. (E. Bourquelot and M. 
Bridel, /. pharm. chtm., 20: 81, 118, 1919; from The Pharm. Jour, 
and Pharmacist, Sept. 13, 1919.) 

Substitute i^or Senna IvEavES. — Since the beginning of 19 17 
large quantities of so-called Palthe senna leaves have been imported 
into Germany from Switzerland. They have been identified as the 
leaves of Cassia auriculata L., and are readily distinguished from 
senna leaves by the rounded and not tapering apex. It is remarkable 
that they contain no oxymethylanthraquinones and are free from 
laxative action. With Borntrager's reaction (shaking an infusion 
with petroleum benzine, separating and shaking the benzine with 
ammonia) a yellow coloration of the ammonia is produced, whereas 
with genuine senna leaves a rose color is obtained. {Pharm. Ztg., 
64: 242; from The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Sept. 6, 1919.) 

Microscopical, Detection of Rhapontic Rhubarb. — Mount a 
little of the powdered drug in water, wash three times by irrigation 
with more water, finally removing as much of the water as possible; 
then allow a mixture of 100 parts of 50 per cent, aqueous solution 
of potash with 5 parts of 100 volume perhydrol to flow on, and allow 
the preparation to stand for thirty minutes. Particles of the rha- 
pontic powder will then have assumed an intense blue color, ap- 
parently due to a grandular precipitate, while the particles of other 
rhubarbs are colorless, or orange-rose, or quite exceptionally red- 
dish violet, but never blue and granular. — C. Winimer {Pharm. 
Post; through Pharm. Ztg., 64: 348 ; through T/j^ Pharm. Jour, and 
Pharmacist, Sept. 6, 19 19.) 

Stain for Tuberci^E Bacilu.— Gasbarrini has long contended 
that the acids used to decolor the bacilli with the usual technic are 
too powerful and detract from the effect. To avoid this he uses 
methylene blue in excess in a solution of 40 Cc. lactic acid in i6o pc. 
distilled water, and adds to this at the time of using four parts of 



58 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



alcohol (95°). This both decolors and recolors at the same time, 
with the finest and most constant results. It has shown up tu- 
bercle bacilli in sputum, urine and stools when the Ziehl gave nega- 
tive findings, and the accuracy of the lactic acid method was con- 
firmed by the course of the cases. The non-acid resisting bacilli 
can be differentiated more readily, and the whole procedure takes less 
time than the ordinary technic. (From Jour, Amer. Med. Assoc., 
October ii, 1919.) 

InskcticidaIv PrincipIvE). — This principle in Chrysanthemum cin- 
erariaefolium, termed pyrethron by Sato, was found by Yamamoto 
(Jour. Tokyo Chem. Soc., 40, 19 19) to be present principally in the 
ovary of the flower, particularly abundant during the blooming 
period, while the other parts of the flower contained very little 
Pyrethron is an almost neutral mixture, very sensitive to heat and 
air. On hydrolysis it yields two alcohols, C21H34O and C27H46O, 
one liquid fatty acid, palmitic acid and possibly another solid fatty 
acid. In a concentration above 0.077 P^i" cent, pyrethron checks bac- 
terial growth. Its saponification number is 216, iodine number 116. 
(From The Chemist and Druggist, October 4, 19 19.) 

Rapid Detkrmination of Hydrogen Ion Concentrations. 
— A new apparatus for determining the dilution of hydrogen ion in 
bacterial cultures and other fluids is described by Jones. As com- 
pared with the colorimetric method, the apparatus here described has 
wider application, is more accurate, less cumbersome and only 
slightly less rapid. The hydrogen electrode vessel described was 
designed with two objects, chiefly, in mind: (i) to provide a vessel 
accurate at least to o.oi pH, and (2) to provide a vessel giving rapid 
saturation with hydrogen gas, and yet one which is easily con- 
structed. A rapid and labor-saving technic combining the indicator, 
and the gas-chain methods is described, which obviates the difficult 
task of preparing standard solution for the former methods, and 
of making needless repetitions by the latter. — (From Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., Sept. 27, 1919.) 

MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. ' 

Saccharin Stimui^atks Bodii^y Oxidation. — That saccharin is 
liarmless, and at the same time worthless as a provider of energy is 
now generally admitted. Its influence on the process of oxidation 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Current Literature. 



59 



has not been previously investigated. The author and Neill have 
previously shown that sugar, when ingested with other foods, stimu- 
lates the secretion of catalase, and hence increases the process of 
oxidation in the body. It is now found that saccharin has a much 
greater action in this direction than sugar. In this respect saccharin 
is, therefore, a positively helpful adjunct to the dietary. It is 
specially valuable in a disease such as diabetes, where the principal 
trouble is defective oxidation. (W. E. Burgo, Science; J. Soc. Chem. 
Md., 38: 7, R, 1919,; through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, 
October ii, 1919.) 

Chloropicrin Vapor TO Kii,!. Bhd Bugs.— Chloropicrin, when 
used in the proportion of 4 to 10 Gms. to each cubic meter of the 
capacity of the chamber treated, is an excellent means for destroying 
bugs. The method has been used successfully in ridding military 
beds of these insects. Four hours after vaporizing a small, closed 
chamber containing the beds, all the insects were dead. During the 
process of vaporizing a military gas mask is a perfect protection to 
the operator. In case eggs are not destroyed by the first treatment, 
a second fumigation should be performed at an interval of eight 
days. (G. Bertrand, Brocq. -Rousseau and Dassonville, Compt. 
rend., 169: 441, 1919; through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, 
October 11, 1919.) 

Kkros^ne; as a Remedy if or Harvest Bugs. — Immediate relief 
is stated to follow the application of kerosene to the so-called "bites" 
of the harvest bug, or mowers' mite (Leptus autumnalis). In Cali- 
fornia, the mite is very prevalent among hay. The intense itching 
caused by the "insects" burrowing beneath the skin is often suffi- 
cient to incapacitate the victim from work. The intense irritation 
causes loss of sleep, and lesions are produced by scratching. All 
published remedies have proved useless, but the application of kero- 
sene to the body before commencing work in the fields, changing the 
clothes when the day's work is over, and at once applying a little 
kerosene to any irritating spots as soon as observed, have given 
excellent results in alleviating the discomfort caused by this familiar 
seasonal pest. (Nona Allen, /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 73: 628, 1919; 
through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, October 11, 19 19.) 

Substitute for Cacao in Suppository Basis. — As a substitute 



6o 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



for oil of theobroma, and to economize the use of spermaceti, which 
is now difficult to obtain, a mixture of one part of that substance 
melted in three parts by weight of olive oil may be used. This basis 
melts at 37.2° C. It is stated to be quite satisfactory for supposi- 
tories made by the warm method, but is not applicable for those 
made by pressure by the cold method. (Pharm. Post., 51 : 562, 1918; 
Chem. Abstr., Amer. Chem. Soc, 13: 1041, 1919.) 

Extract of GivYcyrrhiza. — For her thesis at Montpelier, Miss 
G. Pichard undertook a study of the different methods of preparing 
extract of licorice. The extracts prepared by the use of warm 
water possess a bitter taste, due to the content of resin present in 
the bark (10-14 P^^ cent.), which is almost insoluble in cold water. 
In addition, the glycyrrhizin undergoes partial hydrolysis, so that 
this method should be rejected. She comes to the conclusion that 
the method of the U. S. P. gives the highest yield of glycyrrhizin 
percolation with the addition of solution of ammonia producing a 
content of 8 per cent, of this glucoside, compared with 4.5 per cent, 
obtained by percolating with cold water only. (From The Chemist 
and Druggist, October 4, 19 19.) 

Benzyl Bknzoate: in Protozoai^ Dysentery. — The authors 
have employed benzyl benzoate in the treatment of eight cases of 
endamebic dysentery uncomplicated by bacillary infection, and have 
seen markedly good results in every case. All the cases were of the 
acute type and varied in severity. No ill effects on the alimentary 
or excretory tracts followed the administration of benzyl benzoate. 
In no case has the drug unfavorably altered the course of any case. 
On the contrary, its administration has always been accompanied 
by a marked alleviation of both the objective and subjective symp- 
toms of the disease. It gives the patient much needed rest and per- 
mits him to sleep at night. Under the administration of the drug 
the endamebas disappeared from the stools in nearly every case as the 
general symptoms subsided. The benzyl benzoate we administered 
in a small amount of cold water, three times a day, after meals. 
The doses employed varied from 20 to 30 drops of the 20 per cent, 
alcoholic solution. (From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Oct. 25, 19 19.) 

Significance of Small Amount of Sugar in Urine. — If with hyper- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Current Literature. 



6i 



tension and chronic nephritis there is but an occasional trace of 
sugar in the urine and the blood sugar is not unduly high, then, 
Hamman says, the disordered carbohydrate metabolism must be 
subordinated to the renal or vascular condition. If there is marked 
glycosuria and the blood sugar is unusually high, then the diabetes 
must be emphasized. The clinical history is of importance. 
Patients past middle life with mild diabetes often gradually de- 
velop nephritis and hypertension, so that finally the renal and vascu- 
lar conditions assume the prominent position in the clinical pic- 
ture. On the other hand, Hamman has observed patients with 
hypertension over a number of years and has seen them gradually 
develop glycosuria and finally a definite intolerance for carbohy- 
drates. {Canadian Med. Assoc. Jour.; through Jour. Amer. Med. 
Assoc., December 6, 1919.) 

Use of Platinum Cklorid in Pneumonia. — Anklesaria has made 
use of a o . I per cent, solution of platinum chlorid in 5 minim doses, 
in combination with Burney Yeo's effervescent quinine mixture, 
every four to six hours, in the treatment of pneumonia. He claims 
to have had very good results. The effect in some instances was 
really very striking. Within twelve hours of the treatment a notice- 
able change for the better was observed. He has also used quinine 
in a somewhat different form and manner. An ounce of good 
quinine is well rubbed with an equal quantity of powdered carbonate 
of ammonia. The powder is then made into a paste with an ounce 
of liquor ammoniac and set aside for an hour. Absolute alcohol, 
4 ounces, is now added to the paste and the solution is filtered. 
The filtrate thus obtained is added to a pound of aromatic spirits 
of ammonia (B.P.). The clear mixture is labeled mixture of quinine 
carbonate, i : 20. It is prescribed as follows: 



Gm. or Cc. 



Sodii bicarbonatis 

Mist, quininea carbonatis 

Vini ipecacuanhae 

Syrup aurantii 

Aquae anisi q. s. ad. . . . 

M Ft. misturam. 

Sig. One ounce every four to six hours. 



24 
80 



2 



4 
8 



3 J 
3 ij 
3 SB 
3 V j 
B vj 



To the mixture for an adult, 10 minims of a i : 1,000 platinum 
chlorid solution are added on the first day, 7.5 minims on the second 



62 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



day, 5 minims on the third day, also on the fourth day if necessary, 
and then it is continued in 3 or 5 minim doses until recovery. 
{Indian Med. Gaz.; through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., December 6y 
1919.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 
Madison. 

Editor, American Journai, of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
In order to be able to assist one of our students, majoring in 
art, who is making a special study of pharmaceutical book plates,. 
I take the liberty to ask all persons or associations that have book 
plates to send specimen copies. Your kind cooperation in pubHshing 
this notice, as well as theirs will be greatly appreciated. If librarians 
and other book lovers who know of such book plates, old as well as 
new, will kindly advise the writer of their discoveries, it should be 
possible to make the catalogue of pharmaceutical ex lihris much 
more complete than would otherwise be the case. Trusting that 
this appeal may meet with many a response, I remain 

Very truly yours, 

Edward Krkmejrs. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. By Ather- 
ton Seidell, Ph.D., Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health 
Service, Washington, D. C. Second edition, enlarged and 
revised. $7.50 net. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 

This is a compilation of quantitative solubility data from the 
periodical literature gleaned from fifty periodicals during the years 
1900 to 19 1 7 inclusive, twenty-three periodicals being searched 
page by page and the other twenty-seven through tables of con- 
tents, and represents the study of about 2600 different substances 
by more than 1500 investigators. The first edition came out in 
February, 1907, and a second printing with corrections appeared in 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Book Reviews. 



63 



191 1. In this edition there were 354 pages of subject matter and 
10 V2 pages of index. The present edition (February, 1919) con- 
tains 784 pages of body matter, 37 pages of author index and 21 
pages of subject index. Most of the body of the book is devoted 
to tabular arrangements of solubiHty data, but there are 18 pages 
of general information explaining the use of the tables and giving 
reasons for the appearance of some of the data in the book ; and there 
are 28 pages on methods for determining solubiHties, with illustra- 
tions of the most important of the apparatus described in the text. 

The names of the substances for which solubilities are given are 
arranged alphabetically, the pages and paragraphs being headed in 
bold-faced type for easy reference. The authority for the data in 
each instance is given by name of author and year data was published, 
while in the back of the book are to be found two pages giving the 
names of the 50 periodicals from which the data were collected, 
paged so that the original article can be traced easily. 

In preparing a review of a book of this character it is difficult 
to find a place of attack, as the reading of 784 pages, chiefly of tab- 
ular matter in rather fine print, is apt to be exceedingly tiresome 
without "getting one anywhere." Something of the scope of the 
book may perhaps be gathered from the examination of the data 
given for a few substances. Taking seven somewhat at random, 
we find that: 

For Quinine (p. 576) the solubility is given in 19 different liquids, 
in some at 3 different temperatures. 

For Radium Emanations (p. 580) the solubility is given in 15 
liquids, at 0° C. and at 18° C. 

For Carbon Dioxide (p. ^^4) the solubility is given in 44 different 
liquids, at 3 different temperatures. 

Five pages are devoted to solubilities of Phenol, eight to Ethyl 
Alcohol, ten to Mercuric Chloride, nine to Iodine, each in a great 
variety of liquids and under a great variety of conditions. In the 
case of Iodine (for illustration) the solvents named include water, 
alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, bromoform, carbon disulphide, 
•carbon tetrachloride, aqueous solutions of potassium iodide, mer- 
curic chloride, potassium bromide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid 
and a number of other salts and acids, together with a lot of mixed 
solvents, each substance being used in various strength solutions. 

One who examines the subject matter of the book, even very 
superficially, cannot help being amazed at the vast amount of work 



64 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



the determination of the facts recorded therein represents, on the 
part of the original workers or investigators; nor can he help being- 
impressed with the vast amount of painstaking labor that must have 
been done by the author of the present volume in its compilation. 
In the preface the author says: "The principal object in preparing 
a compilation of solubility data, from the point of view of the ad- 
vancement of chemistry, is to furnish material for the origination 
and verification of theories of solution," but one can readily see how 
this volume may be of great value to anyone whose work has to da 
with the solubility of substances in various solvents and under vary- 
ing conditions. F. P. Stroup. 

AnnaIvS of the Missouri BotanicaIv Garden, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sept., 
1919. 

An Edible Garden Hebeloma. — B. A. Burt describes and 
pictures an edible Heheloma, which he found in great abundance in 
cultivated borders of the Missouri Botanical Garden on June 3rd, 
and which he names H. hor tense. 

This species differs from the majority of other members of the 
genus Heheloma in that its fructifications are devoid of viscidity^ 
and odor of radishes and its occurrence in abundance in cultivated 
ground. Nearly all the other species of Heheloma are found spar- 
ingly in forests and are either inedible or poisonous. 

ProtomeruIvIUS FarIvOwii. — The same author describes and 
pictures another fungus which was collected by Dr. Farlow at 
Chocorua, New Hampshire. This he named ''Protomerulius Far- 
lowii.'' Its fructifications occur on rotten, decorticated, coniferous 
wood in small gregarious patches, eac§* being gelatinous, membra- 
nous, very thin and tender, purple when fresh, becoming pale 
olive-gray on drying, showing under the microscope an imperfectly 
porose surface with thin, irregular folds and more or less lacerated 
dissepiments. 

The Micro-Calorimeter in the Indicator Method of Hy- 
drogen Ion Determination. — B. M. Daggar finds that the Du- 
boscq type of micro-colorimeter lends itself admirably to determining 
the H ion concentration in small quantities of fluids. The procedure 
is briefly described and the method of standardizing the apparatus, 
carefully explained. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Book Reviews. 



65 



Studies in the Physioi^ogy of the Fungi. VIII. Mixed 
Cultures. By S. M. Zeller and Henry Schmitz. — The authors dis- 
cusss the behavior of the following fungi in mixed cultures: Len- 
zites vialis, Merulius pinastri, Daedalea quercina, Trametes Peckiiy 
Pleurotus sapidus, Merulius lacrymans, Lentinus lepideus, Daedalia 
confragosa, Coniophora cerebella, Polystictus versicolor, Isaria sp., 
Polyporus lucidus, Polystictus hirsutus, Aspergillus glaucus, A. niger, 
A. Jumigatus, A. versicolor and A. Sydoud. A number of combina- 
tions were used and the results indicated in two tables. A plate of 
12 figures, illustrating the nature of combination growths in culture 
media accompanies the article. 

Studies in the Physioi^ogy oi^ the Fungi. IX. Enzyme 
Action in Armillaria Mellea Vahl, Daedalia Confragosa (Bolt. 
Fr., and Polyporus Lucidus (Leys.) Fr. By Henry Schmitz and 
Sanford M. ZeUer. — In this article the authors discuss the enzyme 
activities of the fungi indicated. In Polyporus lucidus the presence 
of the following enzymes is demonstrated: Esterase, maltase, lac- 
tase, sucrase, raffinase, diastase, inulase, ^ cellulase, hemicellulase, 
emulsin, tannase, urease, and trypsin and erepsin, when fibrin is 
used as a substrate. 

In Armillaria mellea the presence of the following enzymes is 
shown: Maltase, lactase, sucrase, raffinase, diastase, inulase, 
cellulase, hemicellulase, emulsin, urease, amidase, and trypsin and 
erepsin, when fibrin is used as a substrate. 

In Daedalia confragosa the following ferments are present: Es- 
terase, maltase, lactase, sucrase, raffinase, diastase, inulase, cellulase, 
hemicellulase, emulsin, tannase, urease, and trypsin and erepsin, 
when fibrin is used as a substrate. 

A new method for the determination of ammonia liberated by 
amidase is described. 

Studies in the Physiology of the Fungi. X. Germination 
OF THE Spores of Certain Fungi in Relation to Hydrogen 
Ion Concentration. By R. W. Webb. — The author reviews the 
literature bearing on this problem and then discusses the methods 
he followed in determining the effect of hydrogen ion concentration 
upon the rate of germination of the spores of certain fungi and the 
range within which most favorable germination occurs. He draws 
the following conclusions: 

(i) In a culture solution consisting of M/5 mannite, phosphoric 



66 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



acid, and sodium hydroxide, successively increasing concentrations 
of hydrogen ions from neutral or approximately neutral to Ph. 3.1- 
2.8 favorably influence germination of the spores of Aspergillus niger, 
Penicillium cyclopium, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp., and Lenzites 
saepiaria. 

(2) The range of germination and the magnitude of the germina- 
tion quantities as influenced by hydrogen ion concentration in the 
solution depend upon the organism, germination being obtained with 
the following concentrations, inclusive: Aspergillus niger, Ph. 
2.8-8.8; Penicillium cyclopium, 2.9-10.0+; Botrytis cinerea, 2.8- 
7.0; Fusarium sp., 2.8-10.0+ ; and Lenzites saepiaria, 2.8-7.0. 

(3) It is not until a hydrogen ion concentration of Ph. 2.8 or 
above is reached that inhibition of germination of the forms studied 
is noticed. 

(4) Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopitim, Botrytis cinerea 
and Lenzites saepiaria show a maximum of germination in the me- 
dium employed at Ph. 2.8-3.1; Fusarium sp. exhibit a secondary 
maximum at this concentration. 

(5) Fusarium sp. give a pronounced maximum of germination 
at Ph. 7.4 and Penicillium cyclopium exhibit a minor secondary 
maximum at Ph. 7.0-7.4. 

(6) For equal removes from the neutral point, OH ions appear 
to be relatively more toxic to the spores studied than H ions. 

(7) With increase in length of intervals of incubation, the rela- 
tions of germination to hydrogen ion concentration remain prac- 
tically the same. 

(8) The curves of germination for any organism are practically 
identical, whether incubated at 22° C, 27° C, or 31° C. 

Hejber W. Youngk^n. 

A Critical Revision of the Genus Hucai^yptus. By J. H. 
Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.I.S. Vol. IV, Part 8. 

The part of this comprehensive monograph on the Genus Eucalyp- 
tus that is now before us continues this work along the lines of the 
preceding parts. The same high-class illustrations are likewisQ 
continued. It presents descriptions of the following species : 

Eucalyptus tessellaris F.v.M; E. Spenceriana Maiden; E. Clif- 
toniana W. V. Fitzgerald; E. setosa Schauer; E. ferruginea Schauer; 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1920. ) 



Book Reviews. 



67 



E. Moorei Maiden and Cambage; E. dumosa A. Cunn; E. torquata 
Luehmann; E. amygdalina lyabill; E. radiata Sieber; E. numerosa 
Maiden; E. nitida Hook. f. 



Bulletins of thb University of Wisconsin. 

It is a pleasure to review the two bulletins of the University of 
Wisconsin that have recently come to hand. 

The first of these bulletins is a study of the Galenical Oleoresins, 
by Andrew G. Du Mez, and is a thesis submitted for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin. The history 
and bibliography of this class of preparations has been very carefully 
compiled. A review of the work done by various investigators on 
each of the official oleoresins is thus brought together and compared 
in the various tables. In addition to the bibliographic study involved 
by this comprehensive review of the subject covering 288 pages, 
there is considerable original investigations of the various methods 
proposed for the manufacture of oleoresins and the chemistry of the 
individual preparations. It exhibits a high type of study and re- 
search work and demonstrates that the research spirit in pharmacy 
in America in not inactive. Furthermore, that the Department of 
Pharmacy of the University of Wisconsin and several more of the 
schools of pharmacy are stimulating the research spirit by requiring 
thesis contributions for degrees in course. This is an example which 
might well be followed at least by all schools claiming to educate in 
the higher courses in pharmacy. 

It is regretted that the space at our command will not permit 
of the reprinting of abstracts of this valuable thesis which should be 
read by aH interested in the development of pharmacy and its litera- 
ture and preserved as a work of reference on this subject. 

The second of these bulletins is a thesis by Nellie A. Wakeman, 
likewise submitted for a degree at the University of Wisconsin. It 
is upon the subject of "Pigments of Flowering Plants." The subject 
of pigmentation in plants is one that is of especial interest to both 
chemists and botanists. The author of this thesis, under the guidance 
of Prof. Edward Kremers, has also performed a valuable service in 
presenting this comprehensive bibliographic study of such an inter- 
esting subject. Numerous structural and graphic formulas are given, 
illustrating the chemical composition of the various organic com- 



68 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1920. 



pounds producing the colors in vegetation. It likewise is a most 
commendable and valuable contribution to our literature. 

G. M. B. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAITOF PHARMACY 




V ^^f^XFKBm'ARY, 1920 



EDITORIAL. 



THE PROHIBITION ENACTMENT AND THE TREASURY 
REGULATIONS FOR ITS ENFORCEMENT. 

The pamphlet ''Regulations 60" of the Bureau of Internal Rev- 
enue, has been issued to cover the manufacture, sale, barter, trans- 
portation, importation, delivery, furnishing, purchase, possession, 
and use of intoxicating liquor under Title II of the National Prohi- 
bition Act of October 28, 191 9, commonly spoken of as the Volstead 
Act. The purpose of this Title of the law is to provide for the en- 
forcement of the Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States, and the regulations now promulgated by the Fed- 
eral Prohibition Commissioner are issued by virtue of the authority 
conferred upon the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by that Act. 

Those engaged in the drug business, either as pharmaceutical 
manufacturers, as wholesale or retail druggists, or as dispensing 
pharmacists, must again apply themselves to the studying of another 
series of regulations. In the recent years, it would seem that the 
series of Departmental regulations and of supplements, amendments 
and rulings have followed so closely that a large portion of their time 
has been consumed in becoming acquainted with the requirements 
so as to comply therewith and avoid unintentional violation. 

Physician and pharmacist alike will be compelled to unlearn 
some of the procedures which but recently they were compelled to 
follow in compliance with prior regulations, as the present issue of 
decrees materially changes a number of the former promulgations. 
This will become a matter for further confusion and considerable 
annoyance. We are brought to realize that the laws of our country 
are not like those of the Medes and Persians, and we must regret 
that there is not likewise more stability shown in Department a 
regulations. 



70 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



In the prior regulations, the pharmacist was given a choice of ten 
formulas for the medication of alcohol for sale for bathing purposes 
or as antiseptics without prescription, in quantities of less than one 
pint. Under the new regulations, he becomes restricted to the use 
of seven formulas. The two most commonly used formulas (car- 
bolic acid I part, alcohol 99 parts ; and formaldehyde i part, alcohol 
250 parts) with which physicians and patients had become acquainted 
are now omitted from such permissible formulas. He must now re- 
peatedly explain why acts and sales heretofore made and complying 
with official orders are now forbidden by edict from the same de- 
partment. Formerly, he was forbidden the privilege of preparing 
such medicated alcohol in advance of order and then only in the re- 
stricted amount of purchase limited to one pint, now the wholesale 
druggists may so medicate alcohol and sell this in any amount to 
holders of permits to purchase, including retail druggists, pharma- 
cists, Turkish bath establishments, and any person desiring to pro- 
cure such medicated alcohol for legitimate external use may obtain 
a special permit to obtain same in any quantity desired. 

T. D. 2788 denied the pharmacist the right to sell distilled spirits 
and wines for internal use as medicine even on a physician' s pre- 
scription. T. D. 2881, issued a few months later, provided that 
"physicians may prescribe wines and liquors for internal use, or 
alcohol for external use, but in every such case each prescripition 
shall be in duplicate, and both copies be signed in the physican's 
handwriting. The quantity prescribed for a single patient at a given 
time shall not exceed i quart,'' and declared "all prescriptions shall in- 
dicate clearly the address of the patient, the date, the condition or 
illness of the patient and the name of the pharmacist to whom the 
prescription is to be presented for filling." According to the present 
rulings, and the law, the physician who has a permit to prescribe 
liquors may prescribe for a patient under his care not more than 
oifie pint of spiritous liquor to be taken internally within any period 
of ten days and he need not state on the prescription the condition 
or ailment for which the liquor is prescribed nor the name of a phar- 
macist who is to dispense the prescription. It is thus seen that in less 
than one year's time there have been three different regulations pro- 
mulgated as to prescriptions, and it is not at all strange that the 
busy physician and pharmacist should be confused by these fre- 
quent changes. 

The official form on which the prescriptions for liquors 
must hereafter be written assign so much space for the data 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



71 



required that scarcely sufficient space remains for the prescription 
proper and the directions and the physician will be compelled to 
write in a small handwriting or to abbreviate in order to get this 
necessary matter within the space allotted therefor. The book of 
records required of the physician must show the date of issue of each 
prescription, amount prescribed, for whom and the purpose or ail- 
ment for which it is to be used and the directions stating the fre- 
quency and the dose. The official record book that is being supplied 
to physicians for such records has on the initial page the printed 
rules and regulations and a sample of the record that is expected. 
This type prescription directs as a dose for the 8 ounces of whiskey 
directed, "a wineglassful." It is not presumed that this was in- 
tended by the prohibition officer as advisory for an average medicinal 
dose and yet the matter is too serious to suspect a pun on the needs 
of sick mortals. 

The drug trade and other manufacturers whose business compels 
the use of pure alcohol or other distilled or vinous spirits were given 
assurance that the regulations that would be framed under this act 
would be reasonable and bear in mind the needs of medicine and 
that no unnecessary restraint or hindrance would be placed in the 
way of these industries or professional practices. The regulations 
as promulgated are disappointing in many respects and would appear 
as if a studied attempt had been made to drop wherever possible a 
monkey-wrench into the machinery of the medical practice and the 
industries associated with the drug trade. 

The manufacture of medicines must be considered as preeminently 
a "lawful industry" and the title of this Act states that one of the 
purposes that Congress had in mind was "to insure an ample supply 
of alcohol" and "to promote its use in scientific research and in the 
development of lawful industries." It would seem that the officials 
in the framing of the regulations had in mind the surrounding of the 
procuring of alcohol for such essential industries with as much red 
tape as possible and to impede rather than facilitate their manufac- 
ture and to promote industrial development. As the Department 
has absolute control of the granting of permits to buy and use such 
liquors and each purchase can only be made subject to the approval 
of the application to withdraw, and the permit may be revoked and 
severe penalties imposed for misapplying the alcohol so withdrawn 
it would seem that the officers of this bureau have ample means of 



72 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1920. 



protecting against fraud and the punishment of violations without 
the need for unnecessary exhibitions of bureaucratic authority. 

Congress in each of its conservation and prohibition enactments 
and Hkewise in the wording of the Eighteenth Amendment, rec- 
ognized the need for distilled spirits and wines for medicinal purposes 
and exempted such and made special provisions for a less tax thereon 
as being used for non-beverage purpose. It is inconceivable that, 
in the light of such action and in this enlightened country, restric- 
tions such as this law and the regulations provide should hamper the 
legitimate practices of medicine and pharmacy. 

The procuring of the necessary supplies of alcohol by the phar- 
macist must at timesprove a hardship and may even imperil the lives 
of many people. Before his order for this essential ingredient in 
many of his preparations can be filled, he must make application 
in triplicate and an additional copy must be made of the application 
for each carrier through whose hands the shipment must pass and 
after he has made affidavit thereto and obtained the approval of 
the prohibition director of his district he may send these with his 
order to the vendor. If the pharmacist is situated in the same city 
as the prohibition district officer or in a nearby city such a procedure 
may not entail any great delay. If, however, his business is located 
in a community some distance away from the office of the district 
prohibition officer, several days may elapse before his application 
can be honored and reach the source of his supply. In the event of 
an epidemic, such as the recent experiences with influenza, he may 
find his stock of necessary medicines exhausted and the immediate 
renewal impossible because of the delay in securing supplies of al- 
cohol. 

As we have studied the recent laws and the regulations of the 
Federal Departments we have been compelled at times, against our 
will, to criticise the lack of knowledge of fundamental facts and the 
inconsistencies and incongruities that have been incorporated therein. 
The Volstead Act and ''Regulations 60" are no exceptions and contain 
much that is false, inconsistent and subject to criticism. 

A great need of the time is that Congress in the framing of enact- 
ments should accept the advice of reliable, experienced manufac- 
turers, business men and the professions concerned in the legislation 
rather than the baseless opinion and guidance of fanatics and radicals 
and their hired propagandists. Many recent enactments and de- 
partmental regulations contain statements that are not in accord 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



73 



with established scientific facts or common sense and some that 
border on the ridiculous and that such should appear in the statutes 
of the Federal Government is certainly not creditable to the Amer- 
ican law makers. These but accentuate the need for a broader- 
minded statesmanship that will solicit the advice of those whose 
experience, ability and actual knowledge qualifies them as safe 
advisers. The tendency has been to pass acts of Congress that the 
proponants have not even been able to explain and to leave entirely 
too much to the "regulations to be framed" by a department or an 
official. As a result there has developed a marked trend toward 
interpreting the law and interpolating sentences and clauses therein 
by the departments and the regulations are in some cases viewed 
as the law to the exclusion of the intent of Congress. It is time that 
Congress found itself again and assumed its prerogative as the law- 
making body and framed its acts in language that is clear and ac- 
curate and leaves no doubt that the sole duty of a department is 
the enforcement of tne provisions in accordance with the law's 
intent. 

No sound explanation has as yet been given as to the meaning 
of the words "unfit for use for beverage purposes" as used in this 
Act in connection with medicinal preparations of the U. S. P. and 
N. F. or the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, or to medicines, toilet, 
medicinal and antiseptic solutions and flavoring extracts. The 
attempt of the regulations to interpolate does not clarify the wording 
of the act. The development of the art of pharmacy has been to 
make pharmaceutical j^eparations pleasant and their efiicacy 
quite often is traced to palatability that makes the medicine so 
inviting that it will be taken regularly and retained. This has been 
the trend of modern medicine and it is inexplicable that Congress 
should have been ignorant of this or that it aimed to destroy rather 
than "promote the development" of medicine and pharmacy. 
The purpose of the law is evidently to exempt the use of alcoholic 
liquors as medicines or when used in the preparation of medicines so 
as to comply with the provisions of the Amendment. 

The Commissioner has exercised the authority vested by de- 
claring in the regulations that eighteen of the preparations of the 
U. S. P. and N. F. are held to be fit for beverage purposes. Further, 
that while distilled spirits and wines may be used in their manufac 
ture these preparations may not be used or disposed of except in th 
manufacture of other preparations or medicines which are unfit 



74 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



for beverage purposes. The list consists mainly of vehicles for the 
administration of disagreeable medicines, and the fact that their 
inclusion in the Pharmacopoeia or Formulary is proof of such general 
use in medicine throughout the country that it was necessary to es- 
tablish standard formulas, makes no impression upon the attitude 
of the commissioner. By further injudicious extension of authority 
this list might be extended many fold by the inclusion of other titles. 
It would appear to the layman that the plain duty of the enforcement 
officers was to punish every violation of the use of these as medicines 
and not to take a course that will detract from their proper use as 
medicines. 

In the promulgation that tartar emetic must be used as a de- 
naturant for bay rum the commissioner has declared what we be- 
lieve is a dangerous precedent. To insist that such a toxic substance 
as a soluble salt of the poisonous metal antimony shall be added to 
bay rum that is extensively used for bathing infants and invalids 
and as a vehicle for applications to the scalp and skin is laying a 
multitude of death traps and it will be fortunate indeed if serious 
accidents do not occur through this action. We urge that physicians 
and especially dermatologists be advised of this medication so that 
they may select some other vehicle in place of antimoniated bay rum. 
A thorough scientific investigation should have been made to deter- 
mine the effect of tartar emetic upon the skin, hair and organs of the 
body. The chemical analogy existing between antimony and arsenic 
is so close that similar chronic poisonous effects and depilatory action 
may be anticipated. ^ 

The Departments of the Federal Government are not working 
in harmony. The Bureau of Chemistry is rightly prosecuting for 
adulterations manufacturers whose medicinal preparations deviate 
from the standards laid down in the U. S. P. and N. F. and the most 
vicious form of adulteration is the addition of a poisonous or dele- 
terious substance. The U. S. P. and N. F. fix the legal standards 
for alcohol and for compound spirit of myrcia and if these are sold as 
medicines "for internal or external use" they are classified under the 
Federal Food and Drugs Act as drugs and must comply with the 
"standard of strength, quality or purity as determined by the test 
laid down in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formu- 
lary official at the time of investigation." The Pharmacopoeia lays 
down a standard for alcohol and all alcohol sold for use as a "drug" 
must comply with that standard. The National Formulary lays 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



75 



down a standard for compound spirit of myrcia and all compound 
spirit of myrcia sold as a "drug" must comply with that standard. 
The law does not recognize as the standards of strength, quality and 
purity the U. S. P. or N. F. products plus the addition of bichloride 
of mercury, formaldehyde, tartar emetic or other poisonous or dele- 
terious substances, and the additions to alcohol and bay rum directed 
in the regulations unquestionably are adulterations as they cause 
deviations in strength, quality and purity from the legal standards. 
The Bureau of Internal Revenue is thus advising and insisting that 
there must be a very general violation of the spirit and purpose 
of the Food and Drugs Act. It would appear to an observing mind 
that this was establishing a rather dangerous precedent, especially 
considering the deleterious nature of the additions named. 

The law limits the ^dispensing of spirits and wines to the licensed 
pharmacist and on prescription only. This indicates that Congress 
considered this as part of the professional duty of pharmacists and 
not as acts of dealers in intoxicating beverages. Nevertheless, 
the regulations again require that pharmacists filling prescriptions 
for intoxicating liquors must pay the special tax as liquor dealers 
and keep the special retail liquor dealer tax stamp conspicuously 
posted. A new feature of the regulations is that pharmacists shall 
keep a record on a specified form of all intoxicating liquor received 
and disposed and make monthly reports of all such transactions. 

The pharmacists will probably have considerable trouble in 
getting the physicians to understand the provisions relating to the 
method of writing the prescriptions and keeping the records required 
and the limitations to the quantity and uses of such distilled spirits. 
The physician is prohibited from prescribing liquor for his personal 
use and the pharmacist must refuse to fill such prescription if pre- 
sented. Physicians must file application and obtain permit to pre- 
scribe. The prescription must be written on the official form supplied 
in book form by the Commissioner and contain all the data required 
and he must keep a copy thereof on the stub and the records in book 
form in the official record book supplied. He is limited to pre- 
scribing for persons upon whom he is in attendance and after care- 
ful physical examination of such person. Not more than one pint 
of spiritous liquor may be prescribed for the same person within any 
period of ten days. The liquor so procured may only be used for 
medicinal purposes by the person for whom prescribed. The pre^ 



76 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1920. 



scrip tion can be filled but once and must be indorsed by the pharma- 
cist "as cancelled" upon being filled and filed on a special file. 

Physicians are permitted to purchase on permit without bond 
not more than six quarts of liquor during any calendar year to be 
administered to their patients only in quantities necessary to afford 
relief at the time of administering and may not sell or furnish the 
same to such person or to any other persons. 

A special regulation permits physicians of the homeopathic and 
eclectic schools to secure on a blanket form good for 90 days, supplies 
of alcohol and potencies and dilutions and such physicians can re- 
ceive without bond not in excess of 15 gallons of alcoholic prepara- 
tions during any one calendar year. The reason for such special 
regulation and discrimination in favor of the dispensing physicians 
of these schools is not clear. Under the prior regulations all dis- 
pensing physicians of any school were required not only to obtain 
permits but likewise to give bonds with the exception that not ex- 
ceeding 2 drachms of any attenuation, potency or dilution could 
be purchased at a time by anyone without filing bond or obtaining 
a permit. It is hard to reconcile as consistent promulgations from 
the same bureau within one year regulations that fix such a wide 
variation in limits to do the same act legally as 2 drachms and 15 
gallons. An expansion of 7,680 times in so short a space of time is 
indeed hard to explain on rational grounds. G. M. B. 

OFFICERS-BLKCT OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL 

ASSOCIATION. 

The Board of Canvassers met in Chicago on January 21, to can- 
vass the ballots received in the election by mail. Their report 
shows the following officers elected for the year 1 920-1 921: 

President, Charles Herbert Packard, Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-President, E. Fullerton Cook, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Second Vice-President, Charles E. Caspari, St. Louis, Mo. 

Third Vice-President, W. P. Porterfield, Fargo, N. D 

Members of the Council to serve for three years: Harry B. 
Mason, Detroit, Mich.; Lucius E. Sayre, Lawrence, Kan.; Frederick 
J. Wulling, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Charles Herbert Packard, the president-elect, is a practical 
pharmacist owning two stores in the city of Boston. He was born 
in Amherst, Mass., 1863. His education was received in the public 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



77 



schools of Boston and at the Arms Academy. He entered upon his 
pharmaceutical career in 1880 and was graduated from the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy in 1892. He has taken a very active 
interest in the affairs of his alma mater and has been a trustee of 
the college since 1904 and its president since 1909. 

Mr. Packard is an indefatigable worker in all of his association 
connections and with energy and marked ability has filled many 
positions of honor and responsibility. He was the first president 
■of the New England Branch of the A. Ph. A. and filled this position 
for three years. He has been a member of the Boston Retail Drug- 
gists' Association since that association was organized and has con- 
tinuously held the office of treasurer thereof. 

He was elected president of the Massachusetts Pharmaceutical 
Association in 1907. He has been a faithful attendant at the meet- 
ings of the American Pharmaceutical Association. In 191 1 he was 
the local secretary at the Boston meeting and served as third vice- 
president in 1 91 2 and second vice-president in 19 14 and in 19 13 was 
chairman of the general committee on membership and organized 
a campaign for membership. 

He has been active in Masonic circles and also in other fraternal 
organizations and has been prominent as one of the progressive 
citizens and business men of his city, taking an active interest in 
civic affairs. 

MEETING OF THE A. PH. A. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The first meeting of the Executive Committee of the Council of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association was held at the Planters 
Hotel in St. Louis, the opening session being scheduled for 10 a.m. 
Saturday, January 31. Those present were Lewis C. Hopp, Presi- 
dent L. E. Sayre, Dr. J. H. Beal, Dr. H. M. Whelpley, Secretary 
Joseph W. England, William B. Day, George M. Beringer and some 
of the sessions were attended by Prof. Charles H. LaWall and F. W. 
Meissner, Jr., who had been in attendance at the meeting of the 
Board of Trustees of the U. S. P. at the same hotel, that had just 
adjourned. 

The Committee held almost continuous sessions for two days 
and gavie careful consideration to the numerous questions that had 
been referred to them. It is believed that the wisdom of this inno- 
vation in the procedure of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 



78 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1920. 



tion, by which questions of importance can be referred to a committee 
selected because of their experience, breadth of view and keen interest 
in the welfare of pharmacy, was demonstrated. The various prob- 
lems presented were discussed in this round-table conference with 
intense interest and viewed from many angles and without the dis- 
turbing interferences that usually occur at the annual conventions 
or large gatherings. It was apparent that preconceived ideas gave 
way to logical conclusions arrived at by careful deliberation to de- 
termine what were to the best interests of the Association and to the 
advancement of pharmacy. 

The much discussed subject as to the financial problems of the 
Association and the changes proposed in its several publications 
and activities having been referred to this committee was considered 
very carefully and every phase of the arguments was given due 
consideration. The committee concluded that the American Phar- 
maceutical Association could not curtail its activities in the least, 
that its services in behalf of the progress of pharmacy called for 
extension rather than contraction in any way. On the other hand 
it was very apparent that the cost of publication and the management 
of the work of the Association had very materially increased and that 
there was no likelihood of any early decline and retrenchment. 
No industry could expect to continue successfully for any length of 
time under pre-war prices and conditions. The A. Ph. A. has con- 
tinued for upwards of fifty years, continually extending its service 
in the interest of pharmacy, without any advance of cost to its mem- 
bership. The existing conditions required that each member should 
bear his just proportion of the necessary increased cost of manage- 
ment and the consensus of opinion was that the membership would 
cheerfully accept the recommendation of the committee that com- 
mencing with 1 92 1 the dues of the Association should be made $7.50, 
and that there should be no curtailment in the efforts and services 
rendered by the A. Ph. A. Parenthetically, it might be said, that 
the ideas advanced by the committee at this conference, if adopted, 
will materially broaden the scope of its activities. Unless the signs 
fail, pharmaceutical and drug trade circles will in the future hear 
much more of these suggestions. 

The several propositions for minor changes in the Journal of the 
A. Ph. A. were taken up and it was found that some of these had 
already been adopted and others were in process for acceptance 
with such modifications as had to be made. The Committee on 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



79 



Publication welcomed constructive criticism that will improve in 
any way the publications of the Association. 

The subject of paramount importance considered by the executive 
committee was the creation of a nation-wide movement for pharma- 
ceutical research. This movement is destined to be a potent factor 
in the development of the professional aspect of pharmacy and like- 
wise of incalculable value to the public welfare. 

The committee appreciated that much has already been accom- 
plished by the studies of individual pharmacists and the efforts of 
the faculties of some of the schools of pharmacy. The numerous 
contributions thus made to our knowledge of remedial agents but 
open to view the ever- widening field awaiting pharmaceutical re- 
search. Our knowledge of but very few of the drugs that are in 
extensive use and daily prescribed can be said to be complete. The 
advances in medicine, chemistry and the collateral sciences are 
adding constantly new materials to the innumerable drugs and chem- 
ical substances that are used as remedial agents and require thorough 
investigation from the viewpoint of pharmacy. 

The systematic investigation of the processes of pharmacy, the 
sources and methods of preparation of many drugs, their composi- 
tion and the valuable therapeutic and economic constituents, their 
extraction, estimation, standardization and their therapeutic ap- 
plication are some of the avenues open to pure pharmaceutic re- 
search or to investigations in collaboration with collateral research. 
The need is that this broad field open to pharmaceutic research 
should be exploited not by individual or by sporadic efforts of com- 
mittees too often lacking in both the necessary moral and financial 
support but by a comprehensive development carefully planned 
and systematically carried on. 

The various endowments for research already created or in con- 
templation have given little or no consideration to the needs of 
pharmacy and the importance and possibilities of the benefits that 
would accrue to the world's welfare and progress from systematic 
scientific investigations in the field that is peculiar to pharmacy. 
There is open to pharmacy a vast domain for research that is sep- 
arate and distinct from the specialized fields occupied by the es- 
tablished research endowments. The various pharmaceutical and 
drug trade organizations have long recognized this and through the 
medium of various committees have individually aimed, to the ex- 



8o 



Editorial 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



tent of their ability, to stimulate and promote pharmaceutic re- 
search and many valuable contributions have resulted from their 
efforts. 

The executive committee are convinced that the time is fully 
ripe for the crystallization of the sentiment favoring a distinct 
pharmaceutical research and the combination of the various interests 
that have been working in that direction into a united movement and 
concerted action to bring this about. They propose that the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association shall take the initiative and propose 
the establishment of The American PharmaceuticaIv Research 
Endowment. The purpose of which shall be to promulgate, system- 
atize and coordinate scientific investigations in the special fields open 
to pharmacy so that investigators may be stimulated and scientific 
studies carried on in the most effective manner in order that the 
greatest volume of accurate knowledge may be collated and the 
greatest benefit accrue to mankind. 

The plan proposed is that all of the national pharmaceutical, 
drug and chemical organizations shall be invited to join in the foun- 
dation, of the Research Endowment ; that the management and con- 
trol of the funds and the research shall be under the direction of a 
Board of Trustees to be composed of one representative selected 
by each of the organizations joining in the incorporation and foun- 
dation of the endowment. Contributions, donations and bequests 
to this endowment are to be solicited from corporations, firms and 
individuals. These shall have the privilege of endowing special 
professorial chairs, fellowships or to make contributions to be ap- 
plied toward any particular line of investigation desired. The 
trustees shall have power to invest and reinvest the funds and se- 
curities of the endowment, to select a director of research and to 
organize a staff of assistants, students and investigators, to make 
grants and awards, to acquire by rent, purchase or acceptance, 
suitable offices, buildings and grounds and the equipment needed; 
to organize such a force of clerks and assistants as may be necessary 
and to perform all acts required for the carrying into effect the work 
and plans of the endowment. 

The broad view taken and the comprehensive plan thus outlined 
is presented to the pharmacists of America and to the public who are 
to reap the greatest good therefrom with the expectation that it 
will receive careful and critical consideration. It is a basic plan on 
which the various drug trade organizations and scientific bodies of 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



St 



pharmacy should be able to effect a permanent, strong and well- 
rounded-out plan for the systematic development of scientific 
research along lines that are very properly claimed as the distinct 
field for the investigations of scientific pharmacy. The fact that 
while it is to be advocated by the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation no one organization will have a predominating voice in the 
management but that each association or interest joining in the 
foundation will have an equal share in the responsibility of man- 
agement and in the working out of the details of the plan, is a strong 
point in its favor as it is at once removed to the high plane of a 
truly altruistic movement that should merit endorsement and the 
hearty support of all. 



IONIC DISSOCIATION AND HYDROGEN-ION 
CONCENTRATION. 

By Freeman P. Stroup, Ph.M., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Aristotle is credited with having once said, "Nothing can be 
positively known and even this cannot be positively asserted." 
The chemist who reviews the various theories that have been ad- 
vanced to explain chemical composition and chemical reactions is 
inclined to believe the old philosopher was right, at least in so far as 
the statement applies to things chemical. If we could see the ul- 
timate particles which make up what we call matter, and could study 
their movements, we could be more positive in our conceptions. 
• Man is a theorizing animal, and that which he cannot see he tries 
to explain by imagining things about it. Such has been the history 
of chemical theory. 

The greater the number of facts that can be consistently explained 
by one and the same theory the greater the probability of its being 
true. The Ionic Theory consistently explains so many things which, 
before its promulgation by Arrhenius, were inexplicable by any of the 
theories previously held that, though there are yet some known facts 
which do not seem to be in accord with it, chemists generally accept 
it as being the true one. It is not my intention at this time to go 
into a discussion of the facts that either demonstrate its truth or 



82 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



tend to discredit it, as these are taken up with more or less detail 
by most of the textbooks on general chemistry which have been 
published or thoroughly revised during the last ten or fifteen years. 

As we study chemical compounds we find that some, when dis- 
solved in certain liquids (water, in particular), conduct the electric 
current in proportion to the concentration of the solution, while 
others do not. To the class of substances which conduct the current, 
hence called "electrolytes," belong the three great classes of com- 
pounds — acids, bases and salts. 

According to the Ionic Theory, electrolytes, when dissolved in a 
so-called "dissociating solvent," decompose wholly or in part — 
dependent upon the nature of the substance and the concentration 
of the solution — into two sets of particles or molecules, the members 
of one set being charged with positive electricity, the members of 
the other set being negatively charged, and the number of positive 
charges just balancing the number of negative charges, the solu- 
tion being electrically neutral. These charged particles are called 
"ions" (meaning wanderers), those of positive charge being known 
as "cations," those of negative charge, "anions." When an electric 
current is caused to pass through such a solution the cations move 
toward the negative electrode (the "cathode") and the anions move 
toward the positive electrode (the "anode") of the decomposing 
cell, there losing their charges and either separating as elements or 
forming new combinations with the water of the solution or with 
some substance in the solution. Electrolytes are frequently called 
"ionogens." 

Acids may be defined ionically as compounds which, when dis- 
solved in a dissociating solvent, such as water, yield hydrogen ions, 
frequently called "hydrions." 

Examples: HCl = H+ + G1-; HNO3 - H+ + NO3-; H2SO4 = 
H+ + H+ -f SO4-- 

The hydrions are the cations, the CI, NO3, SO4, etc., are the 
anions, sometimes called "acid ions" to correspond with the old 
designation "acid radicals," as well as to make the matter more easily 
understood by persons familiar with the older theories. 

f Bases may be defined ionically as compounds which, when dis- 
solved in a dissociating solvent, yield hydroxyl (OH) ions, also known 
as "hydroxidions." 

Examples: KOH = K+ + OH"; Ca(0H)2 = Ca++ + OR- + 
OH-; NH4OH = NH4+ + OH- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



83 



The hydroxidions are the anions, while the K, Ca, NH4, etc., are 
the cations, sometimes called "metal ions," for reasons similar to 
those given under acids. 

Salts may be defined ionically as compounds which, when dis- 
solved in dissociating solvents, yield cations other than hydrion 
and anions other than hydroxidion. The cations of salts are the 
cations of bases and the anions are those of the acids. 

Examples: NaCl = Na+ + CI"; Ca(N03)2 = Ca++ + NO3- 
+ NO3-; (NH4)2S04 = NH4+ + NH4+ + SO4— . 

From the examples given it may be seen that ions may be either 
single atoms or groups of atoms, but they differ from the atoms of 
elemental molecules in having radically different properties because 
of the electric charges which they hold when in the ionic form. 
Hydrogen, for example, has very different properties as an ion than 
it has as a gas. Oxygen (acid former) was so named because it was 
once thought that oxygen was necessary for acidity, but it now appears 
that hydrogen in ionic form is necessary for acidity, and the greater 
the degree to which an acid ionizes the more pronounced its acid 
properties. In like manner it appears that hydroxidion is necessary 
for alkalinity. 

The extent to which compounds ionize when passing into solu- 
tion is dependent upon temperature and the degree of concentration 
of solution, and varies with the composition of the substance. Such 
acids and bases as ionize freely are known as "strong acids" and 
"strong bases," respectively, while those which ionize but slightly 
are said to be "weak." Salts of "strong" acids with "strong" 
bases, those of "strong" acids with "weak" bases, those of "weak" 
acids with "strong" bases all ionize freely; and even those. of "weak" 
acids with "weak" bases ionize quite appreciably. With but few 
exceptions, salts ionize more freely than the acids and bases to 
which they are related. Salts of the type Me'X' ionize most freely, 
those of the types Me2'X" and Me"X2' ionize less freely, and those 
of the type Me"X" still less for a given concentration of solution. 

In concentrated solutions we may have both molecules and ions, 
the former predominating; in rather dilute solutions we may have 
both, with the ions predominating; while in very dilute solutions we 
may have ions only. The extent to which a compound dissociates 
when dissolved in a dissociating solvent may be determined from the 
freezing point, the boiling point, the osmotic pressure and the 
electrical conductivity of the solution as compared with the same 



:84 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



constants for the pure solvent. The conductivity method is the 
one most used, though results calculated from all agree closely in 
practice. 

A tabular arrangement of some of the common acids, bases and 
salts, with data showing the degree to which they ionize under simi- 
lar conditions is instructive. The figures given show percentages 
of dissociation at i8° C, and, except where otherwise indicted, are 
for normal {N / 1) aqueous solutions: 



Substance. Per Cent. Dissociated. 

Nitric Acid (62%) 9.0 

Nitric Acid (6.3%) 83.0 

Sulphuric Acid ( 5%) 0.7 

Sulphuric Acid (iV/i ) 51.0 

Hydrofluoric Acid • • • • 7 

Acetic Acid 9.4 

Potassium Hydroxide 77 

Sodium Hydroxide 73 • o 

Ammonium Hydroxide 0.4 

Disodium Phosphate (A/32) 83.0 

Ammonium Chloride 74 • o 

Sodium Chloride 67.6 

Sodium Sulphate 44 -5 

Zinc Sulphate 24.0 

Copper Sulphate 22.0 

Mercuric Chloride i . o 

Carbonic Acid (A/ 10) 0.17 

Phosphoric Acid (A/2) 0.17 

Boric Acid (A/io) o.oi 

Calcium Hydroxide (saturated solution) 90.0 



Most chemical action, possibly all chemical action, is between 
ions and not molecules. 

Hydrion holds its charge less firmly than most cations of bases. 
This explains the action of acids on metals where hydrogen gas is 
liberated as the metal goes into solution. Hydrion loses its charge 
and becomes free hydrogen while the metal takes the charge, be- 
comes ionic and passes into solution. 

Example: Zn + H+ + H+ + SO4— = Zn++ + H2 + SO4— . 

Hydroxidion 0H~ holds its charge less firmly than almost any 
other anion except chloridion (Cl~), bromidion (Br~), iodidion 
(I~) and their like. 

Highly concentrated acids, even the so-called "strong" acids — 
hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric — have little or no action on metals 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



85 



which are easily attacked by dilute solutions of the same acids. 
A familiar example is the behavior of sulphuric acid on iron. The 
diluted acid attacks the metal readily with the liberation of hydrogen 
gas, while the highly concentrated form of the acid has so little action 
on the metal that iron is used in the construction of tanks, tank 
cars and other containers for the storage and transportation of this 
acid. The same is true of hydrochloric and nitric acids. 

Reference has been made to the fact that the extent to which a 
compound dissociates in solution may be determined by conductivity 
methods. The more ions in a given solution the better it will con- 
duct the electric current. As a solution containing molecules and 
ions is diluted its conductivity increases until a certain point is 
reached, complete ionization, after which the conductivity decreases 
with further dilution, as the number of ions in a unit volume of solu- 
tion becomes less. 

The relative conductivity of several substances in solution are 
here given for study. 



Gram-Molecules in 1000 Gms. Water. 


HNO3 


HCl 


KCl 


NaCl 


I . 00 


2770 


2780 


919 


695 


0.50 


• 2991 


3017 


958 


757 


0. 10 


• 3225 


3244 


1047 


865 


. 05 


• 3289 


3330 


1083 


895 


O.OI 


• 3395 


3416 


I 147 


962 



Reference to the table shows that solutions of acids are much 
better conductors than solutions of salts of the same concentra- 
tion, and it has been shown that bases give solutions intermediate 
in conductivity. Among the electrolytes "strong" acids are the 
best conductors, with "strong" bases next and salts the slowest. 
This is explained when one compares the relative velocities of their 
ions, hydrion being the swiftest, hydroxidion next in speed, and 
other ions slower, in any given solvent and under any given driving 
force. Compare the following figures which show the relative 
velocities of several common ions at 25° C: 

H ion, 325; OH ion, 170; Na ion, 49.2; K ion, 70.6; CI ion, 70.2. 
The velocity of an ion in any given solution is independent of the 
nature, number or condition of other ions present in the same solu- 
tion, an important fact in hydrogen-ion concentration determina- 
tions. 

While metals are better conductors at high temperatures than 
at low temperatures, the reverse is the case with electrolytes. It 



S6 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



is believed by some that at absolute zero conductivity would be 
infinite. 

The neutralizing value (strength) of acid and base is usually 
determined by titrating a solution of one with a standard (so-called 
"Volumetric") solution of another of opposite chemical character, 
the point of neutrality being determined, more or less accurately, 
by having in the solution which is being titrated a small quantity of 
a so-called "indicator," usually an organic compound, which shows 
by change of color the presence of a slight excess of the reagent being 
used for neutralization. 

In all cases of neutralization, whether of an acid by a base or a 
base by an acid, the reaction takes place by reason of the H ions from 
the acid combining with the OH ions from the base to form undisso- 
ciated water, while the anions from the acid and the cations from 
the base remain, at least in part, as ions in solution. When the sol- 
vent is removed, generally by evaporation, these ions combine to 
form molecules of a salt. As one writer has expressed it: 

"In every case of neutralization the products are: i. Undissoci- 
ated water. 2. A solution containing cations from the base and 
anions from the acid. 3. Energy in the form of heat." 

With strong acids and strong bases in dilute solution the heat 
from gram-equivalents of each is 13,700 calories — the heat of com- 
bination of one gram of H ion with seventeen grams of OH ion. 
With the acid or base, or both, weak, the heat liberated may be 
greater or less than 13,700 calories, heat being taken up in some cases, 
and given off in other cases, in the ionization of molecules which were 
undissociated when the process of neutralization was begun. 

It has been estimated that three-fourths of all known chemical 
reactions involve the formation of water, and if these were eliminated 
from our chemistry we would have but little on which to build a 
science. 

There are two theories with reference to what takes place when 
an organic indicator changes color in acidimetry and alkalimetry. 

The one held by Ostwald is that, under one set of conditions, 
only molecules of the indicator (with its characteristic color) exist 
in the solution, while, under opposite conditions as to acidity or 
alkalinity, a salt of the indicator (formed when the excess of reagent 
is added) undergoes ionization, the new color being that of a com- 
plex ion from this salt. Most indicators are weak acids, and accord- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



87 



ing to this theory, the color of their neutral or acid solutions is due 
to molecules of the indicator, while in alkaline solutions their wholly 
or partly ionized salts exist, with a different color because of these 
ions. 

The other theory, advanced by Stieglitz, and quite generally ac- 
cepted by physical chemists, is that in passing from acidity to alka- 
linity, or vice versa, there is a chemical change within the molecule 
of the indicator to form a new compound which, structurally, differs 
from the original substance only in the arrangement of atoms and 
atomic groups (a so-called "tautomeric compound"). Generally 
the "lactoid" group — CeH4 — group becomes the "quinoid" group 
= C6H4=, or vice versa, one of these being called a "chromophoric" 
group. The compound with the lactoid group has one color, that 
with the quinoid group another color. 

Of the rather large number of substances which may be used as 
indicators we find that few of them change color at the same stage 
of acidity or alkalinity, hence cannot be used interchangeably in 
many processes involving neutralization, particularly those where 
results approaching exactness are desired. 

Hildebrand^ gives in tabular form the relative values of a lot of 
those in more or less general use, the values being expressed in terms 
of hydrogen-ion concentration, explained more fully further on: 
in this paper. From this table the following data were taken : 

Cochineal. Yellow at io~^, yellow-pink at lo"^, lilac at lo"^ 

Litmus. Red at lo""^, red-violet at IO~^ violet at io~'^, blue at 
io~^. 

Methyl Orange. Rose at i.o, orange at io~^, yellow at lo'"^ 
Phenol phthalein. Colorless at io~^, red at lo"^. 
Methyl Red. Red at io~^, pink at Io~^ yellow at io~^ 
Inasmuch as lo"^ is the figure for neutrality and those with in- 
dexes of less than ~^ indicate acidity (increasing as the index de- 
creases) and those with indexes higher than ~^ indicate alkalinity 
(increasing as the index increases), it will be seen at a glance that 
indicators do not generally change color at a neutral point, but 
rather, at a definite hydrogen-ion concentration peculiar to each 
indicator. 

Since these differences exist, since, as has been shown, different 
substances ionize in different degrees, and since it is not always pos- 
^ Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 35: 856, 1913. 



:88 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



sible easily to determine just what particular acidic or alkalinic 
compound may be present in a given solution to govern one in the 
choice of indicator to be used, it is not surprising that methods by 
which the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution may be deter- 
mined electrometrically should be receiving so much attention as they 
are in certain quarters and among certain workers at the present 
time. There are other reasons, which we expect to give in this paper, 
for the favorable reception that electrometric processes are getting. 

Before going into any explanation of electrometric methods for 
determining the hydrogen-ion concentration of solutions it is per- 
tinent to look into some of the facts underlying them. 

Theoretically, it is impossible to get or make any substance ab- 
solutely pure, since every substance is soluble in some degree in 
every other substance with which it comes into contact, hence ab- 
solutely pure water is not obtainable. By rather elaborate methods 
of purification water has been prepared so nearly pure that a milli- 
meter cube of it was calculated to give the same resistance to the 
passage of an electric current through it as would a copper wire a 
square millimeter in cross section and long enough to encircle the 
earth at the equator a thousand times. Such water, called con- 
ductivity water, has a specific conductivity of about io~^, and is 
sufficiently near pure to be used in making solutions for hydrogen- 
ion determinations. Water ionizes according to the following 
equation : 

H2O = H+ + 0H~, but the degree of ionization is very slight, 
so that absolutely pure water at 22° to 23° C. is estimated to con- 
tain H ions of a concentration expressed at io~^ and OH ions of the 
same concentration, which corresponds to one gram of H ions 
and 17 grams of OH ions in ten million liters. This is equivalent 
to a ten-millionth normal solution of either acid or alkali (N/ 10,000,- 
000). 

In any solution containing ions from a dissociated compound 
the product of the concentration of the positive ions (cations) and 
the concentration of the negative ions (anions) is a constant. The 
constant at 22° C. for pure water is, accordingly, lo"'' (for H) 
times 10-7 (for OH), or lo-^^ 

If to a solution containing ions of a certain kind there be added a 
substance yielding ions of the same kind, the ionization of the com- 
pound which furnished the original ions will be "pushed back" 
sufficiently to make the product of the new concentrations the same 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



89 



as the product of the original concentrations. This is in accord 
with the so-called "law of mass action." 

This behavior of the ions may be likened to a social party at- 
tended by men and women going there in couples and "dissociating" 
as soon as they come together in the place where the party is being 
held. The number of chances each man has of meeting a different 
woman is one multiplied by the number of women, and the total 
number of chances of meetings, differing as to the personnel of the 
people concerned, is determined by multiplying the number of men 
by the number of women. Let us suppose there are four couples 
in the party — four men and four women. The number of different 
meetings possible will be 4 times 4, or 16. Now let us suppose that 
the party is increased by the appearance of six other women each 
carrying a dog, and that two of the first four women (who do not 
like dogs) take their escorts and go home. There will be left 2 
men and 8 women and the different combinations possible will be 
2 times 8, or 16, as before. The number of couples will have been 
reduced from four to two, the man concentration decreased by half, 
and the woman concentration increased. 

Now, let us substitute four molecules of dissociated water in a 
given volume for the four couples, and we will have four H ions and 
four OH ions. If we add to the water sufficient sodium hydroxide 
to give us six molecules of dissociated NaOH we will be introducing 
six Na ions and six OH ions, and two molecules of water will be 
formed from two ions each of H and OH, leaving only two of the 
original H ions. The solution will now be alkaline from the excess 
of OH ions, but its strength may be stated in terms of hydrogen- 
ion concentration (acidity), being relatively less acid than water, 
through having in it fewer H ions (the cause of acidity) than originally. 

The following table shows various methods in use for stating the 
strength of solutions of acids and alkalies in terms of normality and 
hydrogen-ion concentration. A normal solution of an acid repre- 
sents one gram of H ions in one liter, while a normal solution of an 
alkali represents seventeen grams of OH ions in one liter. In the 
table the first three columns show the common fraction and deci- 
mal fraction methods, respectively, for indicating strengths, the third 
column numbers being abbreviated forms of those in the second 
column, while the fourth and fifth columns show two forms in use 
for expressing the H-ion concentrations. 



90 



Ionic Dissociation 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



N/i (acid) 


1 .0 


1 .0 


1 .0 


1 .0 


N/io 


0. 1 


0. 1 


lo-i 


Phi 


iV/ioo 


O.OI 


O.OI 


10-2 


PH2 


N / looo 


0.001 


0.02I 


10-3 


PH3 


iV/ioooo 


0.0001 


0.03I 


10-4 


Ph4 


N / looooo 


0.00001 


0.04I 


IO~5 


PH5 


iV/ioooooo (acid) 


0.000001 


o.Osi 


IO~6 


Phs 


iV/iooooooo 










(neutrality) 


0.0000001 


o.oei 


10-7 


PH7 


iV/ioooooo (alkali) 


0.000001 


0.05I 


IO~^ 


Phs 


iV/iooooo 


0.00001 


0.O4I 


10-9 


PH9 


iV/ioooo 


0.0001 


0.O3I 


10-10 


Phi, 


iV/ looo 


0.001 


0.O2I 


10-11 


Phi, 


iV/ioo 


O.OI 


O.OI 


10-12 


Ph,, 


iV/io 


0. 1 


0. 1 


IO-13 


Phu 


N/i (alkali) 


1 .0 


1 .0 


IO-14 


Phh 



It will be noted that half of the numbers given in the first three 
columns represent acidity, and the other half represent alkalinity. 
The data given in the last two columns represent relative acidity, 
an N/ioo solution of alkali) for example, having a hydrogen-ion 
concentration of Phi2, or lo"^^. 

If two electrodes of the same metal are placed in solutions of the 
ions of the same metal in different concentrations, Ci and C2, re- 
spectively, and these solutions are placed in electrical contact, 
either through a porous partition or by means of a siphon, or even 
separated by gravity alone, there exists between the two electrodes 
a difference of potential, expressed fairly closely by the formula,^ 

E = 0.000198 T/n log C1/C2 

where B denotes the difference of potential, T the absolute tempera- 
ture and n the valence of the ions of the metal in solution. At room 
temperature, about i8° C, the formula becomes 

E = 0.058/;^ log Ci/c2. [0.000198 X (273 + 18) = 0.058.] 

If the metal is silver (when w = i) and if Ci and C2 are o.i and 
0.001 normal, respectively, then log Ci/cz = log 100, or 2, and E = 
0.116. Conversely, when E is measured, either concentration can 
be easily calculated if the other is known. It is thus possible to 
determine quite accurately even very small ionic concentrations, 
and such determinations as the solubility of the silver halides may 
be easily made. 

1 Hildebrand, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 35: 848, 1913. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissociation. 



91 



Now the same principle can be applied to the determination 
of hydrogen-ion concentration (acidity or alkalinity), if for elec- 
trodes we use a noble metal, like platinum or palladium saturated 
with hydrogen gas under definite pressure. These electrodes are 
usually of platinum or gold in thin sheets previously covered with 
platinum black by electrolytic methods, and so disposed in a glass 
holder that they can be kept saturated with the gas. Their action 
is the same as if the hydrogen were in solid form. If we use such an 
electrode dipping into a solution containing normal hydrion so that 
Ci— If and measure the difference of potential between it and another 
similar electrode dipping into a solution of which the hydrogen-ion 
concentration is unknown, the two solutions being connected, let 
us say, by a siphon containing concentrated potassium nitrate or 
chloride solution, then the unknown concentration and the difference 
of potential are related by the expression 

E = 0.058 log i/c. 

In practice a calomel electrode (consisting of pure mercury in con- 
tact with a saturated solution of Hg2Cl2) is used in place of one of the 
hydrogen electrodes. This involves the making of a correction in 
the final calculations, but this disadvantage is more than balanced 
by the advantages to be gained by the substitution. For measuring 
hydrogen-ion concentrations a calomel electrode, a hydrogen elec- 
trode and a potentiometer for measuring the voltage between them 
are employed. 

We have seen that all acids contain hydrogen atoms which 
when the acid is diluted with water, become hydrogen ions. Some 
acids, the so-called "strong" acids, are more highly dissociated in a 
solution of given concentration than are others, or, in other words, 
yield solutions of greater hydrogen-ion concentration. The organic 
acids are, relatively, "weak" acids, but differ from each other quite 
widely at times in this respect. In many vital processes, such as, 
for example, those in which chemical changes are brought about by 
the presence, in solution or suspension, of ferments or bacteria, 
the rapidity of the action, the nature of the substances formed, 
and other factors, are apparently dependent in large part upon the 
hydrogen-ion concentration of the medium in which the changes 
are taking place, rather than upon the total acidity or alkalinity, 
as was for a long time supposed to be the case. The total acidity 
of a solution depends upon the amount of acidic hydrogen present 



92 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharnr. 
\ February, 1920. 



both as hydrion and in undissociated molecules of acid, and the total 
alkalinity of a solution depends, likewise, upon the amount of hy- 
droxyl (OH) present both as hydroxidion and in undissociated 
molecules of base. Hydrogen-ion concentration, on the other hand, 
depends upon the H ions alone, and its value for a given solution may 
be low when compared to the total acidity as obtained by titrametric 
methods. It is clear, then, that volumetric methods for determining 
acidity of a medium in which the concentration in H ions is the 
important factor have practically no value. This probably accounts 
for many of the discordant results often obtained, by workers in 
bacteriological fields, for instance, where relative acidity or alkalinity 
have so much to do with the success or failure of such a process, for 
example, as that of growing a culture of a certain micro-organism 
on some particular culture medium. Two lots of culture media may 
have the same degree of acidity or alkalinity, as determined by 
volumetric methods, and may seem the same in other particulars, 
yet one may serve admirably for growing cultures of a certain micro- 
organism, while the other is worthless. Often it has been found that 
two such media differed quite radically in hydrogen-ion concentra- 
tion, and those workers who are preparing their media in such a 
manner as to make them approximately uniform in the matter of 
hydrogen-ion concentration seem to be obtaining concordant re- 
sults more often than formerly. 

The hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution may be determined 
fairly accurately by colorimetric methods, in which, by adding to 
portions of the solution under examination various indicators, color 
changes are brought about, which are dependent upon the nature 
of the indicator and its sensitiveness to the concentration of H ions 
present. Other methods have been used, but, next to conductivity 
methods, the colorimetric method is preferred, though it leaves 
much to be desired in processes where results closely approaching 
accuracy are sought. 

Measurements^ of electrical conductance can be employed in the 
determination of the point of neutralization of a base by an acid, 
or an acid by a base; and the method is of especial importance when 
dealing with colored or turbid solutions, in which the change of color 
of an indicator would be more or less masked. 

When a solution of a strong acid is added to a solution of an alkali 
the conductance of the latter solution decreases, owing to the dis- 

^ Findlay: "Practical Phys. Chem.," p. 199. Longmans, Green & Co., 1914. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Ionic Dissocia Hon . 



93 



appearance of hydroxidion and its replacement by the less mobile 
anion of the acid: but when all the hydroxidion has been removed 
by combination with hydrion from the acid added, then any further 
addition of acid causes the conductance to increase, owing to the 
addition of the solution of the very mobile hydrion. Since the 
velocity of hydrion is much greater than that of any other ion, the 
presence of a slight excess of free acid causes a marked increase on the 
conductance. Similar results are obtained when a solution of a base 
is added to a solution of an acid, provided both base and acid are 
strong. When the acid is weak it must be added to the alkali, which 
in this case must be a strong base. 

The advantages that conductivity methods have over colorimetrio 
methods are chiefly these: 

1. No great skill is required, as delicate galvanometers are used 
which give an accurate measurement of potential. 

2. No complicated calculations are necessary. 

3. The personal equation counts for almost nothing, and color 
blindness is no bar, as in the case of the use of indicators. 

4. Precipitates, opacity or colors of solutions do not interfere. 

5. The method is fundamental, as colorimetric methods are 
referred to it. 

6. Potentiometers are now made which cover the entire range 
of Ph values while any one indicator is useful over a limited range 
only. 

Conductivity methods are largely replacing volumetric methods 
in many laboratories connected with large industries for making 
determinations other than those involving neutralization. Par- 
ticularly is this the case with determinations depending upon oxida- 
tion and reduction, as in many operations connected with iron and 
steel analysis. The determination of the percentage of chromium, 
manganese, vanadium and carbon in steel and in presence of one 
another are relatively simple matters, with these advantages over 
volumetric methods: 

Accuracy. If chromium is present in steel to the extent of 20 
per cent., it may be determined to within o.i per cent.; if present 
to extent of 0.2 to 0.3 per cent, it may be determined to within 
o.oi per cent.; if less than 0.2 per cent, it may be determined to 
within 0.002 to 0.003 per cent. 



94 



Ionic Dissociation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



2. Rapidity, where a large number of determinations are to be 
made. 

3. Non-interference of color or precipitate. 

4. Sharp end-points are usually obtained. 

5. Little or no chemical training is needed on the part of the 
operator. 

Other determinations that have been made with apparatus based 
upon conductivity are: Magnesium in presence of calcium, ferrous 
iron in presence of ferric iron, patent flour in admixture with straight 
flour and "red dog," the solubility of sparingly soluble salts (such 
as the haloid salts of silver, barium sulphate, lead sulphate, etc.), 
the hydrolysis of weak acids and weak bases. Conductivity methods 
of analysis are relatively new but, as they become better known, 
promise to supplant many of the older and slower methods of gravi- 
metric and volumetric analysis, particularly in laboratories connected 
with industrial establishments. Several firms are now supplying 
complete apparatus for special kinds of determinations, and im- 
provements are being constantly made on what first appeared on 
the market. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Loomis and Acree: "Study of Hydrogen Electrode, Calomel Electrode 
and Contact Potential," Am. Chem. Jour., 46: 585, 191 1. 

Loomis and Acree: "Extensive Bibliography," Ibid., 46: 621, 191 1. 

McClendon: "New Hydrogen Electrode," Am. Jour, of Physiol., 38: 2, 
1915. 

Walpole: "Gas Electrode for General Use," Biochem. Jour., 7: 410, 1913. 

Walpole: "Improved Hydrogen Electrode," Ibid., 8: 131, 1914. 

"Theory and Apparatus," Catalogue 70 and Bulletin 701, 1919. Leeds and 
Northrup, Philadelphia. 

Hildebrand: "Some Applications of the Hydrogen Electrode in Analysis," 
Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 35: 847, 1913. 

Harned: "Hydrogen- and Hydroxyl-ion Activities of Solutions of HCl, 
NaOH and KOH," Ibid., 37: 2460, 19 15. 

Kelley and Conant: "Determination of Vanadium by Electrometric 
Titration," 38: 341, 1916. 

Ellis: "Preparation of Calomel Cell," Ibid., 38: 737, 1916. 

Long: "Simple Cell for H-ion Determination," Ibid., 38: 936, 1916. 

Hostetter and Roberts: "Electrometric Titrations, with Special Reference 
to Ferrous in Ferric Solutions," Ibid., 41 : 1337, 1919. 

Roberts: "Apparatus for Use in Electrometric Titrations," Ihid., 41: 
1358, 1919- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Composition Powder. 



95 



Sand: "Rapid Blectrometric Deposition and Separation of Metals," 
Ihid., 91 : 374, 1907. 

Denham: "Blectrometric Determination of Hydrolysis of Salts," Ibid., 
93: 41, 1908. 

Bailey: "Simple Hydrogen Electrode." Jour. Minnesota Ag. Exp. Sta., 
Paper 180; through Jour. Am. Chem. Sac, 42: 45, 1920. 

Glark: "Hydrogen Electrode Vessel," Jour. Biol. Chem., 23: 2, 1915. 

Kelley and Conant: "Determination of Chromium and Vanadium," 
Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem., 8: 719, 1916. 

Kelley and others : "Apparatus," 9: 780,1917. 

Kelley and others : "Determination of Manganese," 10: 19, 1918. 

Kelley and others : "Determination of Vanadium," 11: 632, 1919. 

Cain and Maxwell: "Determination of Carbon in Steel," Ibid., 11: 852, 
1919. 

Clark: "Bacteriological Culture Media," Jour. Infectious Dis., 17:. 109, 
1915. 

Kelley: "Blectrometric Titration Apparatus," Sup. 60-9, 19 19. Arthur 
H. Thomas Company, Philadelphia. "Apparatus and Methods." 

Milroy: "Difficulties in Blood Work," Quarterly Jour, of Exp. Physiol., 
8: 141, 1914. 

McClendon: "Physical Chemistry of Vital Phenomena." Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1 91 7. 

Findlay: "Practical Physical Chemistry." Longmans, Green and Com- 
pany, London, 19 14. 



COMPOSITION POWDER. 
By Edward J. Hughe:s, P.D., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA, 

In order to determine just what Composition Powder is, we should 
go over some of the compHcated references deahng with this prepa- 
ration and extending back to its origin nearly a century ago. For a 
long time Composition Powder was a popular and widely used remedy. 
At present this title is recognized by the National Formulary (4th. 
Rev.) as a synonym for Pulvis Myricae Compositus or Compound 
Powder of Bayberry. The N. F. requires that it shall be made by 
mixing together twelve parts of powdered bayberry root bark, six 
parts of powdered ginger and one part each of powdered capsicum 
and powdered cloves. 

A search through the literature reveals a great variety of form- 
ulas for Composition Powder, with little or no comment as to their 



96 



Composition Powder. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



source and with no uniform relation to each other aside from the fact 
that they are all "hot" to the taste. It is also found that the N. F. 
Latin and English titles for this preparation were previously employed 
by the Eclectics in naming a mixed powder of somewhat different 
character. 

Composition Powder originated with the work of Dr. Samuel 
Thomson, who, according to Gorton's History of Medicine (1910), 
was the founder of a medical sect known as Botanic physicians Dr. 
Thomson is said to have believed in the maxim that "heat is life and 
cold is death." It is only necessary to read over a few of the for- 
mulas employed by him to realize that they were in keeping with his 
doctrine. 

The first mention of Composition Powder is found in Thomson's 
"New Guide to Health," published in Boston in 1825. The Formula 
given in this work under the title "Composition or Vegetable Powder" 
is as follows: Bayberry Root Bark i lb.. Hemlock Bark i lb., Ginger 
I lb., Cayenne 2 ozs., and Cloves 2 ozs. Why Dr. Thomspon called 
this mixture Composition Powder is not stated. In his description 
he refers to the mixture as "this composition" and suggests its use 
for acute colds, in the early stages of disease and as a sudorific. It 
is possible then that he applied this title for the want of a better one 
and because of the fact that the preparation is a putting together of 
composite parts or medicines to produce a desired effect. 

In a later edition of Dr. Thomson's work (1835) this formula was 
changed by omitting the hemlock bark. It is of interest to note that 
this formula now corresponds, in ingredients and proportions, to the 
one adopted by the National Formulary. In his "Materia Medica 
and Anatomy," 13th edition (1841), Dr. Thomson enlarged upon the 
subject by publishing three formulas under the heading "Composition 
Powder" each one containing bayberry, ginger, cayenne and cloves 
in varying proportions. The formula given for the first of these 
three preparations agrees with the formula of 1835 with the 
formula of the N. F. The second and third preparations, besides 
differing in proportions, contain in addition some poplar, hemlock, 
or red or white oak bark. 

Beach's "Family Practice" (1842), published a formula for a com- 
pound powder of bayberry using the title "Cephalic Powder." This 
preparation was composed of equal parts of bayberry root bark, 
bloodroot and snuff, and was said to be useful for catarrh and head- 
ache. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.^ 
February, 1920.) 



Composition Powder. 



97 



Cephalic Powder again appears in King's American Dispensatory 
(1852) but with the snuff omitted from its formula. Here the scien- 
tific title "Pulvis Myricae Compositus" is first employed, the old 
title "Cephalic Powder" being retained as a synonym. 

In the 1909 edition of King's ''Dispensatory" we again find Cephalic 
Powder under the title "Pulvis Myricae Compositus (Eclectic)" or, 
Compound Powder of Bayberry. It is also pointed out in this work 
that this powder should not be confused with "Composition Powder" 
bearing the same title. 

Dick's "Encyclopedia" (1872) publishes a formula for Thomson's 
Composition Powder which does not agree with the one accepted 
by the National Formulary but which does correspond, practically, 
with the third formula given by Thomson under "Composition 
Powder" in his "Materia Medica" of 1841. 

The first edition of the National Formulary, published in 1888, 
accepted the formula for Composition Powder as given by Thomson 
in his works of 1835 1841, and applied to it the Latin title "Pulvis 
Myricae Compositus." Compound Powder of Bayberry was the, 
English name employed and the old title, "Composition Powder," 
was made the synonym. These titles and formula have been carried 
through all succeeding revisions of the N. F. without change. 

Some idea of the use and misuse of the name "Composition 
Powder' ' can be gotten by an inspection of some of the pharmaceutical 
formularies For example, the Pharmaceutical Journal Formulary of 
London (1904) publishes a group of thirteen formulas, differing not 
only in ingredients but in proportions used, all entitled Composition 
Powder. In comparing these formulas, briefly, it was found that 
all of them contained capsicum and ginger, eleven contained cloves 
and only nine contained bayberry bark which is the principal ingre- 
dient in the Thomsonian Composition Powder and from which the 
Latin and English titles are taken. The other ingredients in these 
formulas were chiefly cinnamon bark and laurel berries. 

The Era Formulary of 19 14 gives six formulas for Cofnposition 
Powder not one corresponding exactly to the Thomsonian formula 
recognized by the National Formulary. Several other references 
showed contradictory formulas which are unnecessary to discuss in 
detail at this time. 

To summarize briefly, Composition Powder originated with the 
work of Dr. Samuel Thomson in 1825 or earlier. It became popu- 
lar and found its way into many of the works on materia medica and 



98 



Business Possibilities. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



pharmacy, its formula in many cases becoming quite elastic. It is 
now recognized by the National Formulary, the formula here being 
identical with formulas published by Dr. Thomson in his works of 
1835 and 1 84 1. In naming this preparation, however, the N. F. 
applied a title which had already been employed in Eclectic practice 
for another preparation known as "Cephalic Powder." 



THE BUSINESS POSSIBII.ITIES OF MANUFACTURING 
IN THE RETAIL DRUG STORE. ^ 

By Ge;orge M. Beringer, Jr., P.D., 

CAMDEN, N. J. 

In the matter of manufacturing, the retail druggists of the 
United States might be divided into two classes: those who prefer 
to devote all their energies to salesmanship, and, hence, make prac- 
tically nothing, and those who make a few of the commoner prep- 
arations and specialties, but draw the line at certain preparations 
which tradition, more than fact, says can be made more cheaply 
by the large manufacturer. Those of the first class buy Brown Mix- 
ture, Chalk Mixture, Syrup Wild Cherry and Solution Magnesium 
Citrate. They even buy five- and ten-cent packages of Epsom Salt 
and sell them again — as far as the contents go — sight unseen ! These 
are the men who continually decry the advancements in Pharmacy ^ 
who would turn our colleges into mere schools of salesmanships 
yet they, themselves, violate the first principle of modern salesman- 
ship in that they know nothing about the goods they sell. The 
second class, I fear, are less numerous than the first. They are 
surely, fundamentally, better merchants than their pseudo-successful 
brethren of the first class, and would probably be more successful 
were they but fully alive to the business possibilities that their 
manufacturing offered. 

The trouble is, that the average druggist of all classes thinks 
only of his profit as the difference between the cost and the selling 
price. If business were so simple, we would all be merchant princes. 
However, there are a number of factors which make the problem 

1 Read before the Commercial Section of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, New York City, August, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Business Possibilities. 
• 



99 



more complex. It is my purpose to bring before you a few of the 
factors that are only too often ignored. 

Suppose that A and B, competitors, have each an ''own name 
preparation' ' of the same type prepared for them by the same manu- 
facturing house. Of course, that house offers a selection of designs 
for the packages, so that each preparation may appear somewhat 
different externally. A customer, who happens to purchase pack- 
ages of the article from each, realizes that the contents are the same. 
The name of neither competitor on that article has given him any 
advantage. But, let us further suppose that B has manufactured 
the article himself and has worked certain ideas of his own into the 
preparation proper, giving it a distinctive character. The chances 
are that the customer who divides his purchases between A and B 
finds that distinctive characteristics of B's product pleasing or help- 
ful to him. B has won the first point in the game of competition. 
He has established individuality, and individuality means "good 
will," and "good will" means possibly a hundred thousand dollar 
business for B against a ten thousand dollar business for A, though 
both may have been of equal professional ability at the start. 

Now, I know some one is waiting to say, "I'll wager B's product 
cost him more to manufacture, on his small scale, than A's cost 
him to buy." Let us grant, for the sake of argument, that this is 
true. Say A paid fifteen cents for his article and sold it for twenty 
cents. Say B produced his preparation at a cost of seventeen 
cents and sold it for twenty-five cents. A's gross profit was, in 
round figures, 33%, B's 47%. But, if B fully appreciated the 
value of his improvement of the product, and had the proper busi- 
ness acumen, he probably asked thirty or thirty-five cents for his 
article and got away with it. You see, there is some reason back of 
that hundred thousand dollar business. The "cashing in" on that 
"good will," anyhow. 

The average man looks upon the immense plant of the manu- 
facturer with its vast accumulation of special machinery, its ex- 
pensive research workers and its brilliant sales force and imme- 
diately develops a case of "cold feet," in so far as manufacturing 
for himself is concerned. He forgets that the brilliant sales force 
does not have to figure in the overhead he carries upon his small 
' operation. He forgets that the expensive research workers, with all 
respect for their contributions to the advancement of science, are 
as much a part of the advertising department as an aid to the manu- 



lOO 



Business Possibilities. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



facturing department of such concerns, and that he can be his own 
research worker with a versatiUty not equaUed by these speciahsts. 
He forgets that his ingenuity and skiU can overcome, in many cases, 
the vast accumulation of special machinery, and that an immense 
plant means an immense "up-keep." 

Many stores have certain hours of the day during which very 
little business is transacted. In this time the employees have but 
few tasks. This waiting time might be employed in manufacturing 
with actual saving of overhead expense. I am not advocating "slave 
driving." It is a well-established fact that machinery will deteriorate 
most rapidly when lying idle. The same is true, in a way, of human 
machinery, and druggists' assistants employed pleasantly, sanely 
but continuously will be more efficient in every way than those al- 
lowed to stand idle during slack time. There is another point that 
here suggests itself. No salesman can sell goods with a "snap" 
equal to that of the man who makes them and therefore knows all 
about their intrinsic value. 

The advantage of quality should, and often does, rest with the 
product of the small retail manufacturer. The workman in the large 
laboratory, to whom the real manufacturing is intrusted, is usually 
a mere laborer in whose eyes the work is only mechanical routine. 
The workman in the store is the proprietor and his clerks, men of 
better training and intelligence and with a more active interest in 
the work. As an instance of this, I have seen fluid extracts manu- 
factured by a retailer which were far superior in brilliance, aroma 
and body to many turned out by the large manufacturer with his 
advantage of stills and vacuum apparatus. That this advantage 
may be capitalized has already been pointed out. 

Certain classes of preparations, such as coated tablets and pills, 
which require expensive machinery; fluid extracts, in general, which 
require the recovery of quantities of alcohol; and biologies and al- 
kaloidal extracts, which require expensive control and assay processes, 
are, in the main, beyond the reach of the small manufacturer to 
produce. Yet, even here, are exceptions. 

While coated tablets and pills are practically impossible of 
production, economically, on a small scale, the same is not true of 
plain compressed tablets, tablet triturates and hypodermatic tablets. 
While the cost of these on a small scale would be somewhat higher, 
such manufacture permits of suppplying the local demand with 
products of superior quality as regards solubility and disintegration, 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.} 



Business Possibilities. 



lOI 



since it is not necessary to make the tablets hard enough to with- 
stand the extra strain of distant transportation. Another factor 
in regard to tablets is the ability of the small manufacturer to supply 
limited quantities of the special formulas for which there is always 
a demand among his local physicians. The cost of the necessary 
utensils need not be very great. A first-class, hand-power tablet 
compressing machine, with a reasonably complete assortment of 
dies and punches, can be secured for less than fifty dollars. A set 
of hard rubber molds for tablet triturates and hypodermatic tablets 
can be secured for from five to ten dollars, depending on the number 
of molding plates desired in each set. In any case, this tablet 
equipment should be part of every complete prescription department. 
I might observe that the man w^ho makes a line of tablets is getting 
a better knowledge of the physical properties of drugs than can be 
had in any other way. 

Among fluid extracts, there is one which no self-respecting drug- 
gist should buy, that is, Fluid Extract Cascara. In its manufacture 
there is no waste of alcohol and the process is simple. The cost of 
production figures about as follows: 

Per Pint. Per Gallon. 

Ground Cascara Bark. ..... i lb. .30 8 lbs. 2 .40 

Alcohol 4 fl. oz. .20 I qt. 150 

Time and fuel .50 1.25 

Container .10 .25 



$1.10 $5-40 

Actual cost will in most cases average a little under these figures. 
Manufacturers quote from $1.35 to $1.80 per pint. The manu- 
facturer quoting the lower figure per pint, names $6.50 as his best 
price per gallon. It might also be mentioned that Fluid Extract 
Licorice is in the same class from a manufacturing standpoint. 

The retail druggist who manufatcurers at least some portion 
of his own preparations has one advantage which is rarely ever con- 
sidered, that is, the ability to meet emergencies. During the recent 
influenza epidemic, both manufacturers and wholesalers in many 
sections of the country were from two to three weeks behind in the 
filling of orders. Common preparations like Spirit of Nitre were 
almost unobtainable. I know of one druggist who made his own 
Ethyl Nitrite when he found that the market was bare of that 
substance. It would not have paid him under ordinary circumstances 



I02 



Status of Legislation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i February, 1920. 



but the needs of humanity at that time were paramount to the ex- 
pense of production. Then too, one can imagine the prestige he 
gained when his customers told others, "If you can't get it anywhere 
else, you can get it at 'So and So's.' " The druggist who manufac- 
tures, even in a small way, has apparatus and raw material on hand 
that, otherwise, he would not have, and, when the need arises, 
can turn them to account. Thereby, he not only reaps a just finan- 
cial reward, but receives the satisfaction of having helped his fellow 
men. 

Business is a complex problem, never more so than at present. 
A multitude of little-considered factors contribute to the success 
or failure of those engaged in it. We are only too apt to say that 
because two and two make four we have found the correct answer 
to the problem. However, if another figure has been omitted from 
the column, it avails us nothing that our answer was, in so far as it 
went, correct. 



STATUS OF LEGISLATION ON ARMY AND NAVY 
PHARMACISTS. 

By K. FulIvErton Cook, Ph.M., 

phii.adei.phia, pa. 

The Secretary of the National Pharmaceutical Service Associa- 
tion has had the opportunity on several occasions recently to confer 
with Surgeon- General Ireland, of the Army and Surgeon-General 
Braisted of the Navy, concerning the details of proposed pharma- 
ceutical work in the reorganized military service. 

It is gratifying to learn that Dr. Ireland's plan for a Medical 
Service Corps, which is to assume work which is not strictly medical, 
but connected with the medical corps, has met with the approval 
by both the Committees of the House and the Senate., and by the 
General Staff of the Army, and is incorporated as a part of the new 
Army bill about to be submitted to Congress. It will be remem- 
bered that Dr. Ireland agreed to have a pharmaceutical section in 
this Medical Service Corps, in which a limited number of pharmacists 
would be commissioned. This favorable status for the proposed 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Status of Legislation. 



Service Corps practically assures its enactment into law, and in the 
establishment, for the first time^ of proper pharmaceutical repre- 
sentation in the United States Army. The original suggestion of 
Dr. Ireland that a five-year enlistment period be the pre-requisite 
for securing commissions, was criticized by many pharmacists, and 
it was pointed out that those men who were best competent to ad- 
minister the activities o^ such a corps, would never be willing to 
serve as privates for five years to secure a commission. 

In the recent conference with Dr. Ireland and Colonel Darnall, 
these facts were pointed out and were appreciated by the Surgeon- 
General, and it was agreed that modifications would be asked for 
in the bill establishing the Medical Service Corps. The suggested 
modifications consist of the change of the five-year enlistment to 
three years as a pre-requisite for commissions. Secondly, a recog- 
nition by the Surgeon-General's office of previous military training, 
or suitable technical training as a part of this three-year enlistment. 
In other words, a commission to be granted in less time than three 
years, if the training previously received justified such appointment. 
Under similar rules in the Navy, commissions have been earned in a 
short time by men who have had suitable training before enlistment 
and it is proposed to follow the same plan in the Army. 

Another fact which will be gratifying to pharmacists was the 
interest expressed by Dr. Ireland in the establishment of a reserve 
officers' training school, for the prospective Reserve Medical Ser- 
vice Corps, which, it is hoped Congress will authorize. The plan 
would be to arrange for special training for those graduates in phar- 
macy who desire to enlist in the Reserve Corps. This would be 
given in a reserve officers' training school and pharmacists could thus 
qualify as officers of the reserve corps, and be partially trained for 
immediate duty and commissions in time of war. Dr. Ireland also 
expressed the hope that if the Medical Service Corps is authorized 
by Congress, and the Reserve Corps established (and this he will 
undertake to organize), that some of the highly trained pharmacists 
who have had military experience in the recent war will be willing 
to enlist at once as officers in this Reserve Corps and be placed on 
active duty in his office to assist in the organization and proper es- 
tablishment of the pharmaceutical section. This plan would give 
the Corps at the beginning the benefit of the valuable experience of 
highly trained men who would probably be willing to devote a few 
months of their time for the establishment of the corps on a scientific 



Status of Legislation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



basis, but without the requirement that they serve longer than neces- 
sary for organization. Of course, the details must be more thor- 
oughly developed, but the opportunity is offered pharmacy to es- 
tablish itself in the Army on the highest possible plane, and Dr. 
Ireland is very willing to cooperate with pharmaceutical leaders to 
that end. 

The situation in the Navy at this time is as follows : The Bureau 
of Medicine and Surgery is entirely in harmony with the principle 
represented by the D arrow Bill, and have done all within their 
provinces to advance this legislation. Of course, it is understood 
that naval officials cannot personally advocate legislation, but can 
only recommend to the Secretary of the Navy what they believe 
would be to the best interests of their Departments. However, 
on January 30th, Dr. Braisted, the Surgeon- General, appeared before 
the House Committee on Naval Affairs concerning the annual ap- 
propriation, and this opportunity was taken to secure his testimony 
concerning the Darrow Bill. He gave the members of the committee 
his hearty endorsement of the principles involved in this bill and ex- 
plained the subject in detail. Every member of the committee had 
previously been interviewed and promised to give it their careful 
consideration. 

The Darrow Bill has recently been submitted to the Bureau of 
Navigation, which must pass upon all suggestions for new com- 
missions, and some opposition has been encountered. It is hoped 
that this may be overcome, as Dr. Braisted has sent a comprehensive 
brief to Admiral Washington, Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, 
setting forth the importance of establishing permanent commissions 
in the Hospital Corps, and presentations have been made by others 
to Admiral Washington, and he is giving the matter his considera- 
tion. It may become necessary to enlist the personal interest of 
every Congressman in this bill and pharmacists of the country 
should urgently write at this time to their representatives urging 
that they support the Darrow Bill. 

In a conference with Admiral Washington, several alterations 
in the original draft were found to be desirable, but these can readily 
be incorporated in the committee. They consisted of the change in 
rating so that instead of Captain, the highest rating authorized 
would be Lieutenant Commander. It was also suggested that 
"required sea duty" be introduced into the bill and also that it be 
distinctly indicated that the Hospital Corps is a branch of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm.| 
February, 1920.) 



Y^east Growth. 



105 



Medical Corps, and not an independent organization. This latter 
has always been understood, but the bill apparently did not make it 
entirely clear. These modifications will be brought out at the 
hearings before the Naval Committee. 



YEAST GROWTH AND ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION BY 

LIVING YEAST.* 



The methods used by the physical chemist to measure rates of 
chemical reactions can be applied to investigate the process of alco- 
holic fermentation by living and growing yeast cells. The results 
obtained in this way are valuable, for they not only give new informa- 
tion, but also make is possible to bring into line results obtained by 
other methods. In this communication yeast growth and alcoholic 
fermentation are considered from this point of view. 

The subject matter may be explained by describing the growth 
of yeast cells in a nutrient medium, and by pointing out the main 
factors which determine the rate of growth and rate of fermentation 
at different stages of the reaction. 
Number of cells per Cc. 



Diagram of Yeast Growth. 
A = lag phase in growth; B = logarithmic phase; C = retarded growth; 
D = yeast crop; E = death of yeast cells. 

If a trace of yeast is seeded into malt wort, which is a medium 

* Reprinted from Journal of Society of Chemical Industry, Oct. 31, 1919. 



By Arthur Slator. 



Time 



□ 




io6 



Yeast Growth. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



containing all foods necessary for yeast growth and also large amounts 
of fermentable sugars, the yeast cells bud and grow. If the num- 
ber of cells is plotted against the time a curve of the type given in 
the diagram is obtained. 

After a certain initial disturbance (lag-phase) the cells multiply 
regularly, the number increasing logarithmically with the time. 
All the usual equations employed to calculate the rate of unimolecu- 
lar chemical reactions can be applied to yeast growth over this 
period, if note is made that the reaction is increasing in rate instead 
of decreasing as is the case with ordinary chemical reactions. There 
are several methods of measuring this logarithmic constant of growth 
(K.) or the generation time (G. T.) which is a number inversely 
proportional to K. (G. T. X K. = log. 2). Some of them de- 
pend on counting yeast cells under the microscope, and others on 
measuring rates of fermentation from which rates of growth can be 
calculated. 

The results show that when all necessary food is supplied in suffi- 
cient concentration yeast cells develop at a rate determined by the 
temperature and the rate of the yeast used. 

Temperature coefficients vary greatly with the temperature. At 
25° C. the rate is usually about four times that at 15° C. The 
shortest generation time so far observed is about i hour. The re- 
tarding influence of carbon dioxide and alcohol, and the necessity 
of oxygen for yeast growth can be demonstrated and measured by 
these methods. 

Lag-phase in Growth. — If yeast cells from an old culture are in- 
troduced into fresh wort a period of quiescence is observed before 
budding takes place. When growth has once started it continues 
at the normal rate. A bakers' yeast at 30° C. gave a period of one 
hour before buds appeared and then all the cells, except the dead 
ones, budded irregularly during the next hour. Older cultures 
showed more dead cells but not a longer period of quiescence. 

The lag-phase in the growth of bacteria has been examined by 
Penfold (1914) who used the method of "planting" to estimate the 
number present, and many important observations were made. 
Some of the results have been submitted to mathematical analysis 
by Ledingham and Penfold (1914). The matter has been further 
discussed (Slator, 191 7), but an investigation of the lag-phase in 
yeast growth (191 8), leads one reluctantly to the conclusion 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.} 



Yeast Growth. 



107 



that Ledingham and Penf old's equation is not of general applica- 
bility. 

There is no doubt of the interest and importance of this period 
of growth and yeast cells are well adapted for the purpose of further 
investigation. 

Phase of Retarded Growth. — As yeast develops in malt wort the 
first retarding influence which comes into play is that due to carbon 
dioxide. Continental investigators have rightly laid stress on the 
preservative action of carbon dioxide; in this country the influence 
has been recognized, but the effect has been attributed to the ex- 
clusion of oxygen rather than to a direct poisoning effect. 

The retarding influence of the gas can be detected when the yeast 
concentration has developed to about a million cells per Cc. 

Oxygen is necessary for yeast growth, and lack of oxygen soon 
makes itself felt and is the main retarding influence when yeast 
cells develop from a few million cells per Cc. to the maximum growth 
of about 100 million per Cc. 

A. J. Brown (1905) was the first to show that arrest of cell re- 
production under these conditions is due to this lack of oxygen. 
H. T. Brown (19 14) further investigated the matter and inter alia 
obtained the important result that yeast growth increases propor- 
tionally with the amount of dissolved oxygen initially present in 
the wort. For the production of 10^^ yeast cells, i . 7 Cc. of oxygen 
are required. 

Measurements of the logarithmic constants of growth under 
anaerobic and aerobic conditions have been made. In these ex- 
periments malt wort behaved as if it contained a certain amount 
of combined oxygen available for yeast growth. The results are 
not in agreement with H. T. Brown's conclusion (19 14) that growth 
under anaerobic conditions is due entirely to oxygen previously 
absorbed by the yeast. 

Alcohol also acts as a retarding agent, but usually growth stops 
in a fermenting solution before the alcohol concentration is sufficient 
to have much influence. 

Yeast Crops. — The cause of the final cessation of yeast growth 
in malt wort is usually lack of oxygen, but it is evidently possible 
to arrange conditions under which the yeast crop is determined by 
other limiting factors. 



io8 



Yeast (jYowth. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



Lack of fermentable sugar, which also acts as a food for the yeast, 
may be the limiting factor which finally prevents further growth. 
A discussion of this typical case will show on what factors yeast 
crops depend. 

During the logarithmic period of growth the yeast growth N 
during the time in which S grams of sugar disappear (by growth 
and fermentation) is connected with K the constant of growth and 
F the fermentative activity of the yeast by the equation N/S = 

dN 

K/F. During any other periods of growth the relationship = 

dS 

— holds good for small increments in N and corresponding decre- 

ments in S. We have therefore N = — dS, that is. the yeast crop 

from a small seeding is determined by the value of the integral be- 
tween the limits S = initial concentration of the sugar to S — o. 
The ratio K/F and its variation with different sugar concentra- 
tions determines the amount of yeast a given medium can produce. 
If K/F is constant (which is approximately the case, for both K 
and F are independent) the sugar concentration, except when the 
solutions are dilute, the growth and the initial sugar concentration 
will be proportional. H. T. Brown (1914, 226) finds that 2.3 grams 
maltose disappear when io^° yeast cells are produced. 

Yeast growth may cease, owing to the production of large amounts 
of alcohol. The crop under these conditions is determined by the 
way the ratio K/F varies with different concentrations of alcohol, 
and the same method can be used to calculate the yeast growth. 
The integral is, in fact, of general application whatever the final 
limiting factor is. 

The ratio K/F is independent of the number of yeast cells 
present. It follows, therefore, that with a medium of given composi- 
tion the total possible growth is a constant, the crop being equal to 
the sum of the seeding and the growth. A. L. Stern (1901), in a 
series of careful experiments on the point, has proved this experi- 
mentally in the case of a Burton yeast growing in a solution contain- 
ing glucose, asparagin and mineral salts. 

A. J. Brown's previous observation (1892) that large seedings 
of yeast in wort refuse to bud is contrary to this general conclusion 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Yeast Growth. 



109 



that the increase should be the same whatever the seeding is. The 
non-multiplication in this case is probably due to lag in growth and 
the very rapid accumulation of retarding influences. 

Again Stern shows that yeast crops are almost independent 
of the temperature of growth. The temperature coefficient of 
growth and that of fermentation over the range of temperature in 
these experiments are not equal, but approximate closely enough 
to account for the results obtained. 

Death Rates. — When yeast growth has finally ceased the cells 
suspended in the fermented liquid gradually perish. If the liquid 
is kept free from other organisms a few living yeast cells may still 
be found after many years' preservation. Very little information 
regarding death rates of yeast cells is available, but experiments 
with bacteria show that micro-organisms under unfavorable condi- 
tions usually perish at a logarithmic rate (H. Chick, 1908, 19 10). 

In investigating alcoholic fermentation at high temperatures 
or in the presence of poisons, death rates and rates of inactivation 
come prominently into consideration. The process of pasteuriza- 
tion, the preservation of pitching yeast and pure cultures of yeast 
depend on death rates which have not yet been investigated. 

Growth and Fermentation. — The main factors which determine 
the rate of fermentation during any of these periods are the number 
of cells present, the fermentative activity of the yeast and the tem- 
perature. The rate of fermentation is independent of the sugar 
concentration except in dilute solutions. Sugar concentrations, 
therefore, conie into consideration only at the end of fermentation. 

Maltose, the principal sugar in malt wort, is hydrolyzed suffi- 
ciently rapidly by culture yeasts to supply adequately the yeast 
cell with glucose. Dextrin is not fermentable by yeast, but there 
exist in malt wort substances intermediate between dextrin and mal- 
tose which are hydrolyzed slowly by yeast and subsequently fer- 
mented. Little is known of the rate of fermentation of such malto- 
dextrins or how they are hydrolyzed. 

If living yeast is introduced into wort or into a solution of glu- 
cose, fermentation starts immediately. Quiescent yeast cells are 
usually rather more active than the smaller growing ones. Fer- 
mentation does not become visible until the solution is saturated 
with carbon dioxide, and hardly shows on a saccharometer until 
some gas has escaped, but proof of immediate action is obtained 
by other means. 



no 



Chlorophyl Complexities. 



(Am. Jour. Phaxm. 
\ February, 1920. 



The results obtained in experiments with malt wort can be 
used to explain the action of yeast in other cases. 

In the use of yeast for bread-making large amounts are put into 
the dough, and the fermentative activity is of primary importance. 
Brewery yeast is unsatisfactory for bread-making, for it is rapidly 
inactivated at high temperatures (35° C.) by certain yeast poisons 
in the flour. Such yeast grown in distillers' wort is less sensitive, 
and can be used by bakers. According to J. L. Baker (191 7) un- 
boiled distillers' wort contains these toxins and the yeast crops 
from such media consist only of cells which are immune, and there- 
fore of use to the baker. One suspects, however, that the hops in 
brewery wort play a part in making the yeast sensitive and useless 
for bread-making on a large scale. This case is of interest for rates 
of inactivation come into prominence. 

Yeast activity takes place under many varied conditions. It is 
only by referring back to the simple constants of growth and fer- 
mentation, and to the factors which influence these constants, that 
the results can be interpreted and the process understood. 

References. 

J. L. Baker, Tms Journal, 36: 836, 191 7. 
A. J. Brown, Chem. Soc. Trans., 61: 369, 1892. 
A. J. Brown, Ibid., 87: 1395, 1905. 
H. T. Brown, Ann. Botany, 28: 197, 19 14. 
H. Chick, /. Hygiene, 10: 237, 19 10. 

J. C. G. Ledingham and W. J. Penfold, Ibid., 14: 242, 1914. 

A. Slator, Biochem. J., 7: 197, 1913. 

A. Slator, Ibid., 12: 248, 1918. 

A. L. Stern, Chem. Soc. Trans., 79: 943, 1901. 



CHLOROPHYL COMPLEXITIES. ^ 

By John Uri Lloyd, Pharm.M., 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

1876. Every one has noticed the gradual change in color which 
a green leaf undergoes as it arrives at maturity and passes into de- 
•cay. The green color is mostly caused by a substance named 

1 From The Eclectic Med. Jour., Jan., 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February. 1920.| 



Chlorophyl Complexities. 



Ill 



chlorophyl, which is found disseminated more or less throughout 
the entire vegetable kingdom. Chlorophyl is soluble in both ether 
and alcohol, but not in water. It is a compound body, according 
to Mr. Fremy; it consists of a mixture of blue and of yellow organic 
coloring materials. If the blue preponderates the color of the leaf 
is dark green, if the yellow is in large amount it is light green. The 
blue coloring matter is not so permanent as the yellow, it decays 
quicker, frost destroys it sooner, consequently after our plants 
reach maturity we observe them gradually fade, pass to yellow and 
finally turn brown. These successive changes of color depend upon 
the destruction of the chlorophyl. Those acquainted with the art 
of mixing paints will understand how nature can produce so great 
a variety of shades with the two primary colors, blue and yellow. 
Man unconsciously copies after nature in this respect. Our chrome 
greens are made by mixing prussian blue and chrome yellow. 

Chlorophyl is tasteless, it seems to be inert; at any rate, it can 
be swallowed in large amount without ill effect. It is found through- 
out almost all the vegetable organic kingdom. The poisonous 
powerful narcotic plant and the edible cereal are alike bountifully 
supplied with this pigment, which with truth may be called nature's 
own dye, for it has never been produced artificially. 

Chlorophyl will not form away from the light; plants which 
grow in darkness are white. Examples of this fact can be fre- 
quently seen in potato sprouts in the cellar, or celery which is cov- 
ered with soil. Although chlorophyl itself is tasteless and inert, 
its presence under certain circumstances possesses a deep signifi- 
cance. When celery is green, although it may be young, we know 
it is likely to prove tough and stringy. Experience has taught us 
that in this instance the production of chlorophyl is accompanied 
with the growth of woody fiber ; that conditions favoring the pro- 
duction of one, contribute alike to the formation of the other. 
Chlorophyl, which is visible, advises us in this instance of the al- 
most certain existence of woody fiber, but chlorophyl is in no man- 
ner connected with this fiber, and it abounds also in vegetable 
pulps devoid of fibrous tissue. 

Potatoes partly grown upon the surface of the ground, turn 
green upon the side exposed to the sun's rays; the green coloring 
matter is chlorophyl. Such potatoes are unfit for food; they are 
acrid and burn the tongue and throat; yet it is not the chlorophyl 
which imparts the objectionable properties. The light which pro- 



1 1 2 Chlorophyl Complexities. { Febmary'i^Q"?: 

duces the chlorophyl facilitates the formation or other organic 
substances which impart to the green potato its disagreeable taste. 
Experience has taught us that potatoes of a green color are not de- 
sirable as food; naturally we have associated color with taste un- 
til we have grown to believe that the innocent chlorophyl is the 
cause of the unpalatable green potato. 

Although our medicinal plants contain chlorophyl in large 
amounts, there is in one sense no connection between this green 
coloring matter and the proximate medicinal agent. The chloro- 
phyl of lobelia, belladonna, hyoscyamus, etc., like that of the potato 
and celery, is formed under the influence of sunlight, which also 
favors, in a majority of cases, the production of those substances 
from which the plant derives the power of exerting upon the ani- 
mal economy its peculiar action. There is no real connection. 
Conditions which favor the generation of chlorophyl are favorable 
to the formation of a majority of the active principles of our plants, 
from which fact we naturally prejudge, arguing that when a plant 
has arrived at maturity it should be gathered and cured very care- 
fully, so as to preserve the green color. 

191 9. Chlorophyl Complexities Untangled. — Forty-three years 
ago (1876) the foregoing, by the present writer, was published in 
the Eclectic Medical Journal. Time and again since that has it 
been necessary, in correspondence as well as in print, to repeat 
the substance of that contribution. Physicians, as well as pharma- 
cists, are continually concerned with this chlorophyl problem, 
the consideration of which is seemingly as important to-day as in 
times gone by. 

To the foregoing the writer would now add that seemingly, in 
the development of chlorophyl in all plants investigated by him- 
self, other products are with the chlorophyl very intimately asso- 
ciated, this either by adhesion or mechanical combination, all of 
which in natural setting are colloidal. Chief among these we find 
certain vegetable waxes, fats and oils, prevailing generally through- 
out the vegetable kingdom, and seemingly inert therapeutically. 
Whether they are formed as a needful accompaniment to chloro- 
phyl, or as by-products generated by and with the chlorophyl, is, 
in the direction of this paper, unimportant. And yet as concerns 
their presence and their influence. on pharmaceutical preparations, 
they assume importance to a degree but yet imperfectly under- 
stood. 



^ FebmIry!^9'2'S; } CkloYopkyl Complexities. 1 1 3 



Be it said that the utmost difficulty is experienced by whoever 
attempts, with the ordinary pharmaceutical processes, to untangle 
these chlorophyl-affiliating combinations. Whatever menstruum 
dissolves chlorophyl dissolves also these waxes and fats; whatever 
menstruum precipitates chlorophyl from solution also precipitates 
the waxes and fats. This can be demonstrated by a single experi- 
ment, as follows: 

Extract from a chlorophyl-bearing vegetable substance, by 
means of official alcohol, the soluble content. The percolate, rich 
in chlorophyl, will be more or less green, in accordance with asso- 
ciated coloring matters. Add to this percolate an excess of water; 
a green precipitate will form that also varies in shade, in accordance 
with the associated by-products. It may be deep green, as with 
blue grass; it may incline to blue, as with freshly tinctured rye 
leaves when in their bluest condition. It may be soft and oily, as 
when obtained from thuja occidentalis, or it may be hard and waxy, 
as obtained from a number of different green vegetable tissues. 
And yet in it all the dominating fact is that chlorophyl, with the 
concomitant associates, dissolves in the alcohol and is precipitated 
by the water. Take these same green plants, percolate them or 
macerate them in water, cold, warm or boiling. The liquid pro- 
duced is not green, the chlorophyl being either left in the material 
or destroyed by the manipulation. Nor are the chlorophyl-bound 
waxes and fats dissolved by the water— they remain in the drug 
with the insoluble chlorophyl. 

Take the green oily precipitate produced by adding the water 
to the alcohol solution. It is more or less soluble in chloroform, 
ether, alcohol and other liquids that dissolve fats, waxes and oils. 
Upon the contrary, this material refuses to dissolve in glycerine, 
syrup and watery liquids, the chlorophyl and its associates being 
hostile to such liquids. 

Sum it all up, the chlorophyl problem in the sense presented 
herein, has been in manipulative pharmacy most perplexing, this 
by reason of the fact that it not only is of no value in therapeutic 
directions, but is a mighty disturber. 

Comes in now, through what is known as colloidal chemistry, 
the opening of the door that permits the pharmaceutical manipula- 
tor to exclude from preparations all these enemies to good pharmacy. 
To untangle these complexities, separate from them those of thera- 
peutic value, is now feasible, and by this step upward the profession 



1 1 4 Platinum Production, { ^ Feb^^Iry^ V920: 

of medicine obtains pharmaceutical compounds deemed impossi- 
ble until came this awakening opportunity. 

Comes now the necessity of revising our opinions in many direc- 
tions where past assertions, most pronounced, were made, regard- 
ing materials seemingly understood, such materials, once supposedly 
insoluble in water, being actually soluble to any degree, provided 
they are by colloidal processes untangled from plant structural 
affiliations with chlorophyl and its associated bodies. 



PLATINUM PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA. 1 

CoNSUiv Alfred R. Thomson, Omsk, Siberia, Sept. 9, 1919. 

The mining districts of the Ural Mountains in Russia produce 
more than 90 per cent, of the world's supply of platinum. The 
following table indicates the composition of the crude platinum 
deposits in three of these regions, the percentages of pure platinum 
therein, and the percentages of other metals combined therewith: 



Metallic Composition. 


Nikolae Pavdinsk 
Region. 
Per cent. 


Nizhni Tagil 
Region. 
Per cent. 


Goroblagodat 
Region. 
Per cent. 


Platinum 


86.50 


75 40 


84.50 


Rhodium 


115 


0.30 


2 .90 






4 30 


0.90 


Palladium 


I . 10 


1 .40 


0.05 




I. 14 


0.50 


0.70 








0.03 


Chalk 


0.45 


4.00 


0.06 


Iron 


8.32 


II .50 


765 










Quartz 




1 .30 


2 . 10 


Gold 




1 .30 






1-34 




I .08 



Deposits of Platinum — Increase in Platinum Production. — Crude 
platinum in the three regions mentioned is usually deposited in 
layers of sand 3 to 7 feet- thick, along the River Isse and its branches^ 



^ Commerce Reports, Nov. 24, 191 9. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920. j 



Platinum Production. 



"5 



the yield varying from a fraction of a dram up to one-half ounce of 
crude platinum for each ton of sand. Such platinum has the ap- 
pearance of irregularly formed diminutive grains of a steel-gray 
color. Because of its highly magnetic properties this form of the 
mineral is often termed magnetic platinum. Large nuggets of crude 
platinum are rare, but they have been discovered in weights varying 
up to 1 8 pounds. 

Crude platinum known as Issovka in the regions named is ex- 
tracted from the bed of the River Isse and its branches and in the 
neighboring ravines. Such platinum has the appearance of fine 
scales of a clear silver color. 

Platinum was discovered in the Urals in 1819 but was not util- 
ized until 1825, when the Russian Government began to employ 
this metal for the coinage of 3-ruble pieces. Up to the year 1845, 
Russian currency was coined approximately equivalent to $2,125,- 
000. During the period from 1846 to 1850, the average annual 
production of platinum did not exceed 180 pounds troy; but from 
1880 to 1890, the average annual production was 8,800 pounds. 
The production for the year 1901 was 17,072 pounds. Refined 
platinum is usually sold in the form of leaves or wire. 

Government Control of Sale of Platinum. — Since March, 19 19, the 
Omsk government has controlled the sale of platinum in the terri- 
tory under its jurisdiction. This control requires that producers 
of platinum sell the crude metal to the government refining assay 
office, which paid the producers half of the value of the metal in 
Russian paper curr^cy, the balance being paid in currency after 
the sale of the metal by the State Bank. The occupation of the 
Ural districts by the Soviet government's authorities in July and 
August, however, limits the Omsk government's control to such 
supplies of crude platinum as may have been brought within its 
jurisdiction. 

According to estimates made by the government refining assay 
office at Ekaterinburg last May, the time required to refine a con- 
signment of 440 troy pounds of crude platinum was six weeks, and 
the cost of the labor in connection therewith was 150,000 rubles. At 
that time the actual cost of such quantity of crude platinum was 
5,000,000 rubles. From such quantity of crude platinum, the 
^average yield of refined platinum was 352 troy pounds, which, 
valued at the combined cost of the labor of refining and the price 



ii6 



Platinum Production. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i February. 1920. 



of the crude metal, cost 5,150,000 rubles. Thus i troy pound of 
refined platinum cost 14,630 rubles. The rate of exchange then 
prevailing being approximately 20 rubles to the dollar, a troy pound 
of refined platinum may be said to have cost the Omsk Government 
$732. 

[Prepared by the Russian Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Nov. 15, 1919, chiefly from the General Survey of the Principal Branches 
of the Mining and Metallurgical Industry (in Russian), authorized by the Rus- 
sian Mining Department.] 

Platinum is found in Russia only in the Urals. In recent years 
platinum has been produced chiefly in the Nizhni Tagil region, on 
the western slopes of the Ural Mountains, and in the Issov region, 
on the eastern slopes. The latter is divided into two districts — 
Goroblagodat and Bisser. Platinum has also been obtained in the 
northern Urals — in Nikolae Pavdinsk and Rasstess districts and in 
the mines of the Syssert district. In the Issov region the produc- 
tion is concentrated in the basin of the River Issa. To the north 
of this region, near the borders of Rasstess and Nikolae Pavdinsk 
districts, platinum is obtained in the Rivers Sosnovka, Kytlymam 
and the Little Kosva. Still further north platinum is obtained, to- 
gether with gold, in the left tributaries of the River Vagran, and in 
the basins of the Rivers Lobva, Nyasma, Lyalya, Aktai, Emekh, 
Talitsa, etc.; here platinum is secondary to gold. Platinum is ob- 
tained under the same conditions in the Little Sosva River. It is 
also found east of the above-mentioned regions in beds located in 
the River Ivdel. 

To the south of the Issov region, in the properties of Barantchinsk, 
Verkhneturinsk and Nizhneturinsk Mills, platinum is dredged in 
the tributaries of the River Tagil and in the Rivers Imyannyni and 
Tura, and in the tributaries of the River Salda. In the Nizhni Tagil 
property there are very rich beds in the valleys of the Rivers Visim, 
Martyan, Sisim, Tchaush, Tchernaya, etc. 

Besides Russia, platinum is also produced in Colombia, Aus- 
tralia and in Oregon and California; but all these do not produce 
more than 10 per cent, of the world output. 

Production and Exports 0} Platinum. — The following figures 
show the production of platinum in Russia every fifth year, from 1 843^ 
to 1898, and annually since 1901: 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Single Chamomiles. 



117 



Years. 



Poods«. 



Years. 



Poods<^. 



Years. 



Poods, a 



1843. 
1848. 

1853. 
1858. 
1863. 
1868. 

1873. 
1878. 
1883. 
1888. 




313 

335 

352 

337 

299 

1914 298 

915^ 206 

1916^ 150 

1917^ 187 

1918 (to July i)^. 25 



" I pood = 40 funts = 526.64512 troy ounces. 

^ Taken from Izvestya Gornago Otdela for August-September, 19 18. 



From 1887 to 19 13 Russia produced 7,837 poods of platinum 
and exported 6,428 poods, or 82 per cent. This crude platinum 
was exported to France, 70.09 per cent.; Germany, 29.13 per cent.; 
England, 0.78 per cent. About 400 to 450 poods of platinum are 
used annually, and half of this amount is used in the United States. 

The supply of platinum in explored mines is estimated at 7,000 
poods. The nuggets found in the Urals were sometimes of consid- 
erable weight: In 1827, io^/ig funts; 1831, 20^/45 funts; 1832, 
i9^Vi6 funts; 1843, 23^/2 funts. ^ 



NOTE ON SINGLE CHAMOMILES.^ 

By K. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

Having recently had samples of single chamomiles sent to me for 
identification, I was much surprised to find that the flowerheads 
were not those of Anthemis nohilis, but of Matricaria chamomilla. 
As there is no double variety of the latter in commerce, while 
there are sold in vScotland — or, at least, in Aberdeen — the true 
wild single flowers of Anthemis nohilis, this is all the more curious. 
On making further inquiries, I found that several wholesale houses 
in London were in the habit of supplying the flowers of Matricaria 
chamomilla when single chamomiles were ordered; and even in 

^ Taken from Dobrokhotov's "The Urals;" i funt = 13.166128 troy ounces. 
2 From The Pharmaceutical Journal and Pharmacist. 



ii8 



Glass Manufacture 



{Am. Jour, Pharm. 
February, 1920. 



Edinburgh the same seemed to be the case, although the single 
flowers of Anthemis nobilis are distinguished, by those who know 
where to get them, as at Aberdeen, as "Scotch" chamomiles. 

This confusion may be due to the fact that single chamomiles 
do not figure in the usual, wholesale drug lists. It is, however, possi- 
ble that those who order single chamomiles may really wish for 
English double chamomiles in preference to the cheaper French and 
Belgian double chamomile flowers, since the English have always 
some of the central florets still remaining tubular and yellow, and 
these are said to afford more essential oil than the double or ligu- 
late florets. It is noticeable that in "Pharmacographia" (2nd ed., 
p. 385) it is stated that "such flowers, having a somwhat yellow cen- 
tre, are called by druggists '5wg/e Chamomiles.''' It would be in- 
teresting to learn from different parts of Great Britain what the 
retail trade understand by the name "Single Chamomiles," or what 
they wish for when ordering "single" chamomiles from their whole- 
sale houses. 

It is remarkable that the German chamomile is the kind now 
official in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia of 1906, in which the Roman 
chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, is conspicuous by its absence. Yet 
Maisch states that "German chamomile has less agreeable quali- 
ties than the English chamomile, but medicinally may be substi- 
tuted for it." ("National Dispensatory," 1886, p. 966.) 

It may be pointed out that Matricaria chamomilla has smaller 
flowers and a hollow, conical receptacle, and no paleae or scales 
below the florets, while Anthemis nobilis has membranous scales 
and a solid conical receptacle. The odor of the two is also distinct. 



GLASS MANUFACTURE AT THE END OF THE WAR.i 

By Morris W. TravErs. 

During the war many British glass factories were engaged to a 
very considerable extent in producing goods and materials which 
had previously been partly or wholly imported from enemy coun- 
tries, but which were equally indispensable in war or peace. Plant 

1 Communicated by Section B (Chemistry) of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science. Abridged. Reprinted from The Journal of the 
Society of Chemical Industry, Oct. 31, 19 19. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Glass Manufacture 



119 



and labor were diverted to these special purposes ; and some branches 
of the industry in which the country had already secured a pre- 
dominant position suffered severely, other branches developed, and 
entirely new branches of the industry were established. In common 
with all other industries, the glass trade suffered severely from short- 
age of labor and material, and particularly owing to the fact that 
as soon as the lads became sufficiently highly trained to be really 
useful workmen they were often called up for military service. 
Furnaces and plant had been worked beyond the economic limit, and 
were badly in need of repair before the signing of the armistice made 
it no longer necessary to carry on at all costs. The fact that much 
of the new constructional work carried out during the war was es- 
sentially of an emergency character, carried out with war materials 
and at war costs, has also to be considered when reviewing the posi- 
tion at the end of the war. 

The British glass trade may well be proud of the part which it 
has played in the war; but there. is no little danger that while we 
continue to celebrate our victories, we may lose the opportunity 
of consolidating our position. Any scheme devised for the safe- 
guarding of the industry can only be effective if the industry strain 
every effort to attain to the highest pitch of efficiency ; for we may 
be certain that our late enemies will also strain every effort to win 
back the positions which they formerly held. They have still their 
factories, generally in good working order, much of their trained 
labor and management, and above all a great store of knowledge 
and experience. 

Circumstances arising out of the war have done much to dissi- 
pate the idea that success in industry depends upon the possession 
of trade secrets. The Society of Glass Technology and the new 
trade associations have already done much to bring manufacturers 
together, and to promote the spirit of cooperation. Such research 
as has been carried out during the war has aimed rather at the solu- 
tion of problems arising out of the need for producing goods pre- 
viously imported from enemy countries, and it is difficult to lay 
one's hand on a really original discovery in connection with glass. 
However, the lines which future investigations must follow are 
fairly well defined. 

The difficulties attending the scientific investigation of glass 
are extraordinary. We have as yet no knowledge of the nature of 
glass, and experimental methods have yet to be developed. Glass 



I20 



Glass Manufacture 



lAm. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



is often vaguely referred to as "a super-cooled liquid rather than a 
solid," and sometimes as a "colloid." Certain opaline and colored 
glasses certainly contain ultramicroscopic particles ; but though there 
is reason to believe that the complex technical glasses are not sim- 
ple super-cooled liquids, positive information as to their true charac- 
ter is lacking. Vague speculation in the absence of facts is un- 
profitable. 

The difficulty of investigating the properties of technical glasses 
is enhanced by the fact that, unless the precautions taken in the 
manufacture of optical glass are observed, different samples of glass 
from the same pot may vary materially in composition. Technical 
glasses often, if not usually, actually represent unstable systems. 
That it is difficult to find any close relationship between the com- 
position and properties of technical glasses is not, therefore, to be 
wondered at. At the outbreak of war the independent workers 
who undertook the investigation of glass must have been struck with 
the paucity of journal and textbook literature on the subject, and 
with the fact that such literature as existed contained no practical 
details and a few analyses. In the case of miners' lamp glasses 
official tests were established, and the requirements of the makers 
of lenses, etc., were definitely known. It appeared, however, that 
few chemists ever tested the glassware they used in their labora- 
tories ; the results of a few tests had been published, but as to which 
of the various brands were really the best was rather a matter of 
opinion, or even of prejudice, than of scientific proof. 

It is generally recognized that, at a comparatively early stage 
in the war, British manufacturers succeeded in producing glasses 
for many essential purposes which compared very favorably with 
the foreign goods, but it will be unfortunate if they fail to realize 
that there is yet scope for improvement. No resistance glass for 
chemical glassware has yet been discovered which is sufficiently 
highly resistant to all ordinary reagents to be considered to be an 
approach to perfection. It must be admitted that the lamp work- 
ers (workers at the table blowpipe) have reason to be highly dis- 
satisfied with the general quality of the tube with which they have 
had to work. Difficulty of obtaining materials has certainly been 
a handicap to the manufacturer. However, it is a fact that, while 
a first-class lamp-working glass must be soft, and must have a low 
melting point, these glasses "plain" (free themselves from seeds 
or bubbles) only when very strongly heated in the furnace. The 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Glass Manufacture 



121 



poor quality of much of the tube manufactured in this country is 
due to the fact that the furnaces are not capable of working at high 
enough temperatures. 

Almost nothing is known of the chemistry and physics of the 
founding and plaining of glass, exactly why it is, for instance, that a 
''checked" pot of metal will not "plain," or how and why the various 
kinds of cords are formed. We have very little quantitative knowl- 
edge of the properties of plastic and liquid glass, and very few at- 
tempts have been made to work out methods of investigation. Glass 
has, of course, no melting point, but perhaps the point of cohesion 
of two pieces of glass in optical contact, which seems to be quite 
sharp, may serve as a physical constant. The viscosity of glasses, 
about which nothing is known, is a matter upon which information 
would be of use to manufacturers who employ mechanical methods 
of glass blowing. 

There is considerable scope for investigations on the materials 
used in the glass trade, particularly with a view to substituting 
cheaper materials for those in use before the war. The best quality 
of resistance lighting ware manufactured in Austria before the war 
contained a large proportion of boric acid, which would make the 
goods almost prohibitively expensive at the present price of borax. 
A good deal has been done during the war in the way of substituting 
soda for potash in glasses, but the results, at least so far as glass or 
electric lamp bulbs and lamp -working tubes are concerned, have 
not proved satisfactory. However, systematic research may be 
fruitful of results. The influence of ingredients of glasses, such as 
magnesia and alumina, which have generally been introduced into 
glasses accidentally as impurities in the raw materials, is a subject 
for research. 

Prof. Boswell and others have carried out useful investigations 
on British sources of important glass-making materials, such as 
sand and feldspar, but the results have not been highly satisfactory, 
possibly partly owing to circumstances arising out of the war. In 
1 9 15 it was still possible to obtain Swedish feldspar containing 13 
per cent, of potash and very little iron, delivered flour-ground in 
London at less than £3 per ton. During the present year the cost 
of Cornish feldspar, containing 10 per cent, of potash and a consid- 
erable amount of iron, delivered in lumps in London, cost over £7 
per ton. The difference in the quality of the material is even more 
important than the increase in price. 



122 



Glass Manufacture 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



Except in some of the larger works, very crude methods are em- 
ployed in the handling and treatment of materials, and in this the 
glass trade may be considered to be very backward. The best 
methods of grinding and mixing batch and cullet, and the use of 
magnetic separators, conveyors, etc., in the industry really require 
investigation. The treatment of different kinds of material re- 
quires special study. On the proper treatment of the materials 
and the mixing of the batch depends the quality of the glass, and 
the saving of loss due to stones and cords. Glass makers are hard 
on machinery, which they cordially dislike, but which they will 
have to put up with if the trade is to hold its ov/n against foreign 
competition. 

Regenerative or recuperative glass-fired pot furnaces have for 
some time been in use in this country, but recent attempts to work 
them intensively have not met with a great measure of success on 
account of the repeated failure of the refractory materials in the fur- 
naces and pots. When working at full pressure, and using open 
pots, it is possible to fill the pots after the blowers have stopped 
work in the evening, and to found, plain, and cool off the metal by 
the next morning. Thus it is possible to work the factory with a 
single shift of blowers working about 48 hours a week. However, 
to work this single shift the glass must be got ready within the twelve 
hours. 

Continental glass manufacturers have succeeded in working in 
this way, and for the sole reason that they are provided with superior 
refractory materials. It appears that satisfactory fire clays exist 
in this country, and the production from them of suitable fire bricks, 
siege blocks, pots, etc., should not present insuperable difficulties. 
The problems await the early attention of the Glass Research As- 
sociation. The matter is one of vital importance, for the saving of 
fuel alone is 50 per cent, of that used in the non-regenerative fur- 
naces. 

The position with regard to tank furnaces is more satisfactory, 
but much may be done towards the improvement of the refractories 
used in their construction. The increase in the cost of fuel and 
labor also calls for close attention to improvements in gas producers 
and mechanical accessories. 

During the war considerable progress was made in the manufac- 
ture of mould-blown goods, such as electric lamp bulbs, and scientific 
and illuminating hollow ware, which differ from common bottles 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Glass Manufacture. 



123 



in that the goods show no seam, the glass being turned in the mould 
during the process of blowing. Mould-blown goods cannot be 
classed as artistic, but from the utilitarian standpoint they are 
often superior to the hand-made, being consistently true to pattern, 
and much the cheaper. 

Progress in the application of mechanical methods to the produc- 
tion of this class of goods has been made only to the extent of intro- 
ducing American machines, such as the Empire machine and the 
Westlake machine, which two British firms have installed for the 
manufacture of electric lamp bulbs. 

Progress in the manfacture of jars, bottles, etc., from glass pro- 
duced in tanks has been retarded rather than advanced by the war, 
but manufacturers seem anxious to make up for lost time. It must 
be admitted that more actual progress is being made in America 
than in this country, and there is a tendency on the part of our manu- 
facturers rather to purchase the rights to use American machinery 
than to spend money on the investigation and development of new 
processes. Enterprise of this kind is very costly, and more than 
one American invention is credited with having cost those who 
undertook the development of it more than half a million sterling. 

The output of glass tubing has been enormously increased, par- 
ticularly for uses connected with the war. In many glass houses 
men engaged in the hand-made trade became tube drawers, and soon 
became highly skilled at the work. The methods of working em- 
ployed varied greatly, and it would be interesting to obtain statistical 
information as to their relative efficiency. It must be allowed that, 
as much of the tube was drawn in glass houses not specially designed 
for tube drawing, the men were often at a serious disadvantage. If 
the output is to be large, a tube shop must be so designed that the 
men have to walk the minimum distance between the processes of 
gathering, marvering, reheating, etc. Tubes over one inch in diam- 
eter should certainly be annealed before issue, which is not usually 
done. 

Several methods of tube drawing by machinery have recently 
been patented in America, but little is yet known as to their merits. 

Our knowledge of the processes of annealing is not satisfactory, 
but it has certainly been extended during the war, and in this con- 
nection the thanks of the glass trade are due to Mr. F. Twyman, 
of Messrs. Adam Hilger, Ltd., whose valuable contribution to the 
study of the subject has been published in the Jofirnal of the Society 



124 



Class Manufacture. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Fehraury, 1920. 



of Glass Technology, The Hilger instrument for testing goods after 
annealing has found wide application. 

The fact is that both ornamental flint glass and common bottles 
anneal without difhculty, the one on account of the nature of the 
glass, the other on account of the fact that the lehrs contain a large 
mass of hot material, the temperature of which must naturally 
change slowly. However, in dealing with light articles, particularly 
when, as in the case of chemical or illuminating hollow ware, re- 
sistance glasses are used, considerable difficulties are experienced. 
The glass is first chilled in the mould so as to set up the condition 
arrived at in the so-called toughened glass. An unannealed beaker 
will stand any amount of rough treatment, and liquid may be boiled 
in it. However, it cannot be cut off, and it may at any moment flv 
to pieces. In such an article the outer surface is probably fairly 
uniformly in compression and the inner surface in tension. 

The first stage in the annealing of such goods is to heat them 
to a temperature not far below the softening point for a sufficient 
time to eliminate the stresses. This is the vital part of the process, 
for it seems as if a badly annealed article were practically even more 
unstable than such an article before annealing, owing to the inequality 
of the strains. Very even and regular heating is necessary, and this 
is only attainable in specially constructed lehrs heated from below 
as well as from above. The cooling must be at such a rate as to 
avoid the introduction of fresh strains in the glass. The annealing 
of light hollow ware is of vital importance. 

In branches of the trade in which the goods have to go through 
a number of processes, success or failure depends very largely upon 
the proper layout of the works, and the arrangement for transport- 
ing the goods so as to avoid breakage in passing from department to 
department ; and very close attention will have to be paid to working 
conditions, to the comfort of the work people, and to their conve- 
nience in the matter of hours of labor. The scientific study of prob- 
lems relating to industrial administration has made great progress 
in America, and is now receiving attention in this country. 

The foregoing remarks apply to the glass industry in general, 
but the varied character of the numerous branches makes it quite 
impossible to deal with matters of detail. At the moment special 
interest attaches to certain branches of the industry which are sched- 
uled for protection in accordance with the new trade policy. These 
are: "Optical glass, including lenses, prisms, and like optical de- 



'-^vi^n.ry^'xlT^} Glass Manufactufe, 125 

vices; scientific glassware; illuminating glassware." The coun- 
try is now practically self-supporting with regard to scientific hollow 
ware, and it may be hoped that the labors of the Standardization 
Committee of the Society of Chemical Industry, which have aimed 
at the standardization of chemical apparatus, may have been of 
value to the industry. The output of lamp-blown apparatus and 
of graduated apparatus has increased enormously, but it may be 
anticipated that this branch of the industry will meet with keen 
competition. The scientific public, critical of home-made goods, 
has suddenly awakened to the fact that much of the imported 
graduated ware was very inaccurate, and is insisting on a higher 
quality of goods, which the British manufacturers are succeeding 
in supplying. 

Though great progress has been made in the manufacture of il- 
luminating glassware, neither plant nor labor has been sufficient to 
cope with the demand. Optical glass was manufactured in this 
country before the war, but on a scale totally insufficient to meet 
our requirements, and during the past five years the development 
of the industry has been extraordinary. It m.ust be remembered 
that while a very inferior lamp chimney will still serve a very useful 
purpose, optical glass must be good, indeed, very good, or it will 
be quite useless. 

In this part of the industry refractories play an important part, 
for if the pots will not withstand the solvent action of the glass, as 
the pot material dissolves it changes its composition, and also gives 
rise to stones and cords. The iron oxide from the clay tends to dis- 
color the glass, and the color cannot be corrected by the use of man- 
ganese or other reagents. Stirring the molten glass, which is neces- 
sary in order to make it homogeneous, naturally presents difficul- 
ties which have been only partially overcome. The reduction of 
the wastage between the founding of the glass and the formation 
of the blocks and blanks supplied to the lens maker offers scope for 
investigation. Though much research work has already been 
carried out in this country and also in America, where the industry 
is also a new one, much remains to be done. Very high credit at- 
taches to the work already accomplished. 

Finally, while we must try and hold on to what we have won, 
we must endeavor to win back what we have lost. The diversion 
of plant and labor previously engaged in the manufacture of high- 
class ornamental glassware has resulted in the disorganization of 



126 



Methyl or Wood Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
\ February, 1920. 



a branch of the industry in which the country held a predominant 
position. It must be remembered that the Central Empires formed 
one of our best markets for this class of goods. 

The replacement of hand-made articles by machine-made goods 
is perhaps one of the unavoidable consequences of civilization, 
and, balancing the advantages and disadvantages, we may, on 
the whole, gain by the change. While the machine may increase 
the perfection of the form of the article, though perfection of form 
may not imply enhancement of beauty, the material almost always 
suffers in mechanical treatment. There is a play of the lights on 
the surface of a piece of hand-worked English flint glass which is 
never to be found in a mould-blown article. American mechanical 
reproduction, of English cut glass are very wonderful, but they abso- 
lutely lack the craftsman's touch. 

The branch of the trade should remain largely a handicraft. 
Economies can, however, be introduced in many directions, and there 
is no reason why the old-fashioned round furnace should still be 
used. Such fuel- wasting machines should, in the national interest, 
be prohibited under D. O. R. A., or her successor. 



METHYL OR WOOD ALCOHOL AND ITS END-PRODUCTS 

IN THE BODY.i 

The menace of methyl alcohol or wood spirits to human health, 
though long known to physicians, has never been adequately ap- 
preciated by the public. Heretofore the dangers arising from its 
introduction into the body have for the most part been confined 
to some accidental or casual intake of the substance, and larger 
numbers of fatalities have arisen only in unusual circumstances, 
such as the criminal adulteration of alcoholic beverages with wood 
alcohol. With the enforcement of national prohibition, however, 
the prospect of more frequent instances of harm through the use of 
this intoxicant in place of the forbidden grain spirits and other 
drinks containing ordinary ethyl alcohol is unfortunately before; 
the nation. Within the last few weeks the newspapers have been 
reporting the deaths of more than a hundred persons from the adul- 
teration of alcoholic beverages with methyl alcohol. It therefore 

1 From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Jan. 3, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Methyl or Wood Alcohol. 



127 



becomes more necessary than ever to understand the toxicology 
of methyl alcohol and its behavior in the body. To combat an 
enemy we must learn to know its mode of attack. 

Chemically, the difference between methyl alcohol (CHsOH) 
and ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH) is not striking, though the methods 
of preparation are dissimilar. When wood is subjected to destruc- 
tive distillation, methyl alcohol is one of the products formed. 
Ethyl alcohol is derived from the fermentation of grains or fruits. 
Wood alcohol, about 10 per cent., may be added to ethyl alcohol to 
render the latter unfit for beverage purposes, and the government 
has ruled recently that such denatured alcohol must bear on the 
label a special warning concerning the dangers of^ methyl alcohol. 
Elsewhere in this issue appears the report of a case of wood alcohol 
poisoning thoroughly studied with reference to the symptomatology 
and pathology.^ When death occurs, there is usually coma, with 
death from respiratory paralysis. According to our present knowl- 
edge, methyl alcohol is eliminated slowly from the body, an end- 
product of the oxidation in the body being form^ic acid. 

Formic acid, HCOOH, has been recognized as an excretory prod- 
uct of methyl alcohol since PohP demonstrated, in 1895, that intro- 
duction of this alcohol into the stomach leads to an increased output 
of formic acid in the urine. Hence the latter affords a possible 
means of ascertaining whether or not wood alcohol has been taken 
into the organism. A mere qualitative test for formic acid, how- 
ever, will not suffice; for this substance has been known, at least 
since 1877,^ as a normal constituent of the urine. Therefore it is 
essential to know something regarding the extent to which fornfic 
acid may occur in the urine under what may be called normal con- 
ditions of living. According to Autenrieth,^ the quantity eliminated 
may vary considerably in different persons, though it tends to ex- 
hibit a uniformity in an individual living on a fairly uniform 
diet. The figures approximate 0.25 Gm. a day as an illustrative 
average. 

When methyl alcohol is ingested, the output of formic acid in 

2 Harrop, G. A., Jr., and Benedict, E. M. : "Acute Methyl Alcohol Poison- 
ing Associated with Acidosis," J. A. M. A., Jan. 3, 1920, p. 25. 
' Pohl, J., Arch. f. Exper. Path. u. Pharmakol., 31: 286, 1895. 
^ Thudichum, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., 15: 129, 1877. 

^ Autenrieth, W. : "Ueber den Ameisensauregehalt des Harns, normaler- 
weise und nach Eingabe verschiedencr Substanzen, Miinchen." Med. Wehnschr., 
Aug. I, 1919, No. 31, p. 862. 



128 



Fixation of Prices. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1920. 



the urine promptly increases. For example, a person who had 
taken So Gm. of pure methyl alcohol in the course of eight days 
showed an extra elimination of formic acid above his usual output 
equivalent to 5 per cent, or more of the consumed spirits. It will 
be observed that even when these relatively innocuous doses were 
taken, a quantitative investigation betrayed the intake. With larger 
doses, methyl alcohol itself, which is missed in such instances as 
that just cited, may appear in the urine. Other alleged precursors 
of formic acid, such as glucose, and lactic acid which might readily 
be taken into the body in exceptionally large quantities in the course 
of an ordinary regimen, were found by Autenrieth to be without 
appreciable influence on the output. Formaldehyde, HCOH, did 
not produce an increment; but formic acid itself w^as quite resistant 
to oxidation in the body, so that unlike many other organic acids it 
again reappeared in the urine in considerable proportions unchanged. 
Fortified with these facts, the chemist will be better prepared to 
ascertain the occurrence of poisoning with wood alcohol when the 
direct evidence may be lacking or inconclusive. At the present 
juncture the public should be made to appreciate that methyl 
alcohol is a dangerous poison ; that one of its serious effects is perma- 
nent blindness, and that it may be so prepared as to be ordinarily 
indistinguishable by odor or taste from ethyl alcohol. It should 
be emphasized that the selling or promoting the sale of or use of 
either methyl or ethyl alcohol as a beverage is the doing of an un- 
law^ful act. 



FIXATION OF PRICES NO NEW THING. ^ 

Mr. Iv. Zions, Secretary of the P. A. T. A. of New South Wales, 
sends us the following extract from a magazine in his library. It is 
particularly apposite at the present time, in view of the world- 
wide endeavor to reduce prices through the instrumentality of 
government regulations. 

The article was written by the late Elbert Hubbard, and ap- 
peared in the American Era magazine of April, 19 14. Mr. Hub- 
bard had just been reading a book, entitled "The Common People 
of Ancient Rome," by Professor F. F. Abbott. In his own inimita- 
ble style he reviews the book under the title of 

^ From The Australian Journal of Pharmacy, Nov. 20, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Fixation of Prices. 



129 



The D10C1.KTIAN Edicts. 

"I have just been reading a most interesting book, entitled 'The 
Common People of iVncient Rome,' by Frank Frost Abbott, Ken- 
nedy, Professor of I^atin Language and Literature in Princeton 
University. 

"As long as the common people of Rome were in the ascendant, 
Rome ruled the world. When they became pauperized through 
paternalism, weakness, degeneration, disease and dissolution were 
at the door. 

"I recommend very few books — beside my own — but this book 
by Professor Abbot on the common people of Rome should be read 
by all of the common people of America. 

"There is one chapter especially that is worth the price of ad- 
mission, and that is the chapter on the Emperor Diocletian, who 
lived in the fourth century after Christ. This man had a deal to 
do with ushering in the dark ages. His intent and desires were 
right, but he had a wonderful itch for butting in and taking charge 
of everything. The people were not allowed either to choose their 
own religion or to do business in their own way. Diocletian knew 
nothing about natural law; that is, spiritual law. 

"High prices then prevailed. Diocletian devised a scheme 
for keeping them down — this, in the interests of the common peo- 
ple, for politicians, propagandists, reformers, rulers, who live off 
the common people, have ever been anxious to show the common 
people what to do. So comes Diocletian, solicitous on account of 
high prices. He sends his secretaries through the market places, 
makes a list of seven hundred commodities, and the secretaries 
fix maximum prices at which things should be sold. The penalty 
for charging more than the established price was death. 

"In order that there could be no misunderstanding, Diocletian 
had the names of the articles and the prices above which they should 
not be sold cut in stone and placed on the walls all around the mar- 
kets. 

"What was the result? Simply this, that the common people 
who had been busy producing all of the commodities that minis- 
tered to human life became panic-stricken. Animation flagged. 
Inspiration died. Laughter ceased. No such thing as joyous 
labor longer existed. 



Correspondence. 



)Am. Jour. Pharra. 
1 February, 1920. 



"The threat hanging over them of what the Government pro- 
posed to do killed spontaneity, and creation, development and pro- 
duction died. 

"And behold, there came the dark ages, when for a thousand 
years night prevailed; when for a thousand years the world did not 
produce a poet, an orator, an inventor, an artist, a navigator, a 
mathematician; when fear was supreme, and hope stood far away 
in the shadow, shivering and cold, a finger to her lips. 

"Our friends in Washington should read this book on the com- 
mon people of Rome, and learn the lesson, which is: the less rulers 
mix in, dictate and try to regulate economic activities, the better 
it is for the common people. 

"Weh did Thomas Jefferson say, 'That Country is governed best 
that is governed least.' " 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PHARMACOPOEIAL CONVENTION, MAY 11, 1920 

SECOND NOTICE. 

In harmony with the requirements of the By-Laws, attention of 
interested parties is called to the meeting of the Tenth Decennial 
Pharmacopoeial Convention of the United States, to be held be- 
ginning at lo.oo A.M., May ii, 1920, at the Willard Hotel, Wash- 
ington, D. C. All incorporated bodies and other institutions en- 
titled to membership in this Convention are entitled to at once 
apply to Dr. Noble P. Barnes, Arlington Hotel, Washington, D. C, 
for the necessary blanks for membership in the Convention. 

Prior to the meeting of the Convention, the Committee on Cre- 
dentials will meet in Washington to consider all applications which 
are made. It is important, therefore, that all applications for mem- 
bership should be in the hands of Dr. Barnes at least six weeks be- 
fore the date of the meeting. It will be difficult to consider, properly, 
credentials which are delayed beyond that date and especially 
those which may be presented at the time of meeting. 

Sincerely, 

H. W. WiivKY, President, 9th Decennial 
Pharmacopoeial Convention of the 
United States. 



^Fe&^Y;2^:} Correspondence. 131 

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIAL CONVENTION. 
PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 

The following amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws 
are recommended by the Board of Trustees for adoption by the 
Convention at Washington, May 11, 1920. 

Words to be deleted are enclosed in brackets and words to be 
added are printed in italics: 

CONSTITUTION. 

Article: II. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. The members of the United States Pharmacopoeial 
Convention, in addition to the incorporators and their associates, 
shall be delegates elected by the following organizations in the man- 
ner they shall respectively provide : Incorporated Medical Colleges 
and Medical Schools connected with Incorporated Colleges and Uni- 
versities, Incorporated Colleges of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical 
Schools connected with Incorporated Universities, Incorporated 
State Medical Associations; Incorporated State Pharmaceutical 
Associations, the American Medical Association, the American 
Pharmaceutical Association [and] the American Chemical Society, 
the National Association of Retail Druggists, and the National Associa- 
tion of Boards of Pharmacy: provided that no such organization shall 
be entitled to representation unless it shall have been incorporated 
within and shall have been in continuous operation in the United 
States for at least five years before the time fixed for the decennial 
meeting of this corporation. 

Section 2. Delegates appointed by the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Army, the Surgeon-General of the United States Navy, 
and the Surgeon-General of the United States Marine-Hospital 
Service, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor, the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, the 
Association of State and National Food and Dairy Departments, 
the National Wholesale Druggists' Association [and] the National 
Dental Association, the American Drug Manufacturers' Association, 
the United States Division of Customs, and the University of Havana, 
and by the organizations not herein before named which were ad- 
mitted to representation in the Convention of 1900, shall also be 



132 



Correspondence. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



members of the corporation. Each body and each branch of the 
United States Government above mentiond shall be entitled to 
send three delegates to the meetings of this corporation. But no 
such delegates as are provided for in this article shall be members 
until their credentials shall have been examined and acted upon as 
proAdded for by the By-Laws. Delegates admitted as members 
at any decennial meeting shall continue to be members of the United 
States Pharmacopoeial Convention until their successors shall have 
been appointed and admitted as delegates to the ensuing Convention 
and no longer. 

ArTicIvB V. 

MBKTINGS. 

The regular meetings of this corporation shall be held once in 
ten years. The time of holding the decennial meeting shall be upon 
the second Tuesday in May, in the first year in each decade ending 
in zero, and the place of meeting shall be in the City of Washington, 
D. C. Unless in case of emergency, the Board of Trustees and officers 
of the Convention, by joint vote shall select some other place of meeting 
and some date within the same year other than the second Tuesday in 
May. The first decennial meeting shall be held in the year 1910. 

ArticIvK VI. 
ame:ndmknts. 

Every proposition to alter or amend this Constitution shall be 
submitted in writing to the Board of Trustees, and having received 
the votes of at least five members of the Board of Trustees, shall be 
[published in the medical and pharmaceutical journals] submitted 
to the medical and pharmaceutical press, at least three months before 
the decennial meeting of the United States Pharmacopoeial Conven- 
tion, when, upon receiving the votes of at least three-fourths of the 
members present and voting, it shall become a part of this Constitu- 
tion. 

BY-LAWS. 
Chapter III. 

OF THE TREASURER. 

Article II. He shall pay no moneys except on the written order 
of the Board of Trustees. All bills must be accompanied by proper 



^FeJru^ary'^m'S:! Correspondence. 133 

vouchers and all payments shall be by checks, and such checks 
drawn by the [Treasurer] Secretary of the Board of Trustees for the 
payment of moneys shall be signed by the Treasurer and countersigned 
by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees to become valid. 

Chapter IV. 

OF the: trustees. 

Article V. There shall be an annual meeting of the Board of 
Trustees at such time and place as the Board shall direct, unless in any 
year such meeting shall have been declared unnecessary by a special 
vote of the Board. For the taking of such vote and for other matters 
the Board shall have the right to transact business by correspondence. 
Special meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called upon the 
written request of at least three members, and the Chairman shall 
have the power to call a special meeting whenever he shall deem it 
necessary. The members of the Board of Trustees shall receive no 
compensation for their services, but traveling and other necessary 
expenses which may be incurred by them shall be paid from the funds 
of the Convention. 

Chapter IX. 

OF MEETINGS. 

Article II. The order of business at the first session of each 
decennial meeting shall be as follows: 

Section 4. Report of the Chairman of the Board of Trustees,- the 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees and the Treasurer of the Convention. 

Change the present Section 4 to Section 5, Section 5 to 6, and 6 
to 7. 

Jas. H. BeaIv, Chairman. 
H. M. WhelplEy, Secretary 
Januar}^ 30, 1920. Board of Trustees. 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF A. PH. A. SECTION ON PRACTICAL 
PHARMACY AND DISPENSING. 

Editor, American Journal of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dear Sir: As Chairman of the Section on Practical Pharmacy 
and Dispensing of the A. Ph. A., I am sending out an invitation 



^34 



Correspondence. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1920. 



and urgent request to all who are interested in the practical work 
in the store to present papers before this Section next May. 

Because of the meeting coming so much earlier than usual, 
it will be necessary to have the titles of papers furnished me not 
later than the middle of March and it is desirable that the papers be 
received at the same time or as soon after as possible. 
Some subjects which have been suggested are: 

1. Constructive criticisms of the U. S. P. This is particularly 
pertinent as the U. S. P. Convention follows the next week. 

2. The part which the pharmacist is to play in the revision of 
the U. S. P. 

3. Consideration of new remedies. 

4. Papers dealing with prescription work. 

5. The pharmacist as a clinical chemist. Papers from those who 
have had experience along this line are especially desired. 

6. What professional work can the pharmacist do to take place 
of that which is passing into the hands of the large manufacturer? 

7. A discussion of the affiliation of the drug clerk organization 
with labor unions and drug clerk strikes. 

8. Is it desirable to have laws regulating the hours which the 
pharmacist may work? 

Papers bearing on any phase of Practical Pharmacy will be very 
acceptable. 

Yours truly, 

E. A. RuDDiMAN, Chairman. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A FELLOWSHIP TO EXTEND 
INDUSTRIAL USE OF GLYCERIN IN THE MELLON 
INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Jan. 6, 1920. 

American Journai^ of Pharmacy, 
145 N. Tenth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dkar Sirs: A prominent manufacturer has recently estab-- 
lished an Industrial Fellowship in this Institution for the purpose of 
extending the industrial uses of glycerin. The writer, who is the 
incumbent of the Fellowship, has planned primarily to center the 
investigation on the substitution of glycerin in place of alcohol for 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920. | 



Obituary. 



135 



preservative and extractive purposes in pharmaceutical and allied 
fields. As you doubtless know, some of the leading authorities have 
advocated this procedure as being satisfactory in many instances, 
but it has not so far received critical study. 

The Mellon Institute is an endowed institution devoted to scien- 
tific research and its application to the industries. The glycerin 
Fellow^ship will be conducted in the same manner as all fellowships 
in operation at this Institute, and as such is not affected by any 
financial consideration. The data thus obtained by this organiza- 
tion is therefore unique, insofar that it represents the result of re- 
search work conducted in an impersonal manner, and is not vSubject 
to any private interest. For your guidance, I am submitting a copy 
of Director R. F. Bacon's last annual report. 

I hope that the work will progress in the laboratory, so that a 
preliminary report of the research may be submitted to you in the 
near future. Your suggestions and ideas concerning this problem 
would be highly appreciated, and I w^ould also feel grateful to you 
if you would give this matter publicity by using the enclosed note 
in the next issue of your periodical. 

Very truly yours, 

MkIvVIN DeGrootk. 

OBITUARY. 

SIR THOMAS RICHARD FRASER, M.D. 

On January 4, in the City of Edinburgh, terminated the life of 
Sir Thomas Richard Eraser, M.D., LL-D., F.R.S., at the age of 
seventy-eight years. At the time of his decease he was Emeritus 
Professor of Materia Medica in the Edinburgh University. He 
was long recognized as one of Great Britain's most eminent physi- 
cians and pharmacologists. He was graduated in medicine from this 
same University in 1862 and in 1872 was appointed a lecturer on 
Materia Medica, in which branch he early specialized. In 1877 he 
was elected as Professor of Materia Medica to succeed vSir Robert 
Christison. He continued in this chair until 1918 when failing 
health, due largely to a physical breakdown and an accident by 
which he .sustained a fractured leg, compelled his retirement as 
Emeritus Professor. 



136 



Obituary. 



!Am Tour. Pharm. 
February, 1920. 



He held many positions of prominence in his profession, having^ 
been president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 
and was a member of the medical committee appointed to prepare 
the latest revision of the British Pharmacopoeia. He was a member 
of the commission to investigate plague and in that connection 
visited India in 1898. In 1902 he was knighted. He was an honor- 
ary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

Sir Thomas Eraser's scientific standing was based upon his 
original investigations and his contributions to medical knowledge 
was mainly along the line of the pharmacologic study of potent 
remedies. His study of the physiologic action of strophanthus 
stands out yet as one of the most valuable contributions to the 
knowledge of that drug and placed it permanent^ among the valuable 
heart tonics. As other investigations may be mentioned those of 
physostigmin and certain snake venoms. G. M. B. 

DR. HORATIO C. WOOD. 

The demise of Dr. Horatio C. Wood, on January 3, 1920, the 
widely known authority on therapeutics, deserves more than passing 
tribute. Although a semi-invalid since 1906, at which time he 
retired from practice, his researches upon the physiological action 
of drugs have left a deep and permanent impression upon American 
medical practice; so much so that he has been called "The Father of 
American Therapeutics." 

Dr. Wood was a man of unusual breadth of vision and a tireless, 
versatile worker. He was a botanist, pharmacognocist, physiologist, 
pharmacodynamist, neurologist and clinician; possessed of keen 
powers of observation and close reasoning, his studies upon the action 
of drugs upon animals and human beings have become classic, and 
with Dr. Roberts Bartholow and others he drew international at- 
tention to the research work of American therapeutists. He was 
among the first to differentiate between the empirical use of drugs 
and the rational use, based on physiological action as determined 
by animal experimentation. With his classic studies on pharma-' 
cology, he ever kept a firm faith in the preeminent value of drugs 
for the treatment of disease when rightly used, and was ever sym- 
pathetic to the claims of pharmacy for recognition as a sister pro- 
fession. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Obituary. 



137 



He was chairman of the U. S. Pharmacopoeial Convention for 
1 890 and for 1 900 and probably was only prevented from continuing 
as chairman of the convention for 1 910 by reason of his illness. 

The profession of pharmacy, as well as that of medicine, is greatly 
indebted to the work of Dr. Wood and pharmacy may well honor 
him. 

As Dr. S. Solis Cohen has written: 

"Horatio C. Wood was a giant of soul no less than of intellect. 
His great influence for good upon the development of American 
medicine was not confirmed to his epoch-making contributions in 
the field of therapeutics, but extended into personal relations as 
well, and was owing no less to his character as a man than to his 
preeminence as a scientist. As author and teacher, he will be missed ; 
as a man, he will be mourned." J. W. E. 

C. CARROLL MEYER. 

C. Carroll Meyer passed peacefully away Monday evening, 
December 15, 1919, after having been unconscious for three days 
following a stroke of paralysis which, possibly, had been induced 
by the effects of a murderous assault made upon him about two years 
ago by a desperate character who has never been apprehended. 

"Carroll," as he was familiarly known to his many friends, 
was born in Philadelphia, November 24, 1854, and, as a boy, at- 
tended Saint Joseph's College, 4th Street and Willing' s Alley. About 
July I, 1869, he was apprenticed to Thomas J. Husband, Third and 
Spruce Streets, the originator of Husband's Magnesia. He remained 
there until 1879 when he embarked in business for himself at 1802 
Callowhill Street, later removing to 1800 Callowhill Street, and 
finally, about twenty years ago, to 341 No. i8th St., where he 
continued the practice of his profession until stricken with the 
illness which terminated fatally. 

The funeral was held Friday, December 19, with services at his 
late home at 8.30 a.m., followed by public services at 10.30 in the 
Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, with subsequent interment in 
Cathedral Cemetery. He is survived by his wife and an adopted 
daughter. 

C. Carroll Meyer's connection with the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy dates from the day he matriculated as a student in the 



138 



Current Literature. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1920. 



.fall of 1 87 1. In the spring of 1872, after the regular winter term 
had closed, he joined a summer class which met at the College one 
afternoon each week for study, quiz., etc., under the guidance of 
the lamented Dean Remington, then assistant to Professor William 
Procter. He was energetic aud studious and became a force for 
good to his fellow students during the winter term of 1872-3, when 
he served as one of three lieutenants or assistants to the president 
of his class, then the Senior Class. 

He was graduated March 18, 1873, with the degree of Ph.G., 
the subject of his graduation thesis being "Ichthyocolla." He im- 
mediately joined the Alumni Association and faithfully served it, 
as private and officer, during more than forty-six years. He held 
every elective office except that of recording secretary. He was 
first elected a member of the Board of Directors in 1883, was presi- 
dent in 1892-3, and served continuously as treasurer from 1900 until 
his activities were terminated by the Grim Reaper. 

He was elected to active membership in the College in 1887 and 
became a lije member in 191 2. He served as a member of the Board 
of Trustees from 1897 until 1914 when he declined nomination for 
re-election. 

"Love and Loyalty" might well have been his life motto, as these 
represent his attitude toward the College, his Alma Mater, the 
Alumni Association, his co-workers, his church and his fellowman, 
whose servant he ever strived to be. F. X. M. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 

MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

Picric Acid as Disinfectant.— The use of 5 per cent, picric 
acid solution is advocated by Cassegrain as a preoperative disinfec- 
tant, because it thoroughly disinfects and can be used with soap 
and water; it does not irritate the skin, and it is approximately 
40 per cent, cheaper than iodine. {New Orleans Med. and Surg. 
Jour.; through /. Amer. Med. Assoc., January 24, 1920.) 

Influence of Uranium on the Blood. — Mas Magro reports 
the results of extensive experimental research on the action of 
uranium on the blood-producing organs. A subcutaneous intra- 
peritoneal injection of a 2 per cent, solution of uranium acetate in 
rabbits and guinea-pigs caused an epithelial nephritis with death 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1920.) 



Current Literature. 



139 



the sixth or seventh day. This is the effect of the minimal lethal 
dose. When death occurs in three hours and a half, the blood shows 
coagulation, thrombosis, precipitation and agglutination. Uranium 
thus does not induce death directly. (Plus-Ultra, Madrid, August, 
1919; through /. Amer. Med. Assoc., January 31, 1920.) 

ClinicaIv Importance of the CoIvLOidaiv Gold Reaction. — 
The main difficulty with the colloidal gold reaction, Bicke finds, is 
the preparation of the colloidal gold. The trouble lies in the ex- 
treme sensitiveness of colloidal gold to chemical influences; even the 
alkalinity of the glass may give the solution a bluish tinge and render 
it useless from the start. Another frequent cause of failure is that 
fresh, doubly distilled water is not used. The colloidal gold re- 
action furnishes an interesting proof of the baneful effect of ex- 
ceedingly slight impurities in water. The main value of the col- 
loidal gold reaction is that it gives us a means for the early diagnosis 
of neuro-syphilis. At the Rudolph Virchow Hospital, Berlin, it 
has established the syphilitic origin in many obscure cases. In 
one case of optic neuritis, the etiology was baffling. The personal 
and family history was negative. The blood Wassermann test was 
negative, but the colloidal gold reaction gave the typical curve of 
cerebrospinal syphilis. The patient, who was seriously ill, was at 
once given specific treatment with good results. If it should prove 
possible to simplify the preparation of the colloidal gold, this re- 
action might be regarded as ideal and would be of the greatest value 
to medicine. (Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, Munich, Sept. 
12, 19 19; through /. Amer. Med. Assoc., January 31, 1920.) 

Pharmacological Action of Cadmium. — Cadmium is a power- 
ful emetic. Parenteral administration of the chloride produces 
nephritis, and coagulation of protein and necrosis occur at the site 
of subcutaneous injection. The lethal intravenous dose for cats, 
rats, and rabbits is low, 2 to 3.5 Mgm. of the metal given as chloride. 
(Alsberg and Schwartze, /. Pharm. Exp. Therap., 13: 504, 1919.) 

J. F. C. 

Pharmacology of Benzaldehyde.— Benzaldehyde relaxes the 
tonus and inhibits the contraction of isolated smooth-muscle organs. 
It has a vSedative effect on various organs in situ. It possesses definite 
and marked local anesthetic properties, anesthetizing the sensory 
nerve ending of the frog's skin, of the cornea and of human mucous 
membranes. Benzaldehyde solutions paralyze nerve conduction. 
It is very little toxic. (D. I. Macht, / .Pharm. Exp. Therap., 13 : 508, 
1919.) J. F. C. 



140 



sponge Gathering. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1920. 



Benzylalcohol. — Injections into the thoracic region of the 
spinal cord are followed by a severe fall in blood pressure and de- 
creased respiratory movements. It also produces spinal anesthesia. 
(Voegtlin and Livingston, /. Pharm. Exp. Therap., 13: 513, 1919.) 

J. F. C. 



SPONGE GATHERING IN TUNISIAN WATERS.^ 

By Consul Harris N. Cookingham, 

tunis, nov. ii, 1919. 

Although the Greek divers have abandoned the sponge fisheries 
of the Tunisian coast for those of Tripolitan waters, unexploited 
since the Turko-Italian War, where, it is reported, unexcelled sponges 
have recently been taken (for the English market, which is paying 
almost 80 francs a kilo for the best specimens) , the sponge beds along 
the Regency's coast are bringing no small profit to the Sicilian 
dragnets and harpoonists now plying in the Gulf of Gabes and around 
the Kerkenna Islands. Sfax, the chief port of southern Tunisia, 
is naturally the trade center of the industry, the sponge market of 
Tunisia whence domestic and export prices are regulated. It is 
interesting to note that for the fine sponges which the Kerkenna 
fishers obtain the Sfax prices are from 32 francs per kilo (2 . 2 pounds) ; 
sponges from the Gulf of Gabes, of ordinary quality, bring 27 francs 
a kilo (formerly from 12 to 14 francs). The harpoonists are bring- 
ing in good sponges, poorly dried and cleaned, which are sold at 
32 francs a kilo in Sfax. There the extremely fine Kerkenna sponges 
are expected within a fortnight, for sale, it is already announced, 
at about 50 francs a kilo; these are sold without any preparation 
whatever to buyers, who themselves clean the delicate tissues. 

1 From Commerce Reports, December 31, 19 19. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, 1920 
EDITORIAL. 

THE RESPONSIBILITY 01^ PHARMACY UNDER 
PROHIBITION ENFORCEMENT. 

The various acts of national legislation leading up to the enact- 
ment of prohibition as well as the prohibition enforcement act, 
have all recognized the use of distilled spirits and wines as medi- 
cines. The Volstead Act, more distinctly than its predecessors, 
takes cognizance of such legitimate use of alcoholic liquors, and 
attempts to provide the procedure by which the needs of the public 
for such as medicine can be supplied. 

We have reason to believe that in the drafting of this portion of 
that act careful consideration was given to this subject as one that 
under the existing knowledge and status of the practice of medicine 
must be provided for as a public necessity. In the exercise of its 
law-making prerogative, Congress very properly determined that 
the use of distilled spirits and wines as medicines must be provided 
for but that the presci'ibing and dispensing must be done through 
the proper channels of professional medical practice and that pro- 
tective measures must likewise be adopted to restrict the dispensing 
of these to bona fide prescriptions. 

We believe that the Volstead act is the first law enacted by the 
Congress of the United States that clearly recognizes that pharmacy 
is a distinct branch of medicine; that its function is to dispense all 
medicines and that dispensing, even of alcoholic liquors, can be 
controlled through the profession of pharmacy. This is a principle 
for which pharmacists have been contending for a long time and the 
importance of its establishment in the jurisprudence cannot now be 
fully estimated. 

President LaWall, in his presidential address before the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, considered that this was to be viewed 



142 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 1920. 



as an evidence of confidence in the profession of pharmacy and like- 
wise expressed his opinion that as a whole pharmacy would measure 
up to this added responsibility. It is evident from the discussions 
appearing in the pharmaceutical press that many of those engaged 
in the drug trade entertain different views, and what is even more 
apparent is the lack of careful reading and digestion of the law and 
the regulations covering these features of its enforcement. 

The fear that any number of "weak brothers" in pharmacy will 
see an opportunity of reaping "easy money" by infracting this law 
and by their misdeeds discrediting the entire profession, seems to 
be one of the stock arguments. The regulations provided for the 
protection against such violations are certainly stringent, and foolish 
indeed will be the druggist who engages in "booze selling." He 
may be assured that sooner or later his transgressions will be dis- 
covered and the merited punishment meted out. The penalties are 
by no means light and both medicine and pharmacy should purge 
their professions of the violators of anti-liquor and anti-dope laws. 
In our opinion the dispensing of all medicines that are abused or 
habit-forming must be restricted to the legitimate medical profes- 
sions, each functioning within its own proper field of service. This 
is evidently the intent of the enforcement act as it relates to the use 
of liquors as medicines, and as its full force and effect become es- 
tablished, the infractions must become notably less and the "weak 
brothers" either will not appear or will have disappeared. 

We share fully the opposition of the pharmacists to being classi- 
fied as retail liquor dealers. The classification never was appropriate 
to those engaged in the vocation of the apothecary and now that 
dealing in beverage alcoholic liquors is outlawed, we hope forever, 
the necessity for the Treasury Department maintaining the "R. ly. 
D." class has certainly ceased to exist. Pharmacy should congratu- 
late itself and the lawmakers that in the enforcement act "pharma- 
cist" is the term used and that professional title is used to designate 
the class alone upon whom the responsibility for the proper dispensing 
of such medicines is placed. The pharmacists are entirely right 
in demanding that the odium of the retail liquor dealer sho\ild not 
fall upon them in the discharge of what the law now makes a part 
of their professional duty. 

It appears that in maintaining the classification of "R. L. D." 
the Treasury Department is carrying out the laws now on the statute 
books, and that to relieve the pharmacists of this objectionable 



Am. Joiir. Pharm.) Frlifnrinl r a -> 

March, 1920 J HatWrtaL 1 43 

classification and tax, remedial legislation will have to be enacted. 
In directing attention to this needed legislation, to correct what is 
an eiror on the part of the Government, we do so because of the 
importance of its bearing at this time. Many self-respecting pharm- 
acists are deterred from dispensing bona fide prescriptions for alcohol 
or a^cohoHc liquors because of their objection to taking out the per- 
mits and qualifying as now required, and to being classified as 
Retail Liquor Dealers. As a result, in many sections of the country, 
physicians are having trouble in having these prescriptions dis- 
pensed and the pharmacists are being severely criticized for failing 
to discharge their duty to the public. 

Presumably the pharmacists of the United States want the law 
modified so that they will no longer have to bear the odium of being 
liquor dealers. This can only be accomplished by a determined 
effort that will convince the members of Congress of the real facts. 
We believe that this object can be attained by a united effort of the 
drug trade interests and are prepared to lend our utmost efforts 
in that direction. In the meantime, will pharmacists gain either 
prestige or public endorsement of this proposition by shirking a 
responsibility that Congress has already imposed? 

The decision as to what is or is not a medicine does not primarily 
rest upon the pharmacist. The physician has the responsibility 
of diagnosing and of prescribing whatever remedies he deems are 
appropriate. Upon the pharmacist devolves the duty of properly 
compounding and dispensing whatever the physician in his judgment 
may determine is the medicine required. In the discharge of such 
professional duty, the pharmacist is not concerned whether this 
judgment dictates doses of a toxic or a narcotic, an alcoholic 
remedy or even a placebo. With equal grace and skill and without 
diminishing in the least his professional spirit, he can dispense any 
of these or other medicines. The hue and cry against bona fide 
dispensing of stimulants, in the opinion of the writer, is not justified 
by any code of professional ethics. The countenancing of any dis- 
pensing that is not bona fide, either alcoholic, narcotic or for any 
other improper motive or use, is beyond the pale of professionalism 
and should be outlawed, and a pharmacist has at all times the right 
to refuse to sell or dispense any or all medicines that he either knows 
or suspects are not to be applied to legitimate practice. 

The suggestion has been made by pharmacists in several sections 
of the country that the government should establish dispensaries 



144 Editorial {^™- £"ch;',9^iS: 

for the dispensing of prescriptions calling for liquors. No provision 
has been made in the law for any such procedure, and the Internal 
Revenue Department would not be justified in establishing such a 
method of dispensing until so directed by Congressional enactment. 

It is exceedingly doubtful if government dispensaries would be 
either a practicable or an efficient means of protecting against the 
illicit use of such spirits. 

The shirking of the responsibility placed upon pharmacy by this 
Congressional enactment is not without the possibility of working 
to the detriment of pharmacy. If pharmacists refuse to accept the 
responsibility placed upon them by the government to dispense 
distilled spirits and wines for medicinal purposes y and insist that pre- 
scriptions for such must be compounded only in government dis- 
pensaries, the public and legislative bodies may construe tnis as an 
indication that the pharmacists are not discharging their professional 
duties. If such a procedure were to be adopted regarding the dis- 
pensing of alcoholic stimulants, it might be considered as a precedent 
for the same course regarding narcotic drugs or toxic remedial agents, 
and the profession of pharmacy certainly would be destroyed if 
such a procedure was to be carried out to its possible conclusion. 

It appears to us that it is the duty of pharmacists to accept 
the responsibility placed upon them by this enactment and fulfill 
same in a professional spirit. The following sensible view of the 
situation is presented by George Victor Haering, of Chicago, in 
the C. R. D. A News and republished in the N. A. R. D. Journal, of 
February 26, 1920: 

"Inasmuch as the Government has recognized liquor as a inedicine 
and a medicine only and left it to the discretion of physicians so to 
prescribe, and in its judgment realized that the registered pharmacist 
by virtue of his high standing as regards character, reliability and 
honesty was the one best qualified to dispense and handle same, 
I for one have taken o*it a license, realizing that many millions in 
this country believe sincerely in the medicinal virtues of liquor and 
I am not the judge, but merely the 'order taker' when filling afore- 
said prescriptions written according to the precepts of the law. 

"The confidence bestowed upon me by the Government in per- 
mitting me to dispense narcotics and liquors shall not be betrayed, 
as I fully realize the high honor thus bestowed upon me as a pharma- 
cist as well as my duty as an American citizen." G. M. B. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



145 



THE FAULTS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION. 

In this number of the Journai^ we repubUsh the paper of Hobart 
Amory Hare, M.D., on the "Teaching of Therapeutics," published 
in the Journal of the American Medical Association. 

Our purpose in repubHshing this article is twofold. First, it is 
a frank statement by an eminent authority of a great fault in the 
current medical education. The neglect of the medical schools to 
impart to their students a sufficient medical education that will 
enable them to intelligently practice their important profession is a 
serious indictment of the educational methods employed in colleges 
of medicine. 

Many pharmacists no doubt could relate instances of the lack of 
knowledge of materia medica and practical therapeutics exhibited 
by physicians, and by their experiences attest the truthfulness of the 
criticism of Prof. Hare that many of the young physicians entering 
medical practice have no clear understanding of posology and the 
true significance of a dose. The examples he gives in this article of 
the lack of acquaintance with official titles are duplicated in a great 
many of the prescriptions presented for compounding. 

It is unfortunate that this arraignment of the lack of kno^vledge 
on the part of many physicians, and the faulty methods of teaching 
in vogue in medical schools is true. 

The need for a more thorough and a more practical method of 
training the medical student to prescribe, and the plan suggested for 
correcting this defect, should receive the merited consideration, and 
likewise the necessity for having instruction imparted by those who 
have gained the knowledge they wish to impart through actual prac- 
tice. 

Our second purpose in republishing this paper is its applicability 
likewise as a lesson to pharmaceutical educators. To a more or less 
degree the same faults in the method of imparting knowledge by 
teachers utterly lacking in experience is, likewise, evidenced in many 
of the schools of pharmacy. Post-graduate courses in medicine or in 
pharmacy should be based on a comprehensive knowledge and prior 
education in the fundamental branches of these practices and re- 
served for specialists who will not only apply the knowledge acquired 
in post-graduate work, but extend the existing knowledge in these 
fields through their further practice and research therein. 

It is not our purpose to cast any reflection upon our friends of 



146 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



the medical profession. We are of the opinion that pharmacy has 
too many glass houses to safely engage in "stone -thro wing," and the 
insufficiency of our pharmaceutical education is a topic that it is 
proposed to editorially discuss in an early issue. G. M. B. 

FURTHER MODIFICATIONS OF THE REGULATIONS FOR 
PROHIBITION ENFORCEMENT. 

In our editorial comments we have taken exception to the re- 
quirement of the regulation No. 60 that bay rum, hair tonics and 
other toilet preparations must be denatured by the addition of tartar 
emetic. Throughout the trades affected by this early promulgation 
of the Federal Prohibition Commissioner, there has been a very 
pronounced opposition to this ruling. The Department has now 
modified this in a mimeographed regulation known as Prohibition 
Mimeograph No. 38, which sets forth four additional optional modi- 
fying agents that may be used in place of tartar emetic. These 
are quinine sulphate 2 grains to the fluid ounce, cinchonidine sul- 
phate 2 grains to the fluid ounce, salicylic acid 5 grains to the fluid 
ounce and resorcin, 5 grains to the fluid ounce. 

It is not improbable that further consideration will justify the 
Department in admitting as modifying agents the use of some other 
denaturing agents than those now specified. 

This Bureau has likewise issued as Prohibition Mimeograph 
No. 40, a regulation regarding the reports of liquor sold by druggists 
on physicians' prescriptions. This reads as follows: 

"A report on Form 141 8 has been prepared to be rendered by 
druggists and pharmacists each month, showing the number of pre- 
scriptions filled and the quantity of liquor sold on physicians' pre- 
scriptions. 

"Form 141 8 must be made in triplicate each month by the 
holder of each permit to dispense intoxicating liquor for medicinal 
purposes on physicians' prescriptions written on Form 1403, or on 
emergency prescriptions as authorized by law. 

"Two copies of the report on Form 141 8 must be sent by the drug- 
gist holding permit, to the Federal Prohibition Dix'ector of the State 
on or before the fifth day of month succeeding the month for which 
the report is rendered; one copy will be retained by the druggist 
rendering the report. 

"Liquors used in compounding medicines should not be reported 
on Form 141 8, as this form is intended to be a report solely of liquors 



Am, Tour. Pharm.| 
March, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



147 



sold as such on prescriptions of physicians holding permits to pre- 
scribe liquor; medicinal preparations fit for beverage purposes 
should, however, be included in the report on Form 141 8. 

"The report of druggists on Form 141 8 should not include sales of 
liquor to other druggists or to physicians or hospitals, except on 
authorized prescriptions, nor sales of liquor for industrial or scien- 
tific purposes; it should include only such liquors as are dispensed 
and sold on authorized prescriptions of practicing physicians to 
parties for medicinal use. 

"One copy of the druggists' monthly report on Form 141 8 will 
be retained by the Federal Prohibition Director, and one copy will 
be forwarded to the Federal Prohibition Commissioner at Wash- 
ington, D. C, together with Form 141 9. 

"The Federal Prohibition Director will report each month on 
Form 141 9, entering thereon the names and addresses of each drug- 
gist or pharmacist holding permit to dispense liquor on physicians' 
prescriptions. Upon receipt of Forms 141 8 from druggists, the 
Director will enter on Form 141 9 opposite the name of the druggist 
the number of prescriptions fihed during the month, and the quantity 
of each kind of liquor sold. 

"Report on Form 141 9 should be rendered promptly each month, 
not later than the tenth day following the month for which it is 
rendered, notwithstanding the Director may not have received 
Forms 141 8 from all druggists holding permits to dispense liquor on 
physicians' prescriptions. The name of each druggist holding such 
permit must be listed on Form 141 9. 

"When the quantity of liquor sold and the number of prescriptions 
filled cannot be entered on Form 141 9 by reason of the failure of 
druggists to file Form 141 8, the Director will not later than the last 
day of the month render a supplemental report on Form 141 9 of all 
returns on Form 141 8 received by him from druggists after his regu- 
lar report for the month on Form 1 4 1 9 has been rendered. The supple- 
mental report on Form 14 19 must contain a list of all druggists 
listed on the regular report and from whom no return on Form 141 8 
had been received when the regular report on Form 141 9 was made 
by the Director. When a druggist has failed to file his return at 
the end of the month, action should be taken looking to the revoca- 
tion of his permit, unless a good and sufficient reason shall be shown 
for the delinquency in filing his return. 

"When a return on Form 141 8 is not filed with the Director on or 



148 Obligations and Methods of Research, j^'" Mar'chi^Q^o: 

before the tenth of the month by any druggist holding permit, the 
Director will call upon such druggist to render his return on Form 
141 8 at once. 

"Report on Form 141 8 by druggists will not be required for any 
month prior to March, 1920. Reports for March and for each month 
thereafter will be required to be rendered by each person holding 
permit to dispense liquor on physicians' prescriptions. If such per- 
mit is issued to any person during any month, a report must be ren- 
dered by the permittee for the remainder of the month after receiving 
his permit, and for each month thereafter during the life of the 
permit. 

"When the Prohibition Director for the State is not yet appointed 
or whose office is not yet established, the Collector or Collectors of 
Internal Revenue in such State will be required to receive Forms 
1 41 8 from druggists and list the same on Form 1419. 

"Before .supplying druggists with blank copies of Form 141 8, 
following the word "at" and under the words "To Federal Prohibi- 
tion Director," the Director will write or stamp the name of the 
city and state where his own office is located, in order that druggists 
may be advised as to where the report is to be sent. 

"Directors will note on the back of Forms 141 8 the date when re- 
ceived from druggists. This notation may be made with a rubber 
stamp, care being taken to indicate clearly the date when received 
in the Director's office." 



OBLIGATIONS AND METHODS OF RKSEARCH.^ 
By Henry LEFFmann, A.M., M.D., 

lyECTURER ON RESEARCH, PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The primary object of science is the determination of truth. 
It is not essential to this object that the truth shall have an obvious 
value to mankind. The study of the properties of magic squares is, 
from the purely philosophic point of view, as commendable as the 
study of the cause and cure of cancer. It is, however, the dominant 
feature of present science to make it "practical," that is, yielding 
data that can be turned to account either in increase of wealth or 

1 Abstract of an address delivered by invitation at a meeting of the Faculty 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, November 24, 191 9. 



&h!^i9'2":} Obligations and Methods of Research. 149 

increase of comfort and enjoyment. A strong contrast is to be 
noted between the relations of the ancient and modern scientists to 
their respective communities. In ancient times the scientist stood 
apart from the practical life, disdaining, as a rule, the investigation 
of agricultural and industrial problems. Socrates rebuked one of 
his disciples for suggesting that the study of astronomy might have 
practical value in navigation or otherwise. It is pursued, he said, 
as an ennobling influence. To-day, the cause of science is urged 
upon the public almost wholly on the basis that material benefits 
will result from it. The student who enters upon a course of study 
in any science, does so almost always with a practical application in 
view, and this is especially true of the students at professional 
schools. Hence, in the great mass of cases, we pass over the loftier 
aims of science, "pure science," as it is called, and take up the prac- 
tical side, technically known as "applied science." 

There is, however, one sentimental phase that must not be for- 
gotten, namely, that there rests upon every scientific worker the 
duty of contributing something to the stock of knowledge. The 
vast mass of information now available is almost wholly the free 
contribution of previous workers, and every one who practices a pro- 
fession that applies such information, or who pursues the study of 
science for itself alone, should bear in mind the previous workers who 
have handed the torch to him, and should feel the obligation to 
pass it on still brighter to those who come after him. 

It is given, it is true, to but few mortals in any age, to be possessed 
of that special ability which we call genius. It is a term difficult 
to define. Perhaps the only definition available is the merely epi- 
grammatic one that "genius is the infinite capacity for taking trouble." 
It is a great mistake, however, to assume that research can be con- 
ducted only by a favored few. Epoch-making discoveries constitute 
but a small part of the development of science, the greater part of 
its literature is minor detail, the value of which is cumulative. It 
is, therefore, within the power of all to add something to the store. 
Let me indicate some of the lines along which this may be done. 

Every investigation should be preceded by a search in the litera- 
ture. It will often appear that the line intended to be followed will 
be found to have been already surveyed if not actually opened. 
At every turn in science, we are apt to be impressed by the truth of 
Sydney Smith's remark about "those confounded ancients who an- 
ticipated everybody." I recall that some years ago I thought I 



I50 Obligations and Methods of Research, j^"*- ^Sllch^^To': 

had devised a new method of obtaining photographs, the use of a 
gelatin film containing mercurous iodide. I deemed it best, however, 
to make some search in the matter and soon found the process had 
been published eleven years before I was born. It is still more dis- 
appointing to find out that some ancient Greek anticipated one in 
some discovery. 

Yet an important observation must be made here, namely, that 
while the literature of science contains a very large mass of informa- 
tion, it must not be accepted without question. Experience shows 
that even the most capable of investigators may be seriously mis- 
led. This is due to several causes. Preconceived notions often 
blind ablest men to the real facts of the case. The mind too often 
perceives what it wants to perceive. Even in the material environ- 
ment of the analytic laboratory, feeling and prejudice are not wholly 
lacking. A more frequent cause of error is, however, the imper- 
fections of methods of research, and the lack of thoroughness of 
information. Much as one may be astonished in examining the 
literature of a given subject, at the anticipations in results, one is 
often equally astonished at how much is taken for granted, and how 
such assumptions form the basis of further investigations. A 
striking instance of this occurred in the experience of my co-worker, 
Dr. William Beam, and myself. We had devised a process of analy- 
sis which depended on the use of a strong sodium hydroxide in gly- 
cerol, with operation at a moderately high temperature. It was vital 
to the practical value of the process that no decided action should 
take place between the alkali and the solvent, especially that no 
substances of low volatility should be formed. Now Watt's Dic- 
tionary, a well-known and carefully compiled work, stated definitely 
that when glycerol is heated with strong alkali, salts of some of the 
lower fatty acids are formed. If this was true, the process was 
worthless. Careful experiment showed that it was not true. A 
good quality of glycerol heated well above the boiling point of water 
with strong sodium hydroxide solution gave no appreciable traces 
of any of these acids. The explanation of the error is probably 
that the original investigator used, unknowingly, an impure glycerol. 
The observation dated from an early period when the methods of 
preparing and purifying glycerol were but imperfectly known - 
Probably the application of the substance to the manufacture of 
high explosives, in which an exceptionally pure article is needed, 
led mainly to the improvement in the quality of the commercial 



Ma^ch!^ o'io: } Obligations and Methods of Research. 1 5 1 

article. Another example of the liability of initial investigators to 
error is the fact that one of the first tests given for detection of ben- 
zene is due to a then unsuspected impurity — thiophene — in the 
commercial forms of benzene. When this impurity was detected, 
it was found that benzene freed from it does not give the reaction. 
Revision of earlier work is a promising field of minor research. 

Any research of moment involves the preparation of a bibliog- 
raphy, the list of authorities consulted. Much reform is needed 
along this line and I hope those of you who are present will be cru- 
saders in this cause. I am referring to the frequent imperfect and 
erroneous references that one often meets. The most serious omis- 
sion is the year of publication. This is often the most important 
item in the matter, yet many authors neglect it. The volume 
number, if the journal has one — the edition-date in the case of a book 
— must not be omitted. Volume numbers should never be given 
in Roman characters. These are, indeed, not troublesome in the 
smaller amounts, but are exasperating above a score or so. The 
system has nothing to recommend it. British WTiters are very 
fond of it, but the leading British journal for abstracts in chemistry 
— The Journal of the Chemical Society — has long since discarded the 
practice and gives volume number in the common numerals called 
usually Arabic, but believed by many to be of Hindu origin. It is 
gratifying to note that some scientific journals have discarded al- 
together volume numbering, using merely the calendar year. This 
is a move in the right direction. In preparing a bibliography large 
or small, each reference should be verified if possible, if not, a state- 
ment that it is based on a secondary source should be noted. The 
several items of each reference should follow in a uniform order, 
that is, the year should not come first in one item and the volume 
first in another item. Uniformity in this respect gives neatness to 
the page and convenience to the user. 

The English-speaking research worker in any important science 
should be reasonably familiar with French and German. I know, of 
course, that at present there is a feeling of dislike for anything that 
comes from the second source, but in this matter we must be guided 
by self-interest and not by feeling. The ancients knew the value of 
obtaining information from any source, and in the I^atin proverb, 
''Fas est, et ah hostis doceri," "It is allowable to learn from the 
enemy," they expressed the view. Plutarch wrote an essay of the 
same tenor. Great Britain and France have set us examples in this 



1 52 Obligations and Methods of Research. {■^'"- {Jar'chiVg^o: 

respect. Though they have both suffered much more severely 
than we have from the German methods of warfare, they have 
both decided to increase rather than diminish their studies of the 
Hterature of their late enemy. 

Speaking as I am on this occasion to those engaged in active teach- 
ing work, I feel that research in methods of teaching deserves special 
notice, especially as it is often overlooked. There is, in fact, at the 
present time, a tendency to minimize the lecture as a method of 
instruction, and to lay stress almost wholly on the laboratory and 
the practical side. I believe this to be an error. There is no at- 
tribute of humanity higher than intelligent speech, and there is no 
method better adapted to secure and maintain for a reasonable time 
the attention of a group of students than a well delivered lecture. 
I have long felt that our preparatory institutions, particularly those 
engaged in the training of teachers should devote much more time 
than is now devoted to instruction in lecturing. This cannot be 
obtained by the practice of reciting prose or poetry from some stand- 
ard collection but must consist in exercises in speaking without notes, 
or at least with only outline notes, upon some topic for which the 
speaker has made special preparation. A crowd, whether of hood- 
lums or post graduates, has always something of the nature of a 
collection of w^ld animals into which the speaker enters. His safety 
lies largely upon keeping his eyes upon them. In lecturing, clear 
utterance, careful selection of phrases, simple language, are important. 
It is impossible to avoid technical terms in scientific teaching but 
in many cases ordinary words will serve. Illustrations of points by 
experiment are necessary but may be easily overdone. As far as 
the physical sciences are concerned, the laboratory hours afford the 
student much opportunity to perform illustrative experiments, so 
that the lecturer can give more time to explanation and direct state- 
ment. The modern extensive use of the lantern has one serious 
drawback — it keeps the room dark, thus taking away the supervision 
of the teacher and also interfering with note-taking. 

These are some suggestions offered as a brief summary of the aid 
that can be rendered to the advancement of knowledge by those who 
have taken up its study and practice. The opportunities are im- 
mense. They are by no means limited to the abstruse and elaborate 
investigations that are now so regularly contributed by leading 
scientists. The nature of the atom and of force, the existence and 
properties of the ether, the exact determination of atomic weights, 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Notes on Soy Bean Urease. 



153 



these are problems that require extensive equipment, long training- 
and special aptitude, but they constitute only a small portion of the 
field which is everywhere ripe to the harvest, and in which the hum- 
bler gleaner, with ruder tools can labor with benefit to science, 
both in its abstract and applied phases. 

It is, as I said in the beginning, the duty of all to help in collection 
of data, either by adding new facts or correcting old statements or 
even classifying known data, and rendering them more easily un- 
derstood or more accessible. Research should be undertaken in- 
telligently, that is, with some clear object in view. It is true that 
some few important discoveries have been made by what seems to 
be accident, but it will be found that in most cases the discoverer 
was engaged in real and commendable investigation, and was not 
merely working at random. 



NOTES ON SOY BEAN UREASE. 
By Arthur W. Dox, Ph.D., 
iowa state college, ames, iowa. 

An enzyme capable of decomposing urea into ammonium car- 
bonate was discovered in soy beans by Takeuchi^ in 1909. Four 
years later MarshalP worked out a quantitative method for the 
determination of urea in urine by means of soy bean extracts. The 
method consists essentially in titrating the ammonia formed by the 
action of the soy bean extract upon the urea solution, using methyl 
orange as an indicator. Under the conditions described, the re- 
action was quantitative in three hours. A slight error, amounting 
to 0.8 per cent., due to carbon dioxide, was considered negligible 
in clinical work. In a second paper, MarshalP adapts the method 
to the determination of urea in blood, collecting the ammonia by 
aeration. Later, he^ studied the activity of soy bean extracts, as 
affected by dilution, acids, alkalies and ethyl alcohol. 

The properties of soy bean urease have been studied extensively 
' Jour. Coll. Agr. Tokyo., i: i, 1909. 

2 Jour. Biol. Chem., 14: 283-90, 191 3. 

3 Ihid., 15: 487-94, 1913. 
* Ibid., 17: 351-61, 1914. 



154 



Notes on Soy Bean Urease. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



by Van Slyke and CuUen.-^ They found the optimum temperature 
to be about 55° C. Thirty minutes' heating with water at 60° 
was without effect, 30 minutes at 70° destroyed about one-fourth 
of the activity, and at 80° there was complete inactivation. Hy- 
drolysis of urea by urease is not reversible. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to review all of the literature. 
Commercial preparations of purified urease are now on the market 
and are being used extensively in urine analysis. In general it 
appears that urease is most abundant in seeds of high protein con- 
tent, particularly in the Papilionaceae. Its absence, however, has 
been reported in beans, peas, cowpea, velvet bean and sweet pea. 

Incidental to a study of various seeds to discover a possible 
correlation between enzyme activity and germinating power, the 
writer had occasion to compare the urease content of a number of 
soy beans of different varieties and germinating power. The only 
published work along this line appears to be that of Annett,^ who 
examined six varieties of soy beans which he describes as yellow, 
cinnamon, chocolate, spotted, black and Rymbsa Ktang. His 
method consisted in treating 10 g. of powdered seed with 100 Cc. 
distilled water in the presence of toluene for one hour at room tem- 
perature. Two Cc. of the extract were added to 50 Cc. of a i per 
cent, urea solution, the mixture kept at room temperature (about 
27° C), and 5 Cc. aliquots titrated at half -hour intervals, using 
methyl orange as an indicator. The six varieties showed striking 
uniformity. 

In the present work, 5 Gms. of each sample of soy beans were 
ground in a mortar and worked through a 40-mesh sieve. One- 
tenth of a gram of the powder was placed in a small Brlenmeyer 
flask, 15 Cc. distilled water at 40° added, then 10 Cc. of a i per cent, 
urea solution, after which the flask was stoppei'ed and placed in a 
constant temperature bath at 40°. For purposes of comparison it 
was decided to allow the reaction to proceed for a period of time 
sufficient for the hydrolysis of about one-half of the urea. From 
the following table it will be seen that this point is reached in about 
30 minutes. At intervals of ten minutes, one of a series of flasks 
containing the above mixture was removed from the bath and ti- 
trated with decinormal hydrochloric acid, using methyl orange as 
an indicator. A uniform blank of 0.6 Cc. was deducted in each case. 

5 Jour. Biol. Chem., 19: 141-80, 1914. 
^ Biochem. Jour., 8: 449-52, 1914. 



Mar'ch^Y92'S:} Notes OH Soy Beau Urease. 155. 

TABI.E I. 

Seed No. 162,806. o.i Gm. powdered seed, 15 Cc. H2O, 10 Cc. i per cent, 
urea solution, temperature 40°. 



Time in 




Time in 




minutes. 


Cc. iV/10 HCl. 


minutes. 


Cc. iV/10 HCl. 


: 5 


3.6 


70 


26.3 


10 


6.7 


80 


28.5 


20 


10.9 


90 


30.2 





14.8 


100 


31.6 


40 


18.2 


no 


32.7 


50 


21.3 


120 


33-2 


60 


24.2 


130 


33-2 



The theory for 10 Cc. of i per cent, urea is 33.3 Cc. The reaction 
was therefore quantitative in two hours under the conditions of the 
experiment. 

It remained to be determined whether the method of prepara- 
tion of the sample by grinding and sieving was sufficiently uniform 
for comparative tests. Each of the preparations used in the follow- 
ing experiment was ground separately. 

Table II. 

0.1 Gm. powdered seed, 15 Cc. H2O, 10 Cc. i per cent, urea solution, tem- 
perature 40°, time 30 minutes. 

vSeed No. Co. AT/ 10 HCl. vSeed No. Cc. iV/lO HCl. 

9 163115 II-4 



162804 15 

162804 15 

162804 15 

162806 14 

162806 14 

162806 14 

162806 14 



6 163115 II. I 

9 163115 II-3 

4 163115 II. 3 

5 
4 



It is evident from the above that the method of preparation used 
is applicable for purposes of comparison, the greatest variation ob- 
served being 0.4 Cc. for different preparations of the same sample. 

As might be expected, the velocity of the reaction increases with 
rise in temperature, as shown in the following experiment. 

Table III. 

Seed No. 162,902. o.i Gm. powder, 15 Cc. H2O, i Cc. i per cent, urea, 
time, 30 minutes. 

Temperature. Cc. iV/10 HCl. Temperature. Cc. iV/10 HCl. 
20 - 5,2 50 20.8 
30 8.5 60 25.0 
40 14.9 



Notes on Soy Bean Urease. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



The greatest activity is at a temperature above 50° and probably 
below 60°. Van Slyke gives 55° as the optimum. 

In comparing the activity of the different seed samples, o.i 
Gm. of the powdered sample was used in each case, 15 Cc. water and 
10 Cc. of a I per cent, urea solution. After 30 minutes in a bath at 
40°, the mixture was titrated and a blank of 0.6 Cc. deducted. In 
addition to germination tests, nitrogen and moisture were determined 
in the samples. Results are given in the following table. The 
samples were all of the 19 18 crop, with the exception of a and 6, 
which were grown in 19 14. 



TABI.E IV. 



Seed No. 


Variety. 


Cc. 

HCl. 


Cjcritiiii" 
ation 
%. 


Nitrogen 
%. 


Moisture 
%. 


151415 


Black Eyebrow 


20. 2 


87 






151413 


Black Eyebrow 


19.7 


73 


6.35 


6. 24 


151421 


Black Eyebrow 


19. I 


80 


7.12 


6.01 


151416 


Black Eyebrow 


19. I 


41 


6.44 


6.18 


151417 


Black Eyebrow 


18.6 


70 


7.16 


6.36 


151412 


Black Eyebrow 


18.5 


75 


7-49 


6.36 


163336 


Black Eyebrow 


17. I 


61 


7.66 


6.39 


163371 


Black Eyebrow 


17.0 


52 


7.67 


6.15 


1 63 102 


Manchu 


17.0 


92 


6.77 


5 99 


163342 


Black Eyebrow 


16.9 


31 


7.47 


6.31 


a 


Mammoth Yellow 


15-6 


2 


7. II 


5-97 


162806 


Minn. 109 


152 


95 


7.41 


5-51 


I 62801 


Minn. 109 


15-2 


91 


7-30 


6.15 


162804 


Minn. 109 


151 


89 


7.48 


5.60 


162905 


Minn. 1 10 


150 


75 


7.28 


5 96 


162902 


Minn, no 


14.9 


51 


7 .02 


6.08 


151418 


Black Eyebrow 


14.8 


82 


6.49 


6.04 


161201 


Ohio 7403 


14.2 


93 


7 50 


6.03 


161119 


Ohio 9100 


14. 1 


95 


7.91 


6.24 


161101 


Ohio 9100 


134 


92 


7-37 


6.05 


163115 


Manchu 


II-3 


87 


7 05 


5-93 


h 


Wilson 


II . I 


23 


6.68 


6.23 



From the above, it is evident that in the intact seed the urease 
is very stable, and as far as these observations go, its activity bears 
no relation to the germinating power of the seed, nor to the nitrogen 
or moisture content of the latter. 

Fifteen varieties of soy beans, all of the 1919 crop, were then 
tested in the same way. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Canthandes Assay, 



157 



Table V. 





Cc. N/IO 


Germination 


Nitrogen 


Moisture 


Variety. 


HCl. 


%. 


%. 


%. 


Columbia 


18.9 


71 


7 05 


5 .98 


Black Eyebrow 


18.9 


73 


7 • 75 


5 -54 


Chestnut 


17-4 


82 


6 . 30 


6. 15 




17-4 


51 


7 .92 


6.26 


Wilson 


17.3 


81 


7 .92 


6.05 






82 


7-58 


5 ,5a 


Jet 


170 


84 


9.26 


6.80 


Black Sooty 


16.8 


80 


7.42 


6.30 


Ito San 


16.7 


87 


7.98 


569 


Elton 


15-9 


73 


7.84 


6.35 


Wisconsin Black 


157 


51 


8.26 


6.16 


Ebony 


14.6 


67 


8.31 


6.41 




141 


80 


7.89 


6. II 


Minn. 166 


H-i 


51 


7.61 


6.12 


Manchu 


136 


98 


8.09 


536 



It will be seen that some difference exists in the urease activity 
of different varieties of soy beans, but this difference appears to 
bear no relation to the germinating power of the seed or to the pro- 
tein content of the latter. In fact urease may be demonstrated in 
seeds that are practicallly dead, as in the case of sample *'a," Table IV. 

The writer is indebted tc Mr. J. H. Christ, of the Farm Crops 
Dept. of Iowa State College, for making the germination tests. 



CANTHARIDES ASSAY. 
By Louis Du Bois, 
new brunswick, n. j. 

The U. S. P. prior to the present IX edition, contained no standard 
for cantharides and no method for assay. 

For years we have been using in this laboratory a method for the 
determination of the free cantharidin content of cantharides, which 
had been evolved from sources mentioned elsewhere in this article. 
This method has appeared to give satisfactory results both in the 
concordance of the results and in the apparent purity of the resulting 
crystals. 

The report of work along this line, as given herein, is by no means 
final, but it has been considered advisable to publish it for the ob- 
vious reason that the U. S. P. method now official and the results 
from its use seem to be so unsatisfactory in our hands that we believe 
the matter has not been given the attention it deserves. 



158 

U. S. p. Methcd. 

15 grams. 

150 Mils, of a mixture 
of 2 parts of benzene 
and I part purified 
petroleum benzin. 

2 Mils. HCl. 

Let stand over night. 

Gradually warm to 40° 
C. and keep there 3 
hours, with frequent 
shaking. Cool and 
decant off 100 Mils. 

Bvaporate to about 5 
Mils. 

Add 5 Mils. CHCI3 and 
let evaporate in warm 
place. 

Add 10 Mils, of a mix- 
ture of equal parts of 
dehydrated alcohol 
and purified petro- 
leum benzin satur- 
ated with pure can- 
tharidin, let stand 15 
minutes. Decant 
liquid through a pel- 
let of purified cotton 
and reject filtrate. 

Wash crystals with suc- 
cessive portions of 
saturated cantharidin 
solution, prepared as 
directed above, until 
free of coloring 
matter, and pour 
through the same 
pellet of cotton. 

Wash cotton with small 
amount hot CHCI3 
and add washings to 
tarred beaker. 

JBvaporate solvent. 

Dry V2 hour at 60° C. 

Weigh. 

Resulting weight equals 
cantharidin in 10 
grams of cantharidin. 
This should give both 
free and combined can- 
tharidin. 



Cantharides Assay. 
Methods Used. 

Author's Method. 
10 grams. 

30 Mils. CHCI3. 



Let stand over night. 

Shake during several 
hours. 

Filter and wash with 
70 Mils. CHCI3. 



Evaporate on water 
bath. 

Treat residue with 5 
Mils. CS2. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 

Bandin's Method. 
25 grams. 

100 Mils. CHCl,. 



Let stand over night. 

Shake 2 to 3 hours. 

Filter on covered filter. 
Collect 60 Mils, of the 
filtrate representing 
15 grams. 

Evaporate on water 
bath, and proceed just 
the same as the Au- 
thor's Method. 



Transfer to small tarred 
filter paper, 4 cm. 
diameter. 

Wash with 10 Mils. CS2 
in small portions. 



Dry filter at 60° C. 
Weigh. 

Add 0.010 grams for sol- 
vent action of CS2. 



This should give free 
cantharidin. 

To obtain combined as 
well, add 2 Mils. HCl 
to the original chloro- 
form. 



This should give free 
cantharidin. To ob- 
tain combined as well, 
add 2 Mils. HCl to the 
original chloroform. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 

March, 1920.) 



Cantharides Assay, 



159 



The assays were run on two different lots of cantharides used in 
our manufacturing department. 



First Lot: 

U. S. P. Method 0.71% free and combined cantharidin 

Author's Method i-i7% free cantharidin 

Second Lot: 

U. S. P. Method (a) 0.569% free and combined cantharidin 

{h) 0.570% free and combined cantharidin 

Author's Method (a) 0.795% free cantharidin 

{h) 0.810% free cantharidin 

Baudin's Method {a) 0.789% free cantharidin 

(&) 0.753% free cantharidin 



Author's Method Modified {a) 1.73% free and combined cantharidin 

(b) 1.11% free and combined cantharidin 

The method pursued in this laboratory is the one given here under 
the heading "Author's Method." It is the assay method of Baudin 
as given in Hager's "Handbuch der Pharmaceutischen Praxis," Vol. i,; 
page 595, and in Sadtler and Coblentz's "Pharmaceutical and Medi- 
cal Chemistry," Vol. 2, page 226, modified only so as to make it a 
complete extraction method, instead of an aliquot portion method. 
We have nothing now to suggest as to the relative value of these two 
well-known chemical procedures except to express a preference for 
total extraction methods. This does not seem to agree with the 
trend of development of the U. S. P. text. 

A glance at the U. S. P. will leave no doubt that the cantharides 
assay is a very troublesome and difficult procedure. Note the di- 
gestion, maintained at 40° C. for three hours with frequent shaking. 
Note the evaporation to about 5 Mils, and the addition of chloro- 
form to promote crystallization. Note the curious mixtures of 
solvents used — ^benzene and benzin, dehydrated alcohol and ben- 
zin. 

However, the chief objection that we have found with the U. S. P. 
assay method is not the number of manipulations and varieties of 
solvents involved, but that we have been obtaining lower results 
for both "combined and free" cantharidin, by this method than we 
obtain for "free" cantharidin alone by either the Author's or the 
original Baudin Method; and that the resulting crystals are not as 
satisfactory as those obtained by the latter two methods. The 
crystals obtained by both the Author's Method and Baudin's Method 
for free cantharidin are clean, white and well formed. Those we have 
obtained with the U. S. P. assay method have been dark and resinous. 



i6o 



Pepsin Adsorption by Charcoal. 



(Am. 



Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



We have also run assays for total cantharidin (both free and com- 
bined) by modifying both the Author's Method and the method of 
Baudin, by the addition of 2 per cent, of hydrochloric acid to the 
first solvent. * The results by these methods are still higher, but the 
crystals obtained are not as satisfactory as those by the methods for 
free cantharidin alone— the resulting crystals not being as pure and 
free from resinous matter. 
« The U. S, P. makes no reference to the presence of both free and 

combined cantharidin in cantharides ; but the assay given is for both 
the free and combined, hydrochloric acid being added to liberate the 
alkali-combined cantharidin. 

We have never seen any published statement as to whether the 
combined cantharidin has any blistering effect when applied to the 
skin, but have assumed heretofore that the blistering effect is due to 
free cantharidin alone, when the powdered cantharides is used as an 
ingredient of a blistering plaster. It would seem that this also is 
believed to be true in the case of the official tincture where no at- 
tempt is made to liberate the combined cantharidin before making 
the alcoholic extraction. On the other hand, acetic acid has been 
incorporated in the formulas of the other two official cantharides 
preparations, Ceratum Cantharidis and Collodium Cantharidatum. 

Research Laboratory, 
Johnson & Johnson, 

New Brunswick, New Jersey. 



PEPSIN ADSORPTION BY CHARCOAL. 
By Norman D. Keeper, P.D., 

pharmacist, PENNvSYIvVANIA state SANITORIUM FOR TUBERCU1.0SIS, 

MONT ALTO, PA. 

Adsorption, as a phenomenon, has been practiced for centuries, 
b)ut it has only been for the last quarter century that it has been under- 
stood. Adsorption is a condition of distribution, wherein the sur- 
face rather than the dispersed phase plays the important r61e. We 
k:now that bone black is used to bleach dark sugar juices, extract 
fusel oil from alcohol, and decolorize dark solutions of the organic 
chemist. And now we are to learn that any substance which causes 
a marked diminution of surface tension of water, such as fats, soaps, 
albumin, etc., are very readily absorbed. 



^"^ Mar'ch^^92'S:! Pepsiu AdsoYptiofi by CkarcoaL i6i 



Since powdered charcoal is a very good adsorbent, we will start 
our attack upon it and its common accomplice, in the medical pro- 
fession. Charcoal and pepsin is a very frequent combination dis- 
pensed by prescriptionists, as well as put up in tablet and capsule 
form by w^holesalers. While it is advised therapeutically that pep- 
sin be given alone and not in combinations for fear of its chemical 
incompatibility; in this instance no chemical reaction occurs, but 
an adsorption of pepsin by the charcoal as soon as the two substances 
are moistened. 

To prove this adsorption, two samples of pepsin, a powdered and 
a granular grade, were first tested by the U. S. P. method of assay 
and found to be of i : 3000 strength or U. S. P. As our present 
day pepsin is an enzyme in combination with albumin (mostly 
albumin) it wiU readily give an albumin test, when the top layer of 
an acid solution is heated in a test tube over a flame. (Same as heat 
test for albumin in urine.) By filtering this acid solution, which is of 
pepsin and acid strength according to U. S. P. assay, through char- 
coal, the filtrate will be free from albumin. This charcoal-filtered 
solution was tested on freshly-coagulated albumin according to 
U. S. P. assay and found to assay i : 300. This value, I believe, 
could be lowered considerably, by better filtration as only ordinary 
filter paper was used. 

Next a group of tests were made with 0.5 Gm. of charcoal in 
100 Mils, of the U. S. P. test solution. This charcoal-containing 
solution assayed to about i : 500 as near as could be estimated; 
the charcoal making the end reaction indistinct. This group of 
tests was made to ascertain what action might be expected to occur 
in the stomach, when about the same proportions of each drug are 
dispensed in tablet form. 

Since this adsorption by charcoal is a very rapid process, it can 
be readily seen that pepsin-charcoal combinations, in tablet or 
capsule form, will as soon as moistened (in the process of dissolving) 
begin the adsorption reaction. An easy example of this can be 
shown by dissolving a few charcoal and pepsin tablets in 0.2 per 
cent, hydrochloric acid, filtering the solution, and testing filtrate 
for albumin; this will prove the albuminous enzyme is absent. 

From these experiments and deductions it can be readily seen 
that all our former therapeutics concerning these two drugs, when 
used together, has been at fault. 

While on this subject of adsorption, it might be well to state some 



i62 Formula for Magma Magnesia. j^"- {Ja^ch^^lTJo: 

of the more recent uses of charcoal as an adsorbent. Charcoal was 
used very extensively in the war as an adsorbent in the gas-mask. 
It was also used in the treatment of severe enteric infections such 
as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid. The results were very gratifying, 
for it not only acts as an adsorbent of toxins produced by the in- 
fectious agent, but by adsorbing the bacteria themselves. Charcoal 
in large doses has yielded good results in hyperchlorhydria and fer- 
mentation. Lichtwitz overcomes obesity by administering charcoal 
in such amounts to satisfy the pangs of hunger, and at the same time 
it removes the acids and enzymes from the system, and diets the 
patient. Sterile charcoal has been used in purulent and dissection 
wounds as well as in exuberant carcinomata. 

A good effect was obtained by administering charcoal impregnated 
with iodine and thymol in the treatment of typhoid. A preparation 
of charcoal impregnated with sulphur is used as a mild laxative, 
which at the same time relieves flatulence by adsorption of putre- 
factive material and bacteria. 



A MODIFIED FORMULA FOR MAGMA MAGNESIA. 
By Bertha Mueller, 
assistant pharmacist at the lankenau hospital, philadelphia, pa. 

At the present time, pharmacists are being invited to give help- 
ful suggestions for the coming pharmacopoeia, in order to make the 
book even more successful than its predecessors have been. It 
might be pertinent, therefore, to point out that one of the greatest 
factors contributing toward such success must perforce be simplicity 
in technic of working-formulas. 

The manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations constitutes a 
most interesting piece of work, and it cannot be reiterated too often 
that pharmacists ought to do as much of their own manufacturing" 
as possible, if for no other reason than that of pleasant diversion from 
dull routine. And pharmacists, no doubt, would do more of their 
own manufacturing if it did not in many instances involve an undue 
amount of time and labor to make a comparatively simple prepara- 
tion. Hence, it has ever been the ambition of the writer to try to 
simplify the technic in complicated working-formulas wherever it 



Mar'ch!^9'2o:} Formula for Magma Magnesia. 1 63 

seemed possible to do so without harmful effect on the finished 
product. 

This has again led to some work on Magma Magnesia. This 
preparation promises to become ever more popular as time goes on, 
and it must be conceded that neither of the two formulas that have 
been made official are entirely satisfactory because they involve too 
great an expenditure of time, money, and labor. It is not the 
writer's object to go further into detail on this point than to draw 
attention to the fact that the one great drawback in these formulas 
is the washing process. It is costly and time-consuming. 

A pharmacist must either prepare the water for washing the mag- 
ma or he must use distilled water. The former involves time and 
labor; the latter expense. Since pharmacists usually buy their 
distilled water, they would hardly feel that it pays them to 
use it in such immense quantities as are required for the washing of 
this preparation. A formula, therefore, that does away with this 
washing process should prove of considerable value. Such a formula 
was advanced some years ago by F. C. Weber, who, according to 
the Proc. of the P. P. A., for 1915, mentions Calcined Magnesia as 
yielding a satisfactory magma, and gives formula and directions for 
preparing the same. 

Light Magnesium Oxide U. S. P. is without doubt a most satis- 
factory chemical for this purpose. It yields a magma which stands 
up splendidly, does not cake on long standing, pours easily, is beau- 
tifully smooth and^hite and is free from disagreeable taste. It 
must be remembered, however, that in order to have good results 
the chemical must be of U. S. P. standard. 

The simplified formula advanced was tried out by us at the time ; 
but it was not wholly satisfactory because of the property possessed 
by light magnesium oxide to gelatinize when mixed with water 
per se. This is a disadvantage, as the solidified mass thus formed 
is not easily broken up into a smooth magma. In order to overcome 
this undesirable feature, experiments were carried on with water 
containing a small percentage of some chemical. Various chemicals 
were tried out in that way. Ultimately it was found that lime water 
U. S. P. was the best solution for the purpose, as it prevents gelatini- 
zation and in its stead brings about a gradual thickening of the mix- 
ture. 

The following formula has been used by us for some time and has 
always given satisfactory results: 



164 



Formula for Magma Magnesia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920 



Light Magnesium Oxide, U. S. P 60.00 

Lime Water, U. S. P. to make 1000.00 

Gradually and with constant stirring add the light magnesium 
oxide to about 800 Mils, of lime water contained in a graduate or a 
graduated wide mouthed jar. Mix thoroughly and bring up to 1000 
Mils, with lime water, then pour into a bottle of the capacity of about 
two liters. Stopper the bottle and shake vigorously, at frequent 
intervals, until the mixture has thickened properly. 

It has been our experience that vigorous shaking at frequent 
intervals hastens thickening of the magma. This is especially true 
if a bottle is used that holds considerably more than the amount of 
magma to be manufactured. If these requirements are carried 
out a splendid magma can be prepared within three days' time. 
It does seem strange, but it is a fact that rubbing the magma up 
in a mortar does not hasten its thickening nor is the finished product 
in any way superior to the one prepared according to above direc- 
tions. 

Another thing that might prove of interest is the corking of 
magma magnesia. It is common knowledge that ordinary corks are 
quickly acted upon by the alkaline mixture, causing them to turn 
dark, with the result that the magma is stained dark where it comes 
in contact with the cork. This unsightly appearance in the neck 
of the bottle can be avoided if the cork is given a protective coating 
of parafiine previous to its use. A cork thus protected can be used 
for months without causing the slightest discoloration. 

It may be stated that though this chemical is much more expen- 
sive than magnesium sulphate, the quantity required for one liter of 
the preparation does not cost more than the sum total of the chem- 
icals that enter into the same amount of magma prepared according 
to either of the formulas that have been officially recognized. 
This striking fact was brought out by an estimate made according 
to a price list for February, 1920, issued by a large chemical manu- 
facturing firm. According to this price list, the cost of the chemicals 
for one liter of magma magnesia, U. S. P. formula, amounts to 
from twelve and one-half to thirteen cents. The cost of the chemi- 
cals according to the N. F. formula amounts to about fifteen cents, 
and that of the formula given above to about twelve and one- 
half cents. From this it can readily be seen that the distilled water 
required for washing the magma comes very much higher than the 
chemicals do. 



Mar'ch^Y92": } Suggestiofis foY National Formulary. .i 65 



SUGGESTIONS FOR THE REVISION OF THE NATIONAL 
FORMULARY, FOURTH EDITION. 

By Gkorge E. E^we, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



We are approaching the regular period for a revision of the 
National Formulary, and therefore suggestions for revision are 
pertinent at this time. 

The present edition has rendered almost perfectly satisfactory 
service as a standard for the quality of the materials used in the 
compounding of medicinal preparations, which enjoy common usage, 
and as a standard for the methods of compounding and standardizing 
these preparations. So satisfactory has been that service, that it is 
with hesitation that I take up the task of presenting a few criticisms 
of the present edition, and also some suggestions for improvements 
for consideration in connection with the coming revision. 

Absolutely no important defect in the present edition has pre- 
sented itself to the writer. The suggestions made in this paper relate 
chiefly to minor improvements which may be of assistance in per- 
mitting the next edition to render even more satisfactory service than 
the present one. 

ADMISSIONS. 

Upon the matter of admissions, very much can be said. Sug- 
gestions from individuals for admission of specific preparations and 
substances, in the absence of a general concurrent opinion, neces- 
sarily carry but little weight. A broad scientific method of ac- 
curately ascertaining the need of admitting items is urgently re- 
quired. 

The following plan is herewith submitted with the belief that if 
put into operation more accurate information regarding appropriate 
admissions into the N. P\ will be ascertained than is possible through 
suggestions by individuals or organizations of limited scope: 

In the Case of Chemicals: Data for basing decision for admission. — 
Lists of purchases of chemicals by the large and more representative 
drug trade jobbers and pharmaceutical manufacturers should be 
obtained. The output of chemical manufacturers should not be 
included unless the manufacturer supplies only medicinal chemicals 
or unless the manufacturer presents a list showing only his output 
of medicinal chemicals. 



1 66 Suggestions for National Formulary. j^™- {?ar'ch!*'i9'2o: 

The lists should include all N. F. and all important and widely- 
demanded chemicals, and must be kept strictly confidential by the 
Revision Committee. Purchases by jobbers and pharmaceutical 
manufacturers are suggested because these records are readily 
available, whereas output could not be obtained because of the di- 
versions of a lot of chemicals to innumerable uses. A period of not 
less than two years should be considered as a basis for collection of 
data, as this is required to obtain an average. 

Basis of decision: The items on the individual lists should be 
placed in classes based upon their dosage. Where output or pur- 
chase of non-official chemicals is greater than the output of N. F. 
chemicals of the same general dosage, the non-official chemicals 
should, be placed in a class to be considered for admission to the 
N. F. Then the results of classification of all of the individual lists 
should be harmonized and chemicals thus selected should be se- 
riously considered for admission to the N. F. 

In the Case of Crude Drugs: Data for basing decision for admis- 
sion. — Lists of purchases of crude drugs by larger drug trade job- 
bers and pharmaceutical manufacturers should be obtained. The 
output of a collecting house should not be considered unless the out- 
put is solely for medicinal purposes or the list specifies only the part 
of the output which was diverted to medicinal purposes. The lists 
should include all N. F. and all important and widely demanded 
crude drugs and must be considered strictly confidential by the Re- 
vision Committee. Purchases by jobbers and pharmaceutical manu- 
facturers are suggested for the same reasons as mentioned under 
"chemicals" above. A period of not less than two years should be 
considered as a basis for collection of data, in order to obtain an 
average, because some supplies of crude drugs are purchased quite 
infrequently. 

Basis of decision: As mentioned above, under "chemicals." 
In the Case of Pharmaceutical Products: Data for basing de- 
cision for admission. — Lists of purchases by jobbers and output of 
manufacturers. The lists should include all N. F. and all important 
and widely demanded products, and must be considered strictly con- 
fidential by the Revision Committee. Purchases by jobbers and 
output of manufacturers are suggested, because these records are 
readily available. A period of not less than two years is desired for 
the collection of data, because the number of lots of any one prepara- 
tion made up during one year is too small for average purposes. 



Ma?ch!V92o:) Suggestions for National Formulary. 167 

Basis of decision for admission: Same as above under "chemi- 
cals." 

In choosing the manufacturers and jobbers for cooperation in 
this plan, efforts should be made to have all sections of the United 
States and its possessions represented. 

This plan is dependent entirely upon the acquisition of the co- 
operation of drug manufacturers, collectors, and jobbers. 

Cooperation may possibly be obtained from many manufacturers, 
collectors, and jobbers upon formal request. Information offered 
must necessarily be considered strictly confidential and public ac- 
knowledgment of the assistance rendered should be made by the 
Revision Committee. 

DE1.KT10NS. 

A broad scientific plan of ascertaining the advisability of de- 
leting items from the N. F. is also urgently needed. Such a plan 
would result from the adoption of the above-mentioned plan for 
ascertaining the need for admitting items, as those N. F. items en- 
joying onlv small output by manufacturers and small purchases by 
jobbers, in comparison with the items being heavily manufactured 
and purchased, would naturally become candidates for deletion. 

METHOD OF KEEPING THE N. F. WITHIN EASHvY HAN DAB LE SIZE- 

The less potent, less important, and less commonly used sub- 
stances could be continued in the following edition, merely by name 
and by referring to the previous edition for descriptions of the 
methods and tests. Any required additional tests, or modifications 
of previous tests could be included under the name in the following 
edition and any deletions of previous tests could also be recorded 
there. 

CHEMICALS. 

Manganese Glycerophosphate Soluble. — This product consists of a 
mixture of 70 parts of Manganese Glycerophosphate and 30 parts of 
citric acid. Manufacturers of Manganese Glycerophosphate ob- 
ject to mixing their product with citric acid, therefore this product 
is not generally available. A formula for its manufacture should 
be included in the N. F. and the pres€'.nt monograph for this product 
should be adapted to plain Manganese Glycerophosphate, which 
also should be admitted to the N. F. 



Quinine Formate. — The use of this substance is rapidly increasing 
and standards should be established for purposes of uniformity. 



1 68 Suggestions for National Formulary. {^™- ^^Jch^^": 

The majority of quinine formate on the market contains water 
of crystalHzation equivalent to about 5 per cent, of its weight. The 
melting intervals vary greatly. The quinine content is perfectly 
satisfactory, as all samples assay 100 per cent, or slightly over, of 
anhydrous quinine formate when the salt is dried at 100° C. and 
assayed for quinine alkaloid. 

The following results were obtained on 6 lots examined during 
the past two years: 



Sample No. Loss at 100° C. Melting Interval. 

1 I20-I22 ° C. (Not dried; 

2 124-126° C. (Not dried) 

3 145-150° C. (Not dried) 

4 5 .32% 169-171° C. (Dried) 

5 5 00% 155-156° C. (Dried) 

6 4 20 153-154° C. (Dried) 



CRUDE DRUGS FOR WHICH NO PRACTlCAI^ CHEMICAL OR PHYSIOLOGIC 
METHODS OF STANDARDIZATION ARE AVAILABLE. 

Standards based upon the amount of soluble matter, extracted 
by the menstrum used in preparing fluid extract or tincture from the 
drug, should be adopted in order to establish uniformity in the use 
of these naturally variable medicinal substances. Limits which will 
include all natural variations should be established and an average 
adopted upon which the proportionate use of the drug must be based. 
These standards constitute the familiar "extractive standards" 
and no difficulty should be experienced by the Revision Committee 
in obtaining satisfactory data for the establishment of these stand- 
ards, from the scientific laboratories of pharmaceutical manufac- 
turing companies, who exercise scientific control of manufacture and 
also from other scientific sources. 

EXTRACTS. 

Extract Euonymtis. — Very little of this extract is used and dele- 
tion is suggested, or continuance in the next edition by name only 
with reference to the present edition. 

Extract Hematoxylon. — The remarks under Extract Euonymus 
also apply to this Extract. 

Extract Jalap. — An assay process and standard might be in- 
cluded in the next edition for this product, for the purpose of es- 
tablishing uniformity in market supplies. 



^""^ Ma?ch!^?2o:} Suggestions for National Formulary. 169 

The following process based upon the U. S. P. assay process for 
Jalap has yielded excellent results: 

Assay for total resins: Sample about 2.5 Gms., accurately 
weighed. Place the sample in an Erlenmeyer flask; add 75 Mils, of 
95 per cent, alcohol and heat on steam bath for four hours, using a 
funnel in the neck of the flask as reflux condenser. Wash into a 
100 mil. volumetric flask, cool, dilute to 100 Mils, with 95 per cent, 
alcohol, mix well, filter and place 20 Mils, of the filtrate (equivalent 
to of the sample originally weighed out) into a separator and 
finish like Jalap U. S. P. 

Standard: Years of experience has shown that 28 per cent, 
total resins is a perfectly satisfactory standard, is practically at- 
tainable, and the trade is familiar with the therapeutic strength of an 
extract containing this percentage of total resins. 

Extract Podophyllum. Stsindsirdization of this extract is to be 
desired in order to establish uniformity in market supplies, 

The following method has yielded satisfactory results for pur- 
poses of standardization, but it does not yield total results as ex- 
plained below: 

Sample about 2 Gms., accurately weighed. Boil in 20 Mils, of 
alcohol until dissolved. Filter, if necessary. Evaporate the fil- 
trate in a 200 Mils, beaker to the consistency of a thin syrup. Pour 
10 Mils, of ice water, containing o.i Mil. of concentrated hydrochloi-ic 
acid into the thin syrupy concentrate and stir until all the lumps 
of resin disintegrate. Immediately filter off the precipitated resin 
while still ice cold on a counterpoised filter using suction, and wash 
the beaker, resin and filter with not more than 25 Mils, of ice water. 
Dry the filter and resin on a watch glass at 100° C. to constant 
weight. 

This assay process is exactly similar to the U. S. P. assay method 
for podophyllum, with the exception that it is arranged for analy- 
tical procedure instead of for manufacturing pcocedure, and the 
resin is finally dried at 100° C. instead of being allowed to dry spon- 
taneously. The spontaneous drying of this resin is a tedious and 
needless process, since air-dried podophyllin contains only around 
4 per cent, of moisture as a rule. I have ascertained this by de- 
termining the moisture in many commercial lots of U. S. P. resin 
podophyllin, and have also determined it by permitting resin podo- 
phyllin obtained upon assay of this extract to dry spontaneously 
and then running a moisture determination on it. 



lyo Suggestions for National Formulary. {^"^ MaJ-ciT^^iyTo. 

This resin precipitation method is not all that could be desired 
since it consists of the precipitation of a partially water-soluble 
resin by water, and therefore the results are low. A much more 
accurate and consistent method is the "shake out" method proposed 
for Fluid Extract Podophyllum by W. M. Jenkins in The Journal of 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, p. 671, 19 14. This "shake 
out" method gives higher results than the precipitation method, 
because total results are obtained and the resultant resin answers 
all U. S. P. requirements for Resin Podophyllin. 

A perfectly satisfactory standard is: 17 per cent, resin. This 
standard is based upon practical attainment, and the trad^ is fa- 
miliar with an extract of this strength. 

FLUID EXTRACTvS. 

FLUID EXTRACTS FOR WHICH NO PRACTICAL CHEMICAL OR PHYSIO- 
LOGIC METHODS OF STANDARDIZATION ARE AVAILABLE. 

Standards based upon the average amount of soluble matter ex- 
tracted from the drug by the menstruum should be adopted in order 
to establish uniformity in market supplies. These standards con- 
stitute the famihar "extractive standards," and no difficulty should 
be experienced by the Revision Committee in obtaining satisfactory 
data for the establishment of these standards, from the laboratories 
of pharmaceutical manufacturing companies who practice scientific 
control of manufacture and also from other scientific sources. 

Extract Chirata. — There is practically no demand for this product 
and deletion is suggested or continuance in the next edition by name 
only and reference to the present edition. 

Fluid Extract Conium. — The substitution of sulphuric acid for 
the acetic acid of the present fox'mula and direct percolation to yield, 
is to be recommended. 

The use of 2^/4 per cent, of a 10 per cent, solution of sulphuric 
acid has been found superior, in practice, to the acetic acid now 
prescribed, as the sulphuric acid is not volatile and holds the alkaloid 
in solution more efficiently. Slow, careful, direct percolation to 
yield gives practical exhaustion when acetic acid is used, as any 
alkaloid extracted by extra percolation will be largely lost when the 
extra percolate is concentrated in preparation for its addition to the 
bulk of the percolate. 

When sulphuric acid is employed, extra percolation may be 



^'"^ Ma?ch!^r92o:} Suggestions for National Formulary. 171 

productive of benefit, but even then it is usually more practical to 
merely obtain the yield of fluid extract by slow, careful, direct 
percolation to yield. 

Fluid Extract Cubeb. — An assay based on the U. S. P. process 
for the determination of "volatile extractive, soluble in ether," 
in the crude drug, might be included in the next edition, in order to 
establish uniformity in the market supplies of this fluid extract. 
The following method has yielded excellent results for purposes of 
standardization : 

Sample 10 Mils. Place on 10 Gms. of oak sawdust contained in 
a 6-inch evaporating dish. Mix well and allow to dry spontaneously 
for exactly six hours at room temperature, stirring occasionally. 
Place impregnated sawdust in a bottle. Add 100 Mils, of ether, 
which has been previously dried over anhydrous calcium chloride. 
Shake the bottle and contents for four hours. Filter off a 50 Mils, 
aliquot and place it in a 250 Mils, beaker, allowing the ether to evap- 
orate spontaneously, and as soon as all the ether is off, place the beaker 
in a sulphuric acid desiccator and allow it to remain there for ex- 
actly 18 hours. Weigh. Then place the beaker in an oven at 
110° C. until the weight is constant. The loss in weight during the 
heating represents "volatile extractive, soluble in ether." 

A standard of not less than 8 Gms. of "volatile extractive, soluble 
in ether" per 100 Mils, of fluid extract would answer all standardiza- 
tion purposes. 

The standard for crude drug is 10 per cent., but it is not practical 
to completely exhaust the drug. 

Fluid Extract Jalap. — An assay process and standard for total 
resins might be included in the next edition in order to establish 
uniformity in market supplies of this product. 

The following assay process, based upon the U. S. P. assay 
process for Jalap drug, has rendered excellent service : 

vSample 10 Mils. Dilute with alcohol to 100 Mils. Place 20 
Mils, of this dilution (corresponding to 2 Mils, of fluid extract) in a 
separator and proceed as in the assay of Jalap U. S. P. 

As tandard of 7 Gms. total resins per 100 Mils, can be recommended 
as being commercially obtainable, and representing the drug, Gm. 
per Mil. ; the U. S. P. standard for the drug being 7 per cent, total 
resins. 



172 Suggestions for National Formulary. {^"- Ma?ch!V92o: 

Fluid Extract Kola. — Standardization is to be recommended for 
this product, so as to establish uniformity in market suppUes. 

The assay method for caffeine in Fluid Extract Guarana U. S. P. 
is also applicable to the assay of this fluid extract. 

A standard of 0.9-1.1 Gms. caffeine per 100 Mils, is satisfactory, 
because it is based upon practical attainment and is familiar to the 
trade. 

Fluid Extracts Matico, Mezerium and Quercus. — Deletion of these 
fluid extracts is suggested. The remarks under Fluid Extract 
Chirata also apply to these fluid extracts. 

Fluid Extract Sanguinaria. — Standardization is to be recom- 
mended in order to establish uniformity in market supplies. 

The following assay process has rendered excellent service for 
purposes of standardization: 

Place exactly 5 Mils, of Fluid Extract Sanguinaria on 10 Gms. 
of oak sawdust. Allow to dry spontaneously in a warm place. 
Place the impregnated sawdust in a bottle. Add 100 Mils, of ether 
and 10 Mils, of 10 per cent, ammonia water. Shake the bottle and 
contents for four hours. Filter off an aliquot. Shake out with i 
per cent, sulphuric aid. Make aci^" extractions alkaline with 10 
per cent, ammonia water and extinct with ether. Evaporate ether 
extractions, dry residue at 80° C. and weigh as alkaloids. 

Standard: 2.5 Gms. alkaloids per 100 Mils. 

This standard is based on practical attainment, and the trade is 
perfectly familiar with fluid extract of this strength. 

The assay process described above is the typical "immiscible 
solvent gravimetric alkaloidal assay" process. The only specific 
feature is the use of i per cent, sulphuric acid solution for extrac- 
tion; weaker acid may be used, but 2 per cent, acid results in pre- 
cipitation of alkaloidal sulphate which greatly interferes with drawing 
the acid extractions off from the separator. 

SYRUPS. 

Syrup lodotannin. — An assay for iodine is desirable, because it 
is necessary to use heat in the preparation of this syrup, while the 
iodine is still in a free condition. A standard for iodine content will 
insure uniformity in market supplies of this syrup. 



Ma^ch!^92o:} Suggestions for National Formulary. 173 

A satisfactory method of assay, which consists essentially of a 
modification of direct titration of iodides by N/io silver nitrate and 
potassium sulphocyanide, is outlined in my "Laboratory Notes," 
on page 175 of the 19 19 Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 

TINCTURES. 

TINCTURES FOR WHICH NO PRACTICAI^ CHEMICAL OR PHYSIOI.OGIC 
METHODS OF STANDARDIZATION ARE AVAILABI^E. 

The remarks above under "fluid extracts for which no practical 
chemical or physiologic methods of standardization are available" 
also apply to these tinctures. 

Alcohol Percentages of N. F. Preparations. — A list of alcohol 
percentages of N. F. preparations is desirable as being of assistance 
in preventing incompatibilities in manufacturing preparations and 
in compounding prescriptions. 

The Revision Committee should experience no difficulty in ob- 
taining satisfactory data for the establishment of these standards 
from the laboratories of pharmaceutical manufacturing companies 
which exercise scientific control of manufacture and also from other 
scientific sources. 

TEST FOR HEAVY METAI.S. 

The N. F., 4th edition, test for heavy metals makes no provision 
for those heavy metals beyond the lead and arsenic groups, prin- 
cipally zinc. The following modification is suggested: 

Between the phrases "and again set aside for half an hour" and 
"The color produced, if any, etc.", add "evaporate to dryness. 
Redissolve residue in i Mil. of diluted hydrochloric acid, dilute with 
10 Mils, of water, filter, make the filtrate alkaline with ammonia 
water, boil until nearly free from ammonia, filter, wash filter with 
enough distilled water to obtain 10 Mils, of filtrate, add i Mil. of am- 
monia water followed by distilled water q. s. 20 Mils, and saturate 
with H2S gas." Add the phrase "either by the hydrogen sulphide 
T. S. or the H2S gas," after "The color produced." 

Pharmacrutical Research Laboratory, 
H. K. MuLFORD Company, 
PhiIvAdeIvPHIA, Pa. 



174 



The Manna of Scripture. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



THE MANNA OF SCRIPTURE.* 
By E. M. H01.MES, F.L.S. 

The recent discussion in The Chemist and Druggist concerning 
the nature and origin of the manna of the Israehtes has led me to 
venture to express the opinion of a botanist on the subject, for to a 
student of that science, especially to an economic botanist, the sub- 
ject presents an exceedingly interesting problem. 

The description given by the Jewish historian in the Pentateuch 
does not exactly fit in with any known vegetable production, and 
the various plants or plant products with which manna has been 
doubtfully identified from time to time cannot reasonably be con- 
sidered by any botanist to meet the requirements of the case. 

The plant that has most generally been accepted as being the 
manna of Scripture is a lichen, Lecanora esculenta, var. mannifera, 
Ehrenb., which is abundant on stones and rocks, and in certain 
stages of its growth is broken up by drought and violent winds into 
small particles, which collect in quantity under the lee of small 
bushes which arrest its career, or is carried away by rainstorms and 
deposited in wave-like furrows in sandy desert ground in consider- 
able quantities. An illustration of this plant is given in Kerner and 
Oliver's "Natural History of Plants," Vol. I, p. 195, and a description 
of its curious growth and distribution in Vol. II, pp. 810, 811. Two 
other species are mentioned as being found mixed with it — viz., 
Lecanora desertorum and Lecanora Jussufii. 

Lecanora esctdenta is abundant from Persia and Asia Minor to 
Algeria and the Sahara in North Africa. But this lichen differs 
from manna in not appearing with the dew, not breeding worms 
and not stinking if kept for two days. I have had a specimen of 
it in my possession for over thirty years, and it is as hard and solid 
as when it first came into my possession. It is obvious, therefore, 
that it cannot be the manna of Scripture, as it does not possess any 
of its characters. It may be useful to quote here the actual descrip- 
tions given in the Pentateuch of the appearance of manna. The 
best account of it occurs in Exodus xvi, 14-36, which reads thus: 
"And when the dew was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wil- 
derness a small round (or flake), small as the hoar frost upon the 
ground " Moses said, "Gather ye of it every man accord- 

* The Chemist and Druggist, January 3, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



The Manna of Scripture. 



175 



ing to his eatings;" and added, "Let no man leave of it till the morn- 
ing." But some of them left it till the morning, and it bred worms 
and stank. When the sun waxed hot it melted. . . . "And the 
house of Israel called the name thereof 'Manna:' and it was like 
coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with 
honey." 

The description given of it in Numbers xi, 7-9, is slightly different : 
"The manna was like coriander seed and the eye thereof as the 
appearance of bdellium. The people went about and gathered it 
and ground it in mills or beat it in mortars and seethed it in pots 
and made cakes of it, and the taste thereof was as the taste of fresh 
oil. And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night the manna 
fell upon it." 

It is obvious to any cryptogamic botanist that these characters 
belong to fungi rather than to lichens. Everyone familiar with 
British fungi knows how rapidly, even in our own temperate cli- 
mate, many of the softer agarics become full of the grubs or larvae, 
of small flies or beetles, and how rapidly fungi grow when the con- 
ditions of warmth and moisture are suitable for their development. 
Melting in the sun (or as soon as the spores are mature) is a familiar 
phenomenon in our country in the case, for instance, of Coprintis 
atramentarius, which derives its specific name from the fact that 
the plant deliquesces into a black, inky fluid. The same genus also 
provides the edible species, Coprimis comatus. To mycologists, 
also, the gregarious character of many fungi is well known. I 
remember, some years ago, noticing on Saunton Sands, in North 
Devon, that apparently the ground was scattered all over in one 
place with what looked like bleached rabbit's dung, each nodule of 
which had a dark point in its centre, on stooping to take up one 
nodule to ascertain the cause of this appearance, it came up in my 
hand with a stalk of about six times its length, which had been 
immersed in the sand, and it proved to be the rare fungus Tulostoma 
mammositm. This may have some bearing on the statement that 
the eye or "appearance of manna was as the appearance of bdel- 
lium" (Numbers xi, 7), which may have indicated that the manna 
grains had a dark central vSpot. 

The other substances which have been suggested as being the 
manna of Scripture are described in "Pharmacographia" (2nd ed.), 
pp. 414-416, and in Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible," 1865, p. 
512; but these cannot possibly be regarded as answering to the 



176 



The Manna oj Scripture. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 1920. 



biblical description, since they are saccharine exudations from 
bushes or small trees, used when cleaned, like honey, to sweeten 
farinaceous cakes, but never made into cakes by themselves. Thus^ 
although the tamarix manna, from Tamarix Gallica, var. mannifera, 
Ehrenb., is found in June, July and August, caused by the puncture 
of an insect, Coccus manniparus, Bhrenb., occurs in the peninsula 
of Sinai; the name manna (meaning, What is it?) would hardly 
have been applied to it by the Israelites when they could see its 
source. Indeed, the Arabs call it Gazangabin, meaning tamarisk 
honey, not manna. Moreover, these saccharine exudations do not 
breed worms and stink in two days, for specimens of them in the 
Hanbury Collection of Materia Medica, at 17 Bloomsbury Square 
have remained there unchanged for nearly forty years. When, 
therefore, soon after the publication of Mr. A. T. Swann's book on 
"Fighting the Slave-driver in Central Africa" appeared, I read his 
account of the manna that he saw on the plateau between the lakes 
Tanganyika and Nyasa, I recognized at once that the description he 
gives of it agrees almost word for word with the biblical account of 
manna, and I therefore wrote and asked Mr. Swann if he could, 
through any friends there, or travelers going to that region, obtain 
for me some of the plant, preserved in spirit or solution of corrosive 
sublimate, which presumably most medical missionaries take with 
them. In reply, he kindly promised to take the first opportunity 
that occurred to endeavor to get a specimen, but whether the op- 
portunity never occurred or the promise slipped from his memory, 
I was unable to ascertain, since shortly afterwards I lost the mem- 
orandum of the name of the book and the author's name and ad- 
dress, and although I searched through a number of books on Af- 
rican travels I could not find the passage again until I saw a reference 
to it in the C. & D. in "Xrayser II's" note on manna a week or two 
ago, and now I cherish the hope that before my days are ended, 
I may yet be able to solve this riddle of the ages, or to see it solved by 
some other cryptogamic botanist; for I feel convinced that manna is 
a fungus hitherto undescribed and belonging possibly to a new 
genus. At all events, I intend to hang on to the trail I had lost until 
the enigma is solved. It may be interesting to quote here Mr. 
Swann's description of manna, word for word, for comparison with 
the biblical description already quoted {loc. cit., p. 116): 

"It was whilst passing through this district (the high plateau 
which separates the lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa), composed mostly 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



The Manna of Scripture. 



177 



of sand stone and granite, and occupied by the Amambwi tribe, that 
I was shown a very curious white substance very similar to porridge. 
It was found early in the morning before the sun rose. On examina- 
tion it was found to possess all the characteristics of the manna 
which is said to have fallen for the benefit of the Israelites. In 
appearance it resembled coriander seed, was white in color, like hoar 
frost, sweet to the taste, melted in the sun, and if kept overnight was 
full of worms in the morning. The natives were not allowed to 
gather it without asking permission from the chief. It required to 
be baked if you intended to keep it any length of time. This sub- 
stance was seen some years afterwards in the same district by several 
Europeans now living (1910), who can vouch for the accuracy of 
my description of this food. When asked what it was and where 
it came from the natives replied, 'It's the food of God. No one 
knows where it comes from.' I have never seen or heard of it in 
any other part of the world, although it may be known to others. 
A cake of it was baked and sent to England, but no one appeared 
able to determine its identity. It looked as if it was deposited on the 
ground in the night, but in what manner I was never able to as- 
certain. No holes could be found in the ground near it or one 
might have concluded that insects unearthed it during the night. 
The only suggestion I could think of was that it might be a mush- 
room spawn, as on the spot where it melted tiny fungi sprung up 
the next night." 

During the last few days I have had the privilege of conversing 
with a medical missionary. Dr. Wareham, who knows the district 
well where African manna was found; and he and Mrs. Wareham 
confirmed the statements made by Mr. Swann, but stated that they 
had only once seen the manna during eighteen years' residence in 
Africa. He has promised to endeavor to get some of the living 
manna preserved in spirit or formaldehyde or solution of corrosive 
sublimate, and to get some of the soil in which it grows sent sep- 
arately in a small box. Mrs. Wareham suggested that possibly 
ants might have something to do with its appearance in such pro- 
fusion. It is well known that in this country ants cultivate certain 
fungi in their nests, apparently for food when it is scarce outside. 

The miracle respecting manna was undoubtedly its phenomenal 
production on an enormous scale in the immediate neighborhood of 
the Israelitish camp. In this respect it resembles other miracles 
related in vScripture, such as the multitude of fishes, the feeding of 



f78 



The Manna oj Scripture. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1020. 



the five thousand; but that the manna itself was a vegetable product, 
possibly of rare occurrence but miraculously increased in quantity, 
just as the quails were in this case driven by a particular wind, seems 
probable. That a plant occurring in Central Africa should also occur 
in Arabia is not at all improbable, since we know that plants often 
extend great distances along river basins, or occur on mountains 
at immense distances apart when the conditions are similar, al- 
though the plant may present slight variations, as in the Guide's 
Flower {Leontopodium alpinum), which occurs from Mont Blanc in 
the Swiss Alps to the Himalayas. 

It is a remarkable fact that a deep valley runs for nearly 4000 
miles from Arabia to the Cape of Good Hope, known as the Great 
Rift Valley, and along its sides there occur several forms of a plant 
of the genus Acokanthera, Nat. Ord. Apocynaceoe, from one end of the 
valley to the other; Acokanthera Defter sii in Arabia, A. Schimperi 
in Northeast and Central Africa, and A. spectabilis and A. venenata 
in South Africa. It need not be surprising, therefore, if a crypto- 
gamic plant like manna were found along the sides of this immense 
valley, extending from the Lebanons almost to the Cape of Good 
Hope, wherever the conditions were suitable for its development, 
since the spores of fungi are easily carried on the feet of birds. There 
is, therefore, apparently no reason why the manna of Tanganyika 
should not be identical with that of Arabia. Gregory, in "The 
Great Rift Valley" (p. 5), states that a series of thirty lakes occur 
along its course, only one of which communicates with the sea, thus 
indicating that it was an ancient river bed, and giving some support 
to the theory that this was the bed of the ancient river Gihon (Gen- 
esis ii, 13), which "compasseth the whole land of Cush." The land 
of Cush, according to Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible" (1865, p. 
223), evidently included both Arabia and the country south of the 
western coast of the Red Sea. 

According to Gregory ("The Great Rift Valley," p. 51), the 
Arabs told him that the Red Sea is simply water that did not dry 
up after Noah's deluge; and the SomaU say that when their ances- 
tors crossed from Arabia to Africa there was a land communication 
between the two across the Straits of Babel Mendeb. There is 
geological evidence to show that great earth movements have hap- 
pened along the Great Rift Valley at a recent geological date. There 
^eems to be nothing improbable, therefore, in the possible occurrence 
of the scriptural manna plant in Central Africa as well as in Arabia. 



MaJch!^9^2o:} De-Arsenication of Sulphuric Acid. 179 

But there are one or two features in the biblical description of manna 
that call for comment. One is the reason why it kept over the Sab- 
bath without becoming filled with worms and stinking. The di- 
rections given to bake or seethe it would naturally kill all insect life 
in it; and the manna, that was to be preserved for generations as 
evidence of the Israelites being miraculously fed, was probably 
baked, and may have become hard or horny in the process. It is not 
easy to explain otherwise why they "ground it in mills or beat it in 
mortars," especially as in the fresh state it was soft enough to melt 
in the sun's heat. The text is difficult to follow, but in Numbers 
xi, 8, it seems to imply that, after grinding it, it was seethed and made 
into cakes. 

The fact that the manna was abundant enough to feed a multi- 
tude of people for forty years indicates that by some unrecognized 
means the plant miraculously increased, and the conditions were 
those of uncultivated land, since it ceased when they "came to land 
inhabitated, " "in the borders of the land of Canaan." 

Another point is the continuous production of the plant for forty 
years and all the year around. But we have the evidence at home 
that the mushroom, which in the wild state is usually confined to 
August and September, can be produced all the year round if the 
natural conditions of heat, moisture and food are artificially provided. 
There may have been conditions connected with the manner of life 
of the people which produced artificially the requirements of the 
plant. At all events, the study of the life-history of the manna plant 
in the future offers many interesting problems to the research work- 
ers at Khartoum, or elsewhere, if the plant can be obtained and 
cultivated. 



NOTE ON THE DE-ARSENICATION OF SULPHURIC ACID 
BY HYDROGEN SULPHIDE.* 

By T. S. Moorb. 

According to the published information, the strength of sulphuric 
acid submitted to de-arsenication by hydrogen sulphide must not 
exceed 110° Tw. (64.26 per cent. H2SO4), and in many works much 
less than this, down to 100° Tw. (59.7 per cent. H2SO4). The ex~ 
* From Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., December 15, 1919. 



1 8o De-Arsenication of Sulphuric Acid. j^*"' ^mZcK\^To. 

periments described in this paper were undertaken at a time when 
the demand for arsenic-free C. O. V. was very large and when all 
unnecessary concentration had to be avoided on account of shortage 
of plant, to find out whether more concentrated acid, particularly 
Glover tower acid of about 174° Tw. (80 per cent. H2SO4) could be 
de-arsenicated without prohibitive loss of sulphuric acid by reduc- 
tion. 

The experiments were carried out at the temperature of the 
laboratory. Hydrogen sulphide at the rate of one bubble a second 
was passed through 200 Gms. of the acid under examination, and 
the product filtered through asbestos in three separate portions: 
(i) Without any special precaution, (2) with hydrogen sulphide 
passing through the liquid while filtering, and (3) without precau- 
tion, after the liquid and precipitated arsenious sulphide had re- 
mained together for one or two days. 

In de-arsenicating arsenical C. O. V. (95 per cent. H2SO4, 0.15 
per cent. AS2O3, o.ii per cent. AS2O5) it was found (i) that the 
process was slow, taking 2^/2 hours in laboratory apparatus; (2) 
that excessive reduction of sulphuric acid occurred, the strength of 
the resulting acid being 91 .8 per cent.; (3) that if filtration from the 
arsenic trisulphide is carried out immediately after the precipita- 
tion the arsenic content is 2 to 3 parts AS2O3 per million, but that 
the arsenic content is higher the longer the filtration is delayed; 
and (4) that if hydrogen sulphide is passed through the liquid dur- 
ing filtration the arsenic content falls to less than i part AS2O3 per 
million. Further, under the conditions last mentioned, the acid 
coming through the filter is perfectly clear, but soon becomes cloudy 
owing to the precipitation of sulphur, which shows that the rate 
of oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by strong sulphuric acid is not 
large enough to prevent the accumulation in solution of an apprecia- 
ble quantity of the gas. 

With arsenical C. O. V. diluted to contain approximately 80 
per cent, of sulphuric acid it was found: (i) That the rate of re- 
duction of the sulphuric acid is quite small (original acid contained 
79.7 per cent H2SO4. After one hour's treatment with hydrogen 
sulphide, the acid contained 79 . 4 per cent. H2SO4. After two hours' 
treatment it contained 77.8% H2SO4); (2) that acid filtered imme- 
diately after one hour's treatment contained i part AS2O3 per mil- 
lion, and the arsenic content was not diminished by passing hydro- 
gen sulphide during filtration; (3) that when filtration was delayed 



Mtlch^%^] De-Arsenication of Sulphuric Acid. i8i 



the arsenic content had risen only to i . 5 parts AS2O3 per million. 
Two days after the acid has been filtered it still smells of hydrogen 
sulphide, which shows that the rate of reaction between hydrogen 
sulphide and 80 per cent, sulphuric acid is small. 

The behavior of 70 per cent, acid resembles that of 80 per cent., 
the chief differences being that (i) de-arsenication is slightly more 
rapid, (2) filtration of the arsenic trisulphide may be delayed several 
days without any serious increase of the arsenic content, and (3) 
there is even less reduction of sulphuric acid. 

Finally, an experiment with Glover tower acid of unusually high 
arsenic content was carried out, in which hydrogen sulphide in fine 
bubbles was passed through 500 Gms. of the acid contained in a 
bottle fixed on a shaking machine. One hour's treatment with 
hydrogen sulphide proved insufficient for this acid, and in a second 
experiment treatment was continued for 1V4 hours. Part of the 
product was filtered immediately and part after two days. The 
results of analysis were: 

Before After Immediate After Standing 

Treatment. Filtration. Two Days. 



%. %• %. " 

H2SO4 77 I 77 I 77.1 

N2O3 0.18 None None 

AS2O3 0.29 Between o . 6 and 

I part in 10^ 

AS2O5 I .58 None None 



These figures need some comment, for as they stand they give 
the impression that there is no loss of sulphuric acid. The follow- 
ing calculation shows that de-arsenication should actually cause an 
increase of the sulphuric acid content. The reactions proceeding 
are: 

N2O3 + H2S = H2O + 2NO + S; 
AS2O3 + 3H2S = AS2S3 + 3H2O; 
AS2O5 + 5H2S = AS2S3 + 5H2O + 2S. 

Thus, apart from absorption of water from the atmosphere and from 
reduction of sulphuric acid, 100 Gms. of the original acid contain- 
ing: 

771 Gms. H2SO4 77 . 1 Gms. H2SO4 

0.18 Gm. N2O3 should give 0.05 Gm. H2O 

0.29 Gm. AS2O3 with HavS 0.08 Gm. HoO 

1 .58 Gms. AS2O 0.63 Gm. H.O 

20.85 Gms. H2O 20.85 Gms. H2O 



l82 



Medicinal Plants in Bahia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



i. e., TOO Gms. of acid should become 98.71 Gms. after de-arsenica- 
tion, so that the strength of the sulphuric acid in the de-arsenicated 
100 X 77 I 

product should be — =78.1 per cent. Since it was 

98.71 

found to be 77. i, there is an apparent loss of i .3 per cent, of the 
sulphuric acid originally present. This figure cannot be taken as 
accurate, for absorption of water may have occurred, and, further, 
it is not possible in small experiments to estimate the yield of de- 
arsenicated acid at all exactly. But it can be taken that the loss of 
sulphuric acid by reduction is less than i , 3 per cent, of the original 
sulphuric acid. The loss could certainly be diminished by (a) 
using a more efficient apparatus for mixing the gas with the acid, 
{h) stopping the treatment before the de-arsenication had gone so 
far as the point reached in the experiment, and (c) using a Glover 
tower acid of more normal arsenic content, for all these conditions 
would diminish the duration of treatment. 

From these experiments it is clear that for practically complete 
de-arsenication of acid of any strength up to 95 per cent, the only 
essential condition is that the acid after treatment must contain 
dissolved hydrogen sulphide, and so long as this condition is ful- 
filled the acid can stand in contact with the arsenious sulphide with- 
out any serious increase of arsenic content. As soon as the hydro- 
gen sulphide has been destroyed the acid takes up arsenic again 
at a rate depending upon its strength. 

K. Schmidt {Arch. Pharm., 45: 255, 1917) states that although 
water, alcohol, and dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid cause ap- 
preciable decomposition of arsenious sulphide, such decomposi- 
tion is prevented by the presence of small quantities of hydrogen 
sulphide. The above experiments shows that hydrogen sulphide 
has a similar effect, even in the presence of strong sulphuric acid. 
— Royal HoUoway College (University of London). 



MEDICINAL PLANTS IN BAHIA.* 

By Consul Edward Higgins, 

bahia, brazil, nov. i, 1919. 

The State of Bahia, Brazil, offers to the medical world an abundant 
and varied supply of plants, roots, barks and gums, including many 
* From Commerce Reports, Dec. 26, 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Medicinal Plants in Bahia. 



of recognized value and some regular articles of export, such as 
ipecacuanha root, araroba powder, jaborandi leaves, and Jatoba 
gum. Most of the plants exist in practically inexhaustible quan- 
tities; but orders must be placed in advance with local exporters, 
for there is no regular trade even in those now figuring among the 
State's exports. The supply depends entirely upon the demand. 
There follows a list of the most important medicinal plants found at 
convenient distances from the city of Bahia: 

Angelica {Gentiana rubra). — Aromatic, antiseptic and anti- 
spasmodic; a powerful remedy against intermittent fevers. 

Arco leaves. — A substitute for the coca leaves of Peru; a stimulat- 
ing and powerful tonic, yielding cocaine. 

Araroba or Goa Powder. — This is a powder taken from the heart- 
wood of a tree known locally as "armagoso do matto" (Vouacapoua 
araroba), which contains a substance known as chrysarobin, used in 
the treatment of skin diseases. 

Barbatimao Bark. — The inner bark contains phosphate of lime, 
tannin and an alkaloid similar to quinine; it is a sedative, and re- 
duced to powder makes an excellent dentifrice. 

Cajueiro {Anacardium occidentale) . — The bark is astringent and 
is an efficacious remedy against diabetes. 

Caroba leaves. — Antisyphilitic and antibubonic; well known in 
Brazil as a powerful blood cleaner, used externally and internally. 
It is a vegetable mercury and is said to be superior to sarsaparilla 
and other blood purifiers. 

Cambard Leaves. — ^A strong sedative and expectorant, for bron- 
chitis, coughs and pulmonary ailments. 

Cameleao da casta. — Remedy for stomach trouble. 

Cestrum Leaves. — A strong narcotic, said to be poisonous, also 
used in baths against hemorrhoids, a powerful insecticide. The 
damp leaves are applied to wounds, first inflaming them, but after- 
wards cleaning and healing them. 

Congonha.' — A stimulant, diuretic as a tea. 

Gervao.— One of the best disobstruents known, aids digestion 
and eases laborious births. 

Imbauba. — Remedy against coughs, bronchitis and asthma. 

Imburana. — Inner bark contains coumarin; it is aromatic, an 
expectorant and a stimulant. 



Medicinal Plants in Bahia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



Ipecacuanha. — This is a shrub growing in the shade of the forest, 
the root of which is dried and powdered for use in medicine. It is 
valued as an expectorant, diaphoretic and emetic. It is not culti- 
vated, but care is taken in digging up the plants to leave sufficient 
roots in the soil for another crop. 

Jahorandi Leaves. — Aphrodisiac, sudorific and stimulating. 
From these leaves is extracted pilocarpine, which is used in tonic 
preparations for the hair. 

Juruheha (Solanum paniculatum) . — Remedy for congestion and 
maladies of the liver. 

Loco Leaf. — A vegetable caustic. 

Carnauba Wax. — A tasteless, aseptic wax extracted form the 
leaf of a palm tree known locally as the "carnaubeira" and em- 
ployed in the preparation of ointments, pomades and pills. 

Mamona. — This is Portuguese for the castor plant, which was in- 
troduced into Brazil from India and China by the earlier colonists, 
but spread so quickly as to have the appearance to-day of a forest 
plant. Both the seed and oil are exported from Bahia in increasing 
quantities each year. 

Manaca Root. — Antisyphilitic vegetable mercury. 

Jatobd Gum. — Jatoba is a name applied to several species of 
trees found in the valley of the River Sao Francisco, which traverses 
the northern and western parts of the State of Bahia. The gum 
which is extracted from this tree is employed in the composition 
of syrups for pulmonary affections. It is variously known, locally, 
as jatoba, jatahy and jutahy. 

Jatobd Bark. — The bark of the above-mentioned tree is also of 
value in the preparation of medicines and is employed as an astrin- 
gent and carminative. 

Mango Tree {Mangifera indica). — The leaves are antiasthmatic. 

Menstrasto.- — A plant," stimulating against colics and used in 
fevers, also in baths to cure weakness. 

Milhomens {Aristolochia cymbifera.) — Used against paralysis, 
dropsy and stomach trouble. 

Mulungu {Erytkrina mulungu). — The inner bark is a powerful 
sedative, narcotic and antispasmodic, and is a substitute for bella- 
donna; it also exercises a special action on the liver; in doses of 5 
centigrams it will induce sleep. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Notes on Ginger-Beer Plant. 



185 



Pareira Brava Root {Cissampellos pareira). — A powerful tonic, 
remedy for stomach trouble, bladder trouble, beri-beri, brain fever 
and meningitis. 

Pao ferro. — A bark used against diabetes; the seeds furnish a 
strong tonic and diuretic. 

Purga de cam^c— Remedy for fevers, pleurisy, tumors and 
cancerous wounds. 

Pindakiha. — Remedy for stomach trouble and for intestinal 
flatulence. 

Qmna-quina. — A bark used against fevers. 

Quitoco. — Carminative, antihysteric and digestive; used in baths 
for muscular pains in the body. 

Samambaia. — Used for rheumatism. 

Velame de campo. — Blood cleanser, antisyphilitic and anti- 
rheumatic, for skin diseases and swelling of the glands. 



NOTES ON THK GINGER-BEER PLANT.* 

By E. M. H01.MES. F.Iv.S. 

Although this curious substance has been used for many years, 
both in this country and the United States, its original source ap- 
pears to be unknown, and the names which are popularly given to it 
indicate a desire to keep its origin and nature a secret. Among 
the most far-fetched of the names under which specimens have been 
sent to me with inquiries as to its nature is "Balm" of Gilead!" 

Evidently the scientific examination of this substance by the 
late Dr. H. Marshall Ward, published in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society as long ago as 1891 (Vol. 50, pp. 261-265), and 




Fig. I.— The Ginger-Beer Plant. 



further elaborated in a second paper, published in the Philosophical 
Transactions of the same society in 1892 (p. 125), have' beenjover- 
* The Pharmaceutical Jour, and Pharmacist, Jan. 3, 1920. 



i86 



Notes on Ginger-Beer Plant. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 1920. 



looked by busy pharmacists, but the brief summary of Dr. Marshall 
Ward's researches given by Prof. Reynolds Green in his work on 
''Fermentation" (p. 321) should not have escaped notice, except 
for the fact that Prof. Green did not provide an alphabetical index 
to his otherwise excellent publication. The same fault applies to 
Salter's translation of D. L. Lafar's "Technical Mycology," in 
which, on pp. 256-267, illustrations of the two chief constituents 
of the ginger-beer plant are taken from Dr. Marshall Ward's paper. 
Both these two last-named works are in the library of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society. 

It may, however, serve a useful purpose if a summary of all 
that is at present known concerning the life-history of the ginger- 
beer plant be placed on record in the pages of the Journai^ for future 
reference. 

In appearance the ginger-beer plant bears some resemblance to 
pearl-barley that has been boiled, but the nodules vary in size from 
that of a pinhead to nearly an inch in diameter (see Fig. i). It 
belongs to a class of symbiotic ferments in which a yeast and a 
bacterium live together, the one assisting in and promoting the work 
of the" other. To this class belong also kephir, the ferment of koumiss, 
and a ferment found on the sugar cane in Madagascar. The first 
is used in the fermentation of cow's milk in the Caucasus, and the 
second in the fermentation of mare's milk in the steppes of South- 
west Siberia. The ginger-beer plant and the Madagascar ferment 
can ferment saccharose, maltose, glucose and fructose, but not 
lactose. In this particular feature they differ from the kephir and 
koumiss ferments, which can split up lactose. Kephir and the 
Madagascar ferment both have a similar appearance to the ginger- 
beer plant, but the koumiss ferment is not used in a separate state, 
a portion of fermented milk being added to some fresh milk when 
required. The products of fermentation are chiefly alcohol, carbonic 
acid and some lactic and acetic acids, and in the case of the Madagas- 
car ferment some succinic acid, the acetic acid being formed directly 
from the sugar, and not through the medium of the alcohol. 

When a few pieces of the ginger-beer plant are put in a 10-30 
per cent, solution of cane sugar and the bottle put in a warm place 
fermentation takes place in about twenty-four hours and the liquid 
is then observed to become turbid, and bubbles of gas begin to 
ascend. This turbidity is due almost entirely to the yeast-cells 
which are shed from the nodules of the plant, which rise and fall 



Am; Jour. Pharm.) 
Mart^b, 1920 J 



Notes on Ginger-Beer Plant. 



187 



in the liquid and multiply in it, and form a grayish deposit at the 
bottom. The liquid becomes charged with carbon dioxide, and 
becomes more or less viscous, so that the gas-bubbles rise more 
slowly. This viscosity is due to the swollen or vermiform bacteria 
which become distributed throughout the liquid, which becomes 
acid as well as viscous. The chief products of the fermentation 
of the ginger-beer plant are carbonic and lactic acid, with traces of 
alcohol and acetic acid. 

With regard to the constituents of the symbiotic ferment known 
as the ginger-beer plant. Dr. H. Marshall Ward found that it con- 
sisted chiefly of two plants, the one a yeast {Sacckaromyces pyri- 
formis) and a hitherto undescribed bacterium, to which he gave the 
name of Bacterium vermiforme, from its worm-like appearance 
under the microscope. The appearance of these two plants is 
shown in illustration 2 here given, taken from Dr. Ward's second 
paper, in the Philosophical Transactions oj the Royal Society 
(p. 1 251). The oval cells in Fig. 2 are those of the yeast Saccharo- 
myces pyriformis, entangled in the worm-like filaments of the 
Bacterium vermiforme. These — which form the chief bulk of the fer- 
ment — are the two essential constituents in it, since Dr. Ward found 



that it was possible, under proper conditions, to reconstruct the plant 
from pure cultures of tfiese two plants isolated from a fermenting 
liquid. The bacterium filaments are generally much coiled and 
twisted together, sometimes broken into short rodlets, or even 
cocci, arranged in chains. The separate filaments are surrounded 
to a greater or less extent by a pellucid gelatinous sheath, and it is 
to this that the consistency of the ginger-beer plant is due. The 
sheath consists of the greatly swollen layers of the cell membrane, 
which may be developed on one side only or along part of its length, 
or may even be absent altogether. The branched form appears 




Fig. 2. — The Symbiotic Condition. 



i88 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



Am. Jour Pharni. 
March, 1920. 



to be due to a persistent one-sided development of these layers. 
The bacterium itself, as distinct from the sheath, measures about 
0.5 ix in diameter, and varies from 0.5 ju to 5.0 }i in length, the 
sheath being often ten times the diameter of the cell. These 
thickened walls occur in many of the Nostocaceae, especially in the 
Oscillatoriae. The ginger-beer plant can be dried and shrunk 
up into a horny mass, in which condition it can be stored for future 
use. 

Mr. E. R. Nichols, of Middlesbrough, who recently sent me a 
specimen, writes that it is largely used in that district in preparing 
a drink called a wine. For this purpose 4 ounces of sugar and 4 
ounces of treacle are mixed with 1V2 pints of warm water to form 
the mother liquor. Small pieces of the plant are then added, and 
the mixture is kept in a warm place. Each day about a teaspoonful 
of sugar is added. There is brisk fermentation, and a palatable 
drink is soon ready. The ferment quickly increases, and can be 
used to prepare a fresh batch. 



THE TEACHING OF THERAPEUTICS.* 
By Hobart Amory Har^, M.D., 

PROFESSOR OF therapeutics, MATERIA MEDICA AND DIAGNOSIS, JEFFERSON 
MEDICAE COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

I am writing this paper because I am hopeful that it may direct 
attention to what is a crying fault in medical education to-day, 
namely, the neglect of teaching students how to treat patients for 
the alleviation or cure of disease. I am hopeful that some good may 
come of it because the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the 
American Medical Association for years past has been endeavoring 
to inform physicians regarding the use of proprietary products 
and to persuade them to prescribe drugs, proprietary or not, in- 
telligently. 

The work that the Council had done is, of course, praiseworthy 
in intent, and is good as far as it goes in one line, to wit, to improve 
medical practice among graduates; but the prime difficulty lies in 
the teaching of practical therapeutics to the imdergraduate and to 
the hospital intern. This embryo practitioner in almost every medi- 

* Reprinted from Jour. American Medical Association, Feb. 7, 1920. 



Am. Jour Pharm.) 
March. 1920.) 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



cal school has no training in pharmacy, Httle or no training in the 
use of the official names of drugs or of their doses, and no training 
whatever in the fact that doses of different sizes, although they be of 
one drug, may be useless, useful or harmful, or become so after some 
days. He, therefore enters practice utterly at sea when he is called 
on to write a prescription. 

I have known of eye drops to be ordered by the quart, oleoresins 
mixed with aqueous solutions, powerful alkaloids, such as strychnine, 
put in a mixture with potassium iodide, whereby nearly all the 
strychnine went into the last dose, and a host of other errors too 
numerous to mention. I have seen a thousandth of a grain of ar- 
senous oxide given three times a day to an adult, and a grain of 
atropine put in each pill; and no druggist exists who, if diplomacy 
did not restrain him, could not humiliate almost every physician 
whose recipes come to his shop. Because the medical man knows 
nothing of the bulk of drugs or the most efficient vehicles, or ex- 
cipients, he takes the easiest way out of his dilemma and orders 
products already prepared, which products are often the result of 
much experience and scientific pharmacy. 

The remedy for all this is to have every student make in a phar- 
macy laboratory at least one representative of each class of prep- 
arations official in the Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary. 
I believe that this is done in only one school of medicine in the 
United States. 

The young graduate, having had no experience or teaching as to 
doses, naturally used doses that some commercial laboratory names. 
He may have been taught "doses," but he has no idea that small 
doses of digitalis may be useful in one case, whereas almost toxic 
doses may be absolutely essential in another, and so loses the pa- 
tient that needed the large dose. He uses the compound mixture of 
licorice as a vehicle in a case of profuse bronchorrhea or threatened 
pulmonary edema, not knowing, or forgetting, that its most active 
ingredient is antimony, which is absolutely contraindicated. 

When he becomes an intern in a hospital, he learns one thing of 
great importance, namely, that the chiefs who prescribe little and 
"let the patient get well" often obtain the best results; or if he is on a 
surgical service, the entire drug therapy may be in his hands, and the 
chief often boasts that he "knows nothing about drugs and don't 
want to." On the medical side in large hospitals he will find a 
hospital formulary from which mixtures are made up by the gallon 



I90 Teaching of Therapeutics. j"^'"- {JaJch^V/iS 



with all sorts of drugs, and contradictions, with widely varying doses 
of the ingredients; but there is a standard dose of the whole mess 
whether it be for a young girl of i6 weighing loo pounds or an old 
rounder weighing 200 pounds. Not only this, but these mixtures 
go by names which often do not mention the most active ingredient, 
or, worse still, go by numbers, so that the order on the treatment 
card reads: "No. 23, dessert-spoonful t. i. d." 

The fault does not stop with internship. Never having been 
taught practical therapeutics, the man steps into practice a fair mark 
for the loquacious traveling salesman who places him in the vocative by 
being familiar with what he ought to know. Some years ago, tell- 
ing a distinguished ex-president of the Association that a patient 
was getting acetphenetidin, I found he did not know it was phen- 
acetin. When he was told that the first term was the official one, 
he laughed and admitted that he had asked a student what he would 
use in a given case, and the reply was "phenol." The clinician 
"long" on pathology but "short" on therapeutics then informed the 
astonished youth that "phenol was no doubt very good, but carbolic 
acid was better." 

Proper Method of Training the Student.— Tht remedy for the state 
of affairs just described is in teaching and experience when a stu- 
dent. This, in my experience, which is a fairly large one, is best 
accomplished by having the student, in his course, not only taught 
doses by rule of thumb, but also given the opportunity to prescribe 
for suppositive or actual cases, and to see the results of his order, 
both as to the prescription itself and as to its effect on the patient. 
Under the direction of an assistant professor the whole class may 
attend a therapeutic conference, or quiz, on the treatment of a given 
class of diseases, and during the conference several of the men who 
advise plans of treatment are called to the blackboard to put in black 
and white what they have suggested. When they have finished, 
the instructor, who has continued his quiz in the meantime, criticizes 
the pharmacy, the doses, the form, the combinations, the thera- 
peutics and the quantity in the whole prescription, as well as the 
Latin. 

The number of occasions on which such criticisms lead to howls 
of delight at the discomfort of the man at the blackboard may be 
subversive of discipline, but all hands remember how John Jones 
wrote for nitrohydrochloric acid, iodide of potassium, tincture of 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.} 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



191 



gentian and tincture of iron in a quart of water, particularly if the 
mixture is prepared forthwith. 

This large class teaching is driven home by a junior teacher 
taking the class in sections and having it spend one or two hours a 
week for several weeks writing prescriptions, for suppositive cases, 
which are then criticized, and the writer asked to give his reasons 
for using each remedy. 

The regular medical ward classes should emphasize therapeutics; 
and, in addition, clinical, not laboratory, pharmacology should be 
taught. This is done by demonstrating a case of auricular fibrillation 
both at the bedside and with the electrocardiograph, and then giving 
full doses of digitalis, a second demonstration revealing the effects. 
So, too, the mode of action of atropine in partial or complete heart 
block is demonstrated, and the effects of nitrites in lowering pressure 
are taught by seeing a patient to-day with high pressure and again 
at the next visit with a reduced pressure. Any number of these 
therapeutic demonstrations can be made by the regular ward class 
teacher, and made still more useful if a demonstrator of clinical 
pharmacology who can use the polygraph and electrocardiograph 
is given proper hours. By this means the student is taught how 
drugs act and how various doses act, entirely apart from the didactic 
lectures on therapeutics or the general therapeutic clinics given by 
the head of the department, who deals of necessity with principles 
and practice. 

Faults in Present Methods. — All this seems so obviously practical 
that the question arises, "Why is it not done?" 

The answer is that there is not time. If there is not, why not? 
There is not time for two chief reasons. The first is that the stu- 
dent is taught too much of the special art of the specialties, many 
of which he will never attempt to practice; and unless he takes a 
post-graduate course after several years in general practice, he ought 
not to try to practice. At present the young graduate can talk 
learnedly of the diflference between paralytic and concomitant 
squint or about the Barany test, but is stumped when told to write 
a recipe for diarrhoea. 

The second reason is that the laboratory of pharmacology has 
drowned practical therapeutics, and has done it so effectively that 
in most schools literally no bedside therapeutics as a separate branch 
is taught, the original chair of therapeutics being filled by a lab- 



192 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



oratory pharmacologist who in some instances is not even a doctor 
of medicine, or if he has the degree of M.D. has never practiced a 
day in his Hfe or even been an intern in a hospital. When he at- 
tempts to tell students bedside facts, it is as if he >vere an astronomer 
trying to teach a sailor how to navigate a ship without ever having 
been to sea. As he lacks bedside experience, he teaches, for example, 
that the best treatment of fever is a combination of the cold bath 
and coal-tar antipyretics, when every one who practices knows that 
this is a great error. It is enough to bring the gray hairs of Dr. 
Simon Baruch, the great apostle of hydrotherapy, in sorrow to the 
grave, and if carried out will bring many patients there. 

Valuable time which should be spent at the bedside learning how 
to use drugs is employed in having students carry out pharmacologic 
technic in a course of six or eight weeks or their equivalent. It is 
safe to say that not one man in a thousand who takes this course 
becomes a pharmacologist or learns to be an efficient technician. 
What the student needs is not to do the experiments himself but to 
see them done by a man so well trained that results are produced 
that make a demonstration that really demonstrates the fact to be 
remembered. I can see no more reason for making a group of stu- 
dents, designed to be practitioners, make bungling experiments with 
a Kronecker-Bowditch heart apparatus than I can for their perform- 
ing amputations and visceral operations on dogs or cats with the 
idea that they will become good surgeons; indeed, there is less rea- 
son. One cannot make a man who has no music in his soul a vio- 
linist in a six weeks' course, and probably it is safe to say that the 
majority of excellent physicians have not the qualities which pro- 
duce original contributions to medical knowledge. 

Need for the Teaching of Practical Therapeutics^. — To quote Sir 
George Makins, ^ in an address to the Medical Society of Manchester : 

"A survey of these considerations should exert a definite influence 
upon the determination of the nature of the course of education best 
suited to the development of the doctor upon whose efficiency the 
happiness and health of the nation so largely depends. It is clear 
that for the great bulk of the profession a path must be found by which 
advances in science are utilized for the perfection of the art of medi- 
cine, but it cannot be possible to elevate every medical man to the 
position of an apostle of pure science. . . . . " 

1 Makins, Brit. Med. J., 2: 590 (Nov. 8), 1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.j 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



193 



"All men are not endowed with a truly scientific spirit; the posver 
of evolving great principles is reserved to the few, and even the correct 
appreciation and application of those which have been laid down is 
not a faculty universally enjoyed. Again, the power of reasoning, 
the possession of initiative and invention, and the facility of de- 
veloping technical skill, are qualities very unevenly distributed 
among the class of man who adopts medicine as his profession. 
The reasons which lead to his choice are by no means always governed 
by the degree of aptitude he possesses for the calling he decides to 
follow. To some the science of medicine appeals; some adopt medi- 
cine from the lofty motive of desiring to benefit mankind ; some boys 
are born to succeed to a family practice; some become students of 
medicine because the choice coincides with that of a friend; in some 
business capacity is nil; in others it is the mainspring of the future 
career and dominates all other feelings or aspirations. Lastly, 
in not a few instances the initial choice has never been made the 
subject of serious thought or consideration." 

My point is not that there should not be teachers of pharma- 
colog}\ On the contrary, there should be, because it is only by the 
efforts of these men that the scientific or investigative side of thera- 
peutics can be advanced and the errors of empiricism corrected. 
Their existence develops those who have the talent, initiative, the 
proper deduction and the love of investigation, and their methods of 
thought and mode of study are examples of the highest type of med- 
ical man; but in their enthusiasm they should not forget that 999 
of their pupils want to know how to make the sick well and do not 
want to know by personal experiments on dogs the effect, for ex- 
ample, of cutting the animal's sympathetic nerve, or the action of 
cocaine on the eye. If this is to be taught, let the pharmacologist 
make the experiment and demonstrate the result. 

It may be said that I do not know whereof I speak; but I do, 
for I was once a pharmacologist myself. In the eighties I worked in 
laboratory pharmacology, and taught it, too, as a somewhat long list 
of titles in the Index Catalogue will show. I am not an iconoclast, 
and no one rejoices more than I do that the only pharmacologic 
laboratory in the United vStates in 1886 has been followed by two 
score of such laboratories from which a wealth of wonderful work vvas 
originated; but it is postgraduate work. I am pleading that hours 
now used otherwise may be employed to teach not only the theory 
but also the practice of therapeutics. When this is done, the work of 



194 



Teaching of Therapeutics. 



Am. Jour. Phafm. 
Mai-ch, 1920. 



the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry will be helped in its com- 
pletion; for, when the practitioner knows how to prescribe, he will 
not tolerate the commercial concern that poses as his teacher. 

The closing paragraph of a recent editoriaP has a bearing on this 
subject. I have substituted the word "pharmacologist" for "physi- 
ologist," and "pharmacology" for "physiology." 

"It is quite possible that, as has been suggested, we are approach- 
ing the time when there will be two types of persons connected with 
each clinical department, namely, the clinical pharmacologist, 
whose chief work will be the intensive study of selected groups of 
cases and the instruction of students in the application of the prin- 
ciples of pharmacology to the elucidation of disease, and the clini- 
cian, whose chief function will be the care of the patient and the 
instruction of the student in the practical methods of diagnosis and 
treatment. Obviously, some arrangement already exists in some of 
our better schools. In institutions in which full time medicine has 
been introduced, there has been a distinct effort to appoint as heads 
of the clinical departments men of the investigative type. One 
question that Addis' discussion raises is whether in our enthusiasm 
for laboratory research w^e have not overlooked the importance of 
purely clinical investigation and of the type of physician that natur- 
ally tends toward this." 

At present an attempt is made to make pharmacologists out of 
men who are going to practice medicine. A real pharmacologist is 
a highly educated man in physiology and chemistry, an investigator, 
a discoverer, and by rights a leader in the higher realms of thera- 
peutics- — one who should teach medical students how drugs can be 
studied and should be studied in the laboratory, and to determine 
fundamental facts about remedies. But to try to train the general 
run of students, who will never have a laboratory, to be pharma- 
cologists without first teaching elementary practical therapeutics, is 
somewhat like a great opera singer trying to make every one a great 
singer, or as if one should attempt to make his infant son sing be- 
fore he tried to teach him to walk. The use of instruments of pre- 
cision necessary for the study of drugs, if taught at all, should be at 
the bedside. I repeat what I said above: "The lack of training as 
to what to do, what not to do, and when to do, as to remedies, 
is one of the weak spots in medicine to-day." I firmly believe that 

2 "The Teaching of Clinical Medicine," editorial, /. yl. AT. 74: 35 (Jan. 3), 
1920. 



^"^^ March!Y92o:} Training of Pharmaceutical Chemists, 195 

if the present generation of students is properly taught practical 
therapeutics, the chief labor of the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry will be an accomplished fact, for the right way will be the 
easiest way. Let us first make good physicians and from these may 
be sifted out those who can and want to become laboratory pharma- 
cologists. 



THE TRAINING OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTS.* 

The sale of drugs and poisons is limited in most countries to 
certain persons. These persons become qualified for registration 
as pharmacists or pharmaceutical chemists after receiving a special 
training. In the various States of the Commonwealth of Australia 
the pharmaceutical student must reach a minimal standard of 
general education which is laid down by regulation. The student 
serves as an apprentice to a registered pharmacist for a number of 
years, whereby a knowledge is obtained of the practice of the pro- 
fession. The student has sufficient opportunity of gaining acquain- 
tance with his duties to render him proficient in the routine work 
of preparing drugs for medicinal use. This period is long enough 
to form habits of accuracy and attention, so that there will be little 
fear of mistakes occurring in the prepared medicines. In addi- 
tion, the student attends courses of systematic instruction in botany, 
chemistry and materia medica at some college or university where 
these subjects are taught in an approved manner. The student 
acquires a knowledge of the various parts of vegetable substances 
and of the characteristic features of the plants from which the 
medicinal substances are derived. He is taught the chemistry of 
the principal inorganic and organic bodies, the outlines of qualita- 
tive analysis and the methods used for the quantitative esti- 
mation of the substances used as drugs. Above all, he is made 
familiar with the appearance of drugs, with their characters and 
with the tests to which they respond. Before registration the stu- 
dent has to satisfy examiners that he has attained proficiency in 
the subjects of study. At the termination of the period of instruc- 
tion the pharmacist is able to recognize with ease the nature of the 
drugs with which he deals. In some States the student also re- 

*From Med. Jour, of Australia; through The Australasian Jour, of Pharm.^ 
Nov. 20, 1919. 



196 Training of Pharmaceutical Chemists. {^™' March! Y920'. 

ceives systematic instruction in respect to the preparation of drugs 
for administration. 

Many drugs act in a potent manner on the functions of the body. 
If they are given in too large dose they behave as poisons and may 
lead to death. Their use depends upon their administration in 
exact quantity. The training of the pharmacist is designed to 
make him precise in his measurements and trustworthy in his use 
of drugs. The reliability of the pharmacist is dependent to a con- 
siderable extent on his ready knowledge of the appearance and char- 
acters of drugs and their preparations. This knowledge guaran- 
tees the accuracy of his dispensing practice. 

The restriction of the retail sale of drugs to these trained persons 
has for its aim the preservation of the public against errors in the 
purchase of drugs. The nature of drugs is such that the purchaser 
must be protected as far as possible from mistake in respect to the 
article that has been bought. Caveat emptor has no application 
to the purchase of medicines. The qualities of drugs are in many 
instances laid down in a pharmacopoeia operative in the particular 
country. The pharmacist endeavors to ascertain that the drugs 
he sells are of the necessary purity. Persons who buy drugs from 
those who are not registered pharmacists, do so at their own risk. 
They make no use of those safeguards which have been laid down 
for their protection. They must abide by the consequences of their 
act. When the purchase is made from a registered pharmacist, 
the buyer has a right to receive an article of the nature that he de- 
mands. The pharmacist is bound to use reasonable care in obtain- 
ing drugs and in dispensing them. On him rests the responsibility 
of making sure that he uses pure drugs and that these are measured 
in an accurate manner. In return the public owes to him the duty 
of seeing that his trade is not invaded by untrained persons with 
no specific knowledge of drugs and their use. 

Accidents will happen. There are no means by which they can 
be completely abolished as long as powerful poisons are used as 
drugs. They will be less frequent when the dispenser is aware of 
the accumulated experience of the ages in the methods of guarding 
against them. They will be diminished in number with increased 
knowledge of the behavior of particular drugs under different cir- 
cumstances. In this case, knowledge may mean power to avert 
the consequences of an error that has been already made. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Botulism from Ripe Olives. 



197 



BOTULISM FROM RIPE OLIVES.* 

For the fourth time within a few months a highly fatal outbreak 
of botulism due to ripe olives is recorded in our columns. The 
article on an outbreak of botulism in New York in the Journai.^ 
this week follows close on the heels of the report of the Memphis 
outbreak in our "General News" of last week. These added to the 
outbreaks at Canton, Ohio, and Detroit, make a formidable show- 
ing. 

Three of the four outbreaks appear to have been traced to one 
brand of olives, packed in southern California, a fact that we be- 
lieve should be given wide publicity at this time, even if commercial 
interests suffer. It seems at all events as if all local health authorities 
should make systematic attempts to find out whether this particular 
brand of olives is being distributed within their jurisdiction. It 
is only the part of prudence and good common sense to make sure 
so far as possible that olives of this brand are not being "salvaged" 
and perhaps distributed to scores of small groceries and delicatessen 
shops throughout the country. 

Two particularly disturbing features characterize these later 
outbreaks, one being that the olives apparently responsible for the 
New York outbreak were not of the same brand as those causing 
botulism in Canton, Detroit and Memphis. If it is true that more 
than one brand of olives is involved in the causation of botulism, the 
difficulties that public health authorities will have in coping with this 
menace are measurably increased. It is evident also that the whole 
ripe olive industry should be subjected to investigation and super- 
vision. Steps in this direction have already been taken, as is also 
noted in our news columns. Thus far green olives do not seem to 
have been implicated in the causation of botulism. 

The second point about which concern may well be felt is the 
seeming willingness of unscrupulous dealers to sell olives and per- 
haps other foodstuffs that have been condemned. We are informed 
that the olives causing death in Memphis were obtained from a store 
of which the principal business is buying and selling salvaged mer- 
chandise. In this case, olives found in a dish on the table at the 
house where they were served had a very objectionable and pro- 
nounced foul odor. In the New York outbreak, a distributing com- 

* From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Feb. 21, 1920. 

^ Sisco, D. L. : "An Outbreak of Botulism," J. A. M. A., Feb. 21, 1920. 



198 



Annotmcements . 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1920. 



pany in New York City refused to put the olives on the market 
under their label, but the jars were resold by the California olive 
T:ompany that packed them and were shifted about from place to 
place for some months, many being rejected during their circulation 
because they were obviously spoiled and unfit for sale. From the 
information available it does not seem clear that the olives that were 
eaten in New York had a definitely spoiled odor. The only evidence 
from those eating the olives came from one victim shortly before 
death, who stated that he noticed nothing wrong about the odor or 
taste, and from one 9-year-old child, who also noticed nothing dis- 
agreeable in taste or odor. Although a half bottle of ripe olives, 
probably the one that contained the toxin, was found in the home of 
the victims, no statement is made about the physical condition of 
these olives. 

It seems clear that immediate and drastic warning should be 
given to dealers regarding the sale of ripe olives showing any signs 
of spoiling. It is also true that at least until fuller information is 
available, salvaged food, particularly olives, should be regarded with 
considerable suspicion by the general public. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 
A Grant for Pharmac^uticai^ R^s^arch. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association has available a sum 
amounting to about $450, which will be expended after October i, 
1920, for the encouragement of research. This amount either in full 
or fractions will be awarded in such manner as will in the judgment 
of the A. Ph. A. Research Committee produce the greatest good to 
American pharmaceutical research. 

Investigators desiring financial aid in their work will communicate 
before May first with H. V. Arny, chairman A. Ph. A. Research Com- 
mittee, 115 West 68th St., New York, giving their past record and 
outlining the particular line of work for which the grant is desired. 

The committee will give each application its careful attention and 
will make recommendations to the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation at its meeting in Washington, May 3-8, 1920, when the 
award or awards will be made. 



Am. Jour. Pharfn.) 
March, 1920.) 



A nnouncements . 



T99 



The: Scientific Se)ction of the; A. Ph. A. 

During the Annual Convention of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, which will be held in Washington, D. C, on May 4th 
to loth, 1920, the Scientific Section will hold its meetings on Thurs- 
day, Mday and Saturday, May 6th, 7 th and 8th. Those desiring 
to read papers before this section should submit them to the Secre- 
tary, Dr. A. G. Du Mez, Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health 
Service, Washington, D. C, not later than April ist. 

The: Skction on PracticaIv Pharmacy and Dispe:nsing of thi5 

A. Ph. a. 

The Section on Practical Phax'macy and Dispensing is endeavoring 
to make its program for the May Convention Meeting at Wash- 
ington, unusually attractive and valuable. 

Contributors to the Section must get their papers in earlier in the 
year than usual. In order to get titles and a brief abstract of the 
papers submitted to the general secretary in time for publication in 
the main program, it will be quite necessary to have these facts at 
our disposal early in April. 

Practical papers for presentation at our sessions will be welcomed. 

Send papers to Ivor Griffith, Secretary, Stetson Hospital, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Gove:rnment Nee:ds Chemists, Physicists, Ktc. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces that the 
Government service is in need of a large number of chemists of va- 
rious kinds. During this period of readjustment, technical men are 
especially needed. Besides chemists it is stated that there are open- 
ings for physicists, ceramic assistants, laboratory assistants and 
aids; metallurgical, technical and electrical laboratorians, etc. 

Further information and application blanks may be obtained 
from the secretary of the U. vS. civil service board at Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Paul, St. 
Louis, New Orleans, Seattle, or San Francisco, or from the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. 

AnnuaIv Meeting of the American Drug Manufacturers' 

Association. 

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Drug Manufac- 
turers' Association will be held at the Hotel Biltmore, New York 



200 



Xezt's Items and Personal Notes. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1920. 



City, April 12-15. The Scientific Section will hold a morning and 
afternoon session on Monday, April 12, and a morning session Tues- 
day, April 13, while the Biological Section will hold one session only 
on the afternoon of April 12. The sessions of the Association as a 
whole will begin on the afternoon of Tuesday, April 13. 

The business sessions will be devoid of all purely formal features 
and will be devoted to practical discussion of important trade prob- 
lems, notably the alcohol regulations, the return of unsalable goods, 
freight and express allowances, guarantees against declines in price, 
and kindred problems. 

In connection with the discussion of the alcohol problem, the 
committee on arrangements hopes to induce Mr. Adams, of the 
Bureau of Internal Revenue, to address the Convention. 



NEWS ITEMS AND PERSONAL NOTES. 

Philadelphia Reception to Returned Soldier and Sailor 
Pharmacists. — The various pharmaceutical and drug trade organ- 
izations of Philadelphia arranged, through a committee representing 
these organizations, a public reception and dance for returned soldier 
and sailor pharmacists. The function was held at Lulu Temple on 
the evening of Friday, February 27th, and was a marked success. 

Mr. Edward T. Hahn was chairman of the committee that made 
every one of the 800 participants and especially the more than 200 
service men feel thoroughly at their ease and enjoy the occasion to 
the fullest. Among the men who had been in the military service of 
the country and who made addresses were Karl P. Ehman, who took 
as a subject, "With the Guns," and Thomas J. Devine, who spoke for 
"The Navy." A stirring patriotic address by Captain Donald Kirk 
was followed by a silent tribute in honor of the men who had made the 
"sublime sacrifice." 

Dr. Robert P. Fischelis, chairman of the World War Veteran 
Section of the American Pharmaceutical Association, presented to 
each of the service men in attendance a free membership in the 
A. Ph. A. 

Ample refreshments and music interspersed the addresses and the 
evening was closed with dancing; the occasion was declared as 
one of the most enjoyable affairs ever held by the drug trade of the 
Quaker City. 



Mar'ch^Y92'S:} News Items and Personal Notes. 201 

Prof. GrKKNish HonorKd. — The University of Paris has con- 
ferred upon Professor H. G. Greenish, one of the leading pharmacog- 
nocists of the world and professor of pharmaceutics to the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Great Britain, the degree of Doctor, honoris causa 
of the University. American pharmacists are not unacquainted with 
the work and scientific attainments of Henry George Greenish and, in 
19 1 3, in recognition thereof he was elected to Honorary Membership 
in the American Pharmaceutical Association. He was the recipient 
of the Hanbury gold medal awarded last year. On the occasion of 
this additional honor bestowed upon this eminent pharmaceutical 
authority, the Ame)rican Journal of Pharmacy is indeed pleased to 
extend its sincere congratulations. 

REMINGTON Honor Medal to be Awarded to Prof. IvLOyd. — 
The committee of former presidents of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association upon whom devolves the duty of selecting the recipient 
for the award of the Joseph P. Remington Memorial Medal, in rec- 
ognition of exceptional services in behalf of pharmacy, have decided 
that the medal shall be awarded, in 1920, to Prof. John Uri Lloyd, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. The numerous contributions to pharmacy that 
for many years have come from Prof. Lloyd, his scientific and literary 
attainments and his devotion to pharmaceutical interests are to be 
thus commended and honored. The medal has been provided by the 
New York branch of the A. Ph. A. and the award will be made at an 
early date at an appropriate opportunity. 

The Wood Alcohol Menace. — Dean Charles H. La Wall has con- 
tributed in The Forecast for February a very instructive and popular 
article on the important subject of "Wood Alcohol — A National 
Peril." The widest dissemination of the knowledge of the toxic 
action of wood alcohol and the danger to life and health from its 
use as an adulterant in beverages, foods and medicines is at this time 
especially necessary and in this published article we have a happy 
combination of the scientific and press efforts to make every intelli- 
gent person acquainted with this fact. The possibility of toxic 
action developing even from inhalation of the vapors of methyl alcohol, 
wood alcohol, when used as a solvent in paints, varnishes, etc., is 
very rightly presented in the article and the public should be warned 
against the lurking danger from this otherwise legitimate use of 
methyl alcohol. 



202 Book Reviews. {^™- ^^'^rcKioTo. 

Profe:ssor Youngken, Contributing Editor to Botanical 
Abstracts. — Prof. Heber W. Youngken, head of the Department of 
Botany and Pharmacognosy of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
has recently accepted the invitation to assume charge of the Sec- 
tion on Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy of the important 
compilation being published as Botanical Abstracts. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

The Eleventh Edition of the The American Pocket Medical 
Dictionary containing the pronunciation and definition of all the 
principal terms used in Medicine, Surgery, Dentistry, Veterinary 
Medicine, Nursing and kindred sciences; with over sixty extensive 
tables; edited by W. A. Newman Dorland, A.M., M.D., has just 
appeared. 

This volume, though handy in size, contains 717 pages. The 
alphabetical arrangement of words is in heavy type, with definitions 
in lighter type, facilitating usage. The vocabulary, arranged al- 
phabetically and comprising 682 pages, contains practically all of the 
modern medical terms. The definitions, although necessarily brief, 
are quite lucid. 

Many tables have been added under their respective headings 
which correlates much information at a moment's glance. A table 
of doses in both the Apothecaries' and Metric Systems, embracing 
34 pages, concludes the volume. 

The spelling of the Alkaloids seems to lack the final "e" as 
Strychnin, Morphin, Cocain, Codein, etc., while the United States 
Pharmacopoeia gives the spelling for these Alkaloids with the final 
"e." 

The book, aside from this, takes its place as a good Pocket 
Medical Dictionary, especially for the medical student. 

Mitchell Bernstein, M.D. 

Proceedings Eighth Annual Meeting of the American 
Drug Manufacturers' Association. — ^The proceedings of the 
eighth annual meeting of the American Drug Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, held at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel, New York, March 24-27, 
1 91 9, in book form has now been distributed. The initial statement 
of the ''Forewoid" that "Between the covers of the book you now 



Am. Joiir. Pharm.) 
March, 1920.) 



Book Reviews. 



203 



hold is something of direct and practical interest to you, regardless 
of your position," is fully justified by perusal of this volume. It is 
certainly different from the stereotyped style of association proceed- 
ings of former days. It indicates that the Drug Manufacturers'^ 
Association is a live organization and that at its meetings the mem- 
bers are discussing questions of vital importance to the progress of 
the nation as well as those that are specifically connected with the 
commerce and manufacture of medicines. 

The address of the President and the report of the Secretary 
present much food for thought in the various topics presented under 
such headings as "Tendencies Toward Socialism," "The High Cost 
of Paternal Legislation," "Politics and the High Cost of Living," 
and "Evils of Blind Partisanism." 

The discussions upon legislation, both enacted and proposed, are 
enlightening and it would be well indeed if many of those interested 
in the various branches of the drug trade would read and study these. 
The various questions of especial interest as trade p/oblems are not 
at all sidetracked nor were the scientific matters overlooked. The 
Proceedings of the Scientific Section, formerly the Committee on 
Standards and Deterioration, present a number of valuable scien- 
tific and research questions that had been under consideration during 
the year and the findings will prove of material aid in the revision 
of ofiicial standards already established and in fixing proper tests 
for some other substances for which standards have not been defi- 
nitely determined. G. M. B. 

Digest of Comments on the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States of America and on the Nationai^ Formulary for the Cai^- 
Endar Years 191 5 and i 916. —These two pamphlet publications 
comprising Hygienic Laboratory Bulletins, 118 and 119, have 
been compiled by A. G. Du Mez of the Division of Pharmacology 
and carry on for two more years the work of compiling the criticisms 
upon our legal authorities for standards for drugs. The books 
now in hand continue the same general style of presenting the sub- 
jects as adopted with the inception of this work by the late M. I. 
Wilbert. The United States Public Health Service in undertaking 
this important piece of work and continuing same systematically is 
performing a notable service to all of the interests concerned in the 
establishment of correct standards for medicines and indirectly is 
performing a valuable service to the public who are the final con- 
sumers and whom it is aimed to serve. G. M. B. 



204. UOttUary. \ March, 1920. 

OBITUARY. 

EUGfiNE COLLIN. 

In the decease of Eugene- Jean-B apt iste Collin on December 22, 
19 1 9, France has lost one of her most prominent scientists who occu- 
pied a preeminent position in the field of microscopy and anatomical 
structure of drugs and foods and who had devoted his life in a modest 
yet most effective manner to scientific study. He was born at 
Carignan, Ardennes, on June 22, 1845. At an early age he obtained 
his education as bachelor of letters and sciences and then applied 
himself to pharmacy. He was a hospital interne in 1 868 and during 
this period wrote his first paper on materia medica for which he was 
awarded the first prize. 

In 1 87 1 he arrived at the distinction of a pharmacist, first-class, 
and on this occasion presented a thesis on the structure of the official 
rhubarbs. He determined to apply himself to the microscopic study 
of drugs and foods and the detection of adulterants and sophistica- 
tions, a branch of science which at that time was but little explored. 
His investigations covered a multitude of substances and his con- 
tributions to scientific literature were numerous and on a diversity 
of subjects. Among these may be mentioned his studies of starches, 
canella, pepper, coffee, tea, cinchona, cantharides and marjoram. 

Associated with another name familiar to students of botany of 
drug plants there was published "The Vegetable Origin of Simple 
Drugs," by Planchon and Collin, in which Collin prepared the major 
portion of the work. In 1894, he published "A Guide to the Prac- 
tical Determination of Officinal Powders;" in 1902 appeared his 
"Precis de Materia Medicale;" and in 1907 a "Treatise on Vegetal 
Toxicology," being a study of the application of the microscope to 
the study of the vegetable poisons. In 1905, there was published 
"An Anatomical Atlas of Vegetable Drugs," by Henry George 
Greenish and Eugene Collin. 

His work was not without due appreciation and recognition and 
Collin was elected to honorary membership in many pharmaceutical 
societies. He was an honorary member of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy and only last year was elected to honorary membership 
in the American Pharmaceutical Association. He received the award 
of the Hanbury medal in 1903. 

By appointment of the Minister of Commerce, he held the posi- 
tion of microscopist in the central laboratory for the suppression of 
frauds and here his work for many years, and especially during the 
world war, is said to have been of inestimable value to his fellow 
countrymen. G. M. B. 




MAY 8- 1910 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



Nearly one hundred years have elapsed since the first school of 
pharmacy was established in America. In this initial systematic effort 
to educate pharmacists a course of two years, consisting of lectures on 
materia medica and chemistry, was the original conception of the 
special education necessary for the would-be druggist. A practical 
experience of four years in a drug store was then, as now, considered 
by those engaged in the calling as essential to complete the equipment 
and training necessary for an apothecary. During this time, the 
student by faithful application to his studies and store duties was 
presumed to have acquired the requisite scientific knowledge and 
professional skill and to have become proficient in the art and prac- 
tice of pharmacy. 

In those early days, little or no attention was paid to the pre- 
liminary education of the would-be pharmacist. Yet as one studies 
the history of those who were active in pharmacy during this period, 
he is convinced that many of these were men of high attainments 
and great ability and exceptionally well educated for the time in 
the sciences and languages. The thoughtfulness of parents in se- 
lecting vocations for their sons coupled with the scientific and pro- 
fessional associations of the apothecary, it wouJd seem had attracted 
many of the young men with scientific propensities. 

For many years the colleges of pharmacy did not deem it necessary 
to require of their matriculants any standard or grade of preliminary 
education. Reliance upon the final examinations to weed out the 
■; undesirables and incompetents seems to have been the only method 
considered expedient. With the changes of time, the ideals have 
been elevated and from time to time the preliminary education re- 



APRIL, ig20 



EDITORIAL. 



THE INSUFFICIENCY OF PHARMACEUTICAL 
EDUCATION. 



2o6 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



quired of those entering schools of pharmacy has been advanced 
and in the near future all students admitted to the recognized schools 
of pharmacy in the United States will have had at least a preliminary 
education, the equivalent of a standard four years' high school course. 

The American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties has been 
a potent factor in determining that prerequisite education was an 
initial step that must be taken to establish pharmacy on a profes- 
sional basis. A number of the states now require by enactment 
that those licensed to practice pharmacy must be graduates from 
approved schools of pharmacy and prior to such pharmaceutical 
education shall have had a standard fundamental education. It is 
imperative that such laws should be enacted in every state so that 
prerequisite education for pharmacists will be a universal require- 
ment in the United States. 

The claim that this would work a hardship cannot be main- 
tained as throughout the United States opportunity is now afforded, 
through the public school system, for every youth to acquire at 
least a high school education. When the first school of pharmacy 
was established, and for some years thereafter, it was the exceptional 
boy or girl who had the opportunity of attending high school, but 
now this is the common privilege of all. 

While pharmaceutic educators have been making strenuous 
efforts to provide for a fundamental education, they have not paid 
the attention deserved to the necessity for a more thorough training 
of their graduates. With the great advances made in the medical 
profession and the constant additions to our materia medica and the 
progress of the sciences, the knowledge required of the pharmacist is 
necessarily many times that expected a century ago. The colleges 
have endeavored to supply this extended knowledge by establishing 
chairs and instructions in many branches of science that were never 
dreamed of as essential to pharmacy in the earlier decades of pharma- 
ceutical education in America. Pharmacognosy, bacteriology, clin- 
ical and pathological chemistry and pharmacodynamic assaying and 
commercial training are only some of the courses that have been 
introduced into the collegiate education and many of these are in- 
cluded in the courses outlined in the Pharmaceutical Syllabus. 

Despite the fact that these added courses mean many hours of 
additional study and application and likewise that the commercial 
aspect of pharmacy must receive increased attention from the stu- 
dents, the colleges are still attempting to impart the fundamental 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Editorial. 



207 



knowledge required of the pharmacist in a course of two years. 
Under the conditions existing it is apparent that this becomes an 
effort in which both the teachers and the students are endeavoring 
to accomphsh in a period of two years, what, if accompUshed in a 
period of four years, would be very creditable and more satisfactory. 

The attempt to give in a two-year course an ample foundation for 
the practice of pharmacy is a serious defect in our present system of 
pharmaceutical education. The average student gets a confused 
and unsatisfactory education in the time allotted and it is not to be 
wondered at that his future career is devoted more to the commercial 
than to the professional aspect of his calling. 

The first duty of the educators is to make good, practical, well- 
equipped pharmacists. Ideals of pharmacy must be based upon a 
thorough foundation and if pharmacy is to be developed into the 
professional status we are hoping and working for, it will be necessary 
that the majority of those engaged in the calling shall have a thorough 
education and be fittingly prepared for professional careers. 

The student who takes up post-graduate studies and fits 
himself to carry on the higher professional duties of analyst or expfert 
in pharmacognosy or bacteriology is the exception, and this limited 
number cannot establish a professional status for the entire body 
engaged in the calling of pharmacy. 

The time that should be required by the average student to 
perfect himself in the theoretical education of a pharmacist and 
likewise in the commercial training must be greatly extended if we 
expect to have a sufficient amount of knowledge absorbed by the 
entire body pharmaceutic to claim professional status. 

The need for extending the time required for obtaining a pro- 
fessional education has been recognized by medicine, law and the- 
ology and in fact by practically every other profession than pharmacy. 
For some reason the pharmacy schools have continued in their at- 
tempt to educate professional pharmacists in a course of two years. 
The necessity for greatly extending the time devoted for the educa- 
tion of students in pharmacy is so apparent that the directing of the 
attention of educators thereto should be unnecessary. 

To obtain the professional rank we desire to secure for pharmacy, 
the future graduate must be better equipped, and this can only be 
accomplished by extending the time devoted to the ever-increasing 
studies. The time is certainly at hand when the fundamental course 



2o8 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
April, 1920. 



for the training of pharmacists should be extended to at least three 
years of collegiate education. G. M. B. 

CALCREOSE PROTECTED BY UNITED STATES PATENT. 

In the January number we republished from The Presenter of 
December, 1919, an article on calcium-creosote. In this reference 
was made to Calcreose, and a formula for the preparation of a 
similar compound in liquid form given in the Pharmaceutical Journal, 
was republished. 

We are in receipt of a communication from the Maltbie Chemical 
Company, of Newark, New Jersey, in which we are advised that the 
process for making Calcreose is patented, and that no one can make 
an imitation without infringing upon their patent. 

We republished this paper as a contribution to the knowledge 
of the use of creosote as a remedial agent and the fact that Calcreose 
was protected by process patents entirely escaped our consideration. 

It is not the purpose of the Amkrican JournaIv of Pharmacy 
to submit to our readers the possibilities of imitating a patent-pro- 
tected commercial article, nor have we intended in any way at any 
time to condone substitution or any other unfair practice in dis- 
pensing. On the contrary, the Journal has always maintained 
the position that it was plainly the duty of the pharmacist to dis- 
pense the original proprietary or patented articles in all cases where 
such are prescribed, and the manufacturers of Calcreose have our 
assurance that it was not our purpose to suggest any substitution 
for Calcreose. 

We have not read the patent specifications in which the claim 
for novelty of invention or discovery is set forth, and we are not 
prepared to express our opinion as to the similarity of the liquid 
preparation yielded by the formula from the Pharmaceutical Journal 
to the powdered product described in the article as Calcreose. 

That creosote is a mixture of phenols and phenol derivatives 
obtained by the distillation of wood tar is asserted by the United 
States Pharmacopoeia. The phenolic character of guaiacol and 
creosol, the chief constituents of official creosote, is well established, 
and it has long been a matter of common knowledge that phenols 
as a class unite with basic elements such as potassium, sodium and 
calcium, and that the presence of water facilitates the formation of 
such compounds. Under these circumstances, the defense of such 



%kr"9w} A. Ph. A. Meeting. 209 



a patent as a novel or original invention might become an inter- 
esting problem. G. M. B. 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION 
MEETING. 



By L. F. Kkbi,e;r, Chairman PubIvICity, . 
Washington, D. C, May 5 to 10, 1920. 

Everybody wants to see Washington. During the recent Titanic 
War the eyes of the entire world were turned to the United States 
and since its termination Washington easily holds first place in the 
universe. The mecca of the world is Washington. It is the hope 
and ambition of every good citizen of our great country to see his 
National Capital at least once. There is more here than can be 
seen and learned in weeks of sightseeing and study. We have things 
in Washington that will fascinate any one from the most profound 
scientist or astute statesman, to the merry sightseers. Our beautiful 
city and the internal workings of the greatest government on earth 
fascinate and properly so, all comers. Hotel accommodations are . 
among the best. 

Of all the months May is the most charming. It is then that 
the new, fresh foliage of numerous and rare trees will overhang our 
broad and well-paved streets. The many parks and parklets, with 
native and exotic plants, will be in their best attire. The animals 
in our charming, rolling Zoological Park will bring joy and pleasure 
to all lovers of nature. It is the time of year when life is bubbling 
over. Everything will be all activity. The rugged, scenic. Great 
Falls of the Potomac are but 20 miles away. The ladies have planned 
a trip to this beautiful spot. 

In Washington can be seen the numerous and beautiful, massive 
Government buildings of Doric, Ionic and Gothic architecture. 
Next May will be the best time to see and learn how the government 
business is carried on. Congress will be in session. You should 
spend several days at the Capitol and see how the Senate and House 
conduct the nation's business. Trips should be taken to the White 
House, the Congressional Library, Pan-American Building, D. A. R. 



2IO 



A Bit of History. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



Hall, Washington Monument, Lincoln's Memorial, National Mu- 
seum, Smithsonian Institution, Zoological Garden, Botanical Gar- 
dens, Bureau of Printing and Engraving, Corcoran Art Gallery, 
Fish Commission, Government Printing Office, Lee's Mansion, etc. 
Provisions are made to take all the visitors to Mt. Vernon enroute 
to the Shad Bake. 

The local committee is prepared to give every possible assistance 
and aid in planning so that you can see and learn the greatest amount 
in the shortest possible time. There will be some one at the Union 
Station, properly badged, to meet you, If you should be missed 
apply at the Traveler's Aid Booth, in the center of the building, 
for information. There is only one railroad station in Washington 
and that is considered the best in the world, by many. Its main 
concourse will accommodate 50,000 people. On arriving in Wash- 
ington go directly to headquarters. The New Willard Hotel, for 
registration and information. Cars passing in front of the station 
marked "Georgetown" or "14th" and some other street will take 
you to headquarters. 

1820— A BIT OF HISTORY.* 

By J. W. Sturmer, Phar.D. 

There is no periodicity in the great events which mark the march 
of human progress. Only happenings correlated to the seasons keep 
step with the calendar. And when history repeats itself — which 
it never does except with variations — even numbers of years, or 
odd numbers, or decimal multiples, have no special significance — 
of course not. 

But it is true that the year 1820 was in many respects like the 
present — 1920. The chronicles of that early period seem strangely 
modern. We find references to high prices, labor disturbances, 
to unstable equilibrium in business affairs, political unrest, and 
evidence, in Europe particularly, of that abnormal attitude of mind 
which in our time has led to overt acts on a large scale, and which 
has received a Russian name. The fact is, after a hundred years 
Europe and America, both, again are passing through a period of 
convalescence following the exhausting distemper, war. In 1820, 

* Extracts from an address before Philadelphia Branch, A. Ph. A., at the 
January meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1920.) 



A Bit of History. 



2 11 



as at present, Europe was battle-scarred, then as a result of the canir- 
paigns of Napoleon. America was battle-scarred, too, for the burning 
of Washington and the victory of New Orleans were still discussed 
as recent happenings. Men had gone to war ; some had not returned. 
Many industries had been ruined. Certainly America in 1920 can 
realize the conditions which obtained a hundred years ago. In 19 14 
America could not have done so. 

But despite conditions seemingly so unfavorable, the period of 
1820 marks a glorious renaissance in science and art. In literature, 
during the war period, or immediately thereafter, Moore, Shelley, 
Wordsworth, Keats, Byron, DeOuincy, Scott, Coleridge, Lamb, 
Goethe, Victor Hugo, were producing masterpieces; yes, and Wash- 
ington Irving and J. Fenimore Cooper. It was the era of the 
romantic movement, the greatest manifestation of literary genius 
since the time of Shakespeare. 

Of composers there were Beethos^en, and Shubert, and Mendels- 
sohn, and other masters of the first rank. It was a golden age in music. 

In science, there were Berzelius, Humphrey Davy, Faraday, 
Cuvier, Dalton, Drummond, Gay Lussac, Proust. It was the dawn 
of the modern productive era of science, which has continued to 
the present time, making the last hundred years the most prolific 
in discovery in the history of the human race. 

True enough, every sequence is not necessarily a consequence. 
And wars in the past have not without exception been followed by a 
notable advance in the conquest of nature. But who will question 
that the great war exploits which terminated with Waterloo and 
New Orleans did not stir to the depths the emotions of men, inspiring 
writers, composers, painters, and also men of science, and in the 
latter awakening imaginative faculties, so useful in research? And 
if this be true, may we not expect that the stupendous struggle so 
recently ended will also be followed by a pronounced quickening of 
creative and inventive genius? And, if so, we may be sure, America 
will furnish its generous share in results. 

In 1820, America could not be expected to figure prominently 
in art or science. Our country was new. The population was 
a largely rural. A considerable proportion was distributed over vast 
areas but sparsely settled, where life was rather primitive, and where 
men were hard put to it to provide the elemental needs — food, 
clothing, shelter — then medical service for the sick, rudimentary 
schooling for the children. And when the scientists of the old world 



212 



A Bit of History. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



were engaged in extending the frontier of human knowledge, many 
of our most resourceful Americans were engaged in pushing the fron- 
tier of the white man's civilization westward. In 1820 the great 
migration over the Indian trails, which had been transformed into 
roads, was in full swing. On the Conestoga Road, the covered 
wagons of the travelers, headed for the land of mystery, adventure, 
opportunity — -the West — were as numerous as the stannic "Lizzies" 
on our mountain roads during the summer months of more recent 
years. These men, who with their families, their lares and penates, 
were moving toward the setting sun, were principally farmers. 
But with them traveled the carpenter, the mason, the blacksmith, 
the miller and the millwright, the merchant, the doctor, and the 
apothecary. When a town of some size had developed, in due 
course, there appeared the apothecary shop, and the ring of the 
pestle proclaimed that medicines were being prepared secundem 
artem. And who will say that the inventive genius displayed by 
our pioneer doctors and apothecaries, in adapting limited resources 
to many and diverse needs, was not — in certain instances at least — 
as great as that of many a European research worker who by virtue 
of his better facilities succeeded in getting results which warranted 
their being recorded in the annals of science? 

This was a truly heroic period in our country's history; it was 
the period of nation building, the various phases of which absorbed 
a large share of the energies of energetic men — the men with initia- 
tive. "In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American 
book? Or goes to an American play? Or looks at an American pic- 
ture? What does the world yet owe to American physicians and 
surgeons? What new substances have their chemists discovered, 
or what old ones have they analyzed?" Thus wrote Sydney Smith 
in the January number of the Edinhurg Review in the year 1820. 
We need not take issue with him, although he was seemingly quite 
ignorant of American progress. Indeed, we may admit frankly 
that books of the first rank were not yet numerous. Odysseus was 
too busy to devote time to the composing of Odysseys. But some 
promising youngsters were playing marbles in American school 
yards — Whittier, Longfellow, Emerson, Hawthorne, Holmes — to 
mention a few; and in this year of the Missouri Compromise, 1820, 
the author of the Gettysburg address was doing his chores on a 
primitive Indiana farm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920. j 



A Bit of History. 



213 



American science and American art were in the formative period. 
There were houses to erect, bridges to build, canals to dig, roads to 
be made passable. Just as American literature was principally 
political in character, American science was largely applied science, 
and art, industrial. As for the pharmacist, he was busy in providing 
the most necessary medicaments, and had, speaking generally, as 
yet no leisure for scientific experimentation. 

We must not overlook the fact, however, that at a time when 
America as a whole was still in the pioneer stage, the older and more 
densely populated districts near the Atlantic seaboard, had attained 
to a high degree of culture. Here we find the colleges and universities 
of that period, and the learned societies, and the literary organiza- 
tions, and the book publishers. It is here that we must look for the 
first developments in pharmacy. 

In 1820, Philadelphia, which had served as the national capital, 
and where all the great Americans of the early days had sojourned, 
the largest city in the country at that time, with 130,000 inhabi- 
tants, an important seaport, in close touch with the old world civil- 
ization — Philadelphia, the seat of a university, and of the Institute 
founded by Franklin — became, as a matter of course, a center of 
learning. And medical sciences found here a particularly favorable 
atmosphere for growth. And hand in hand with the progress in 
medicine, we find the early progress of pharmacy. 

To be sure the apothecary of 1820 was practicing his art as it had 
been developed in Europe. If he was American-born, he had, in all 
probability, received his training under an apothecary who in turn 
had been an apprentice in a European pharmacy. If he was a rather 
recent accession to the population, he used, as a matter of course, 
the methods and the textbooks of his native land. The pharma- 
copoeias of London, Edinburg and Dublin were at that time in con- 
stant use. Uniformity of practice was conspicuous by its absence; 
for there was no pharmacopoeia as yet for this new nation; nor 
were there any purity standards for drugs or medicines. As for 
legislative regulations governing the practice of pharmacy, no laws 
of that character had as yet been passed. There were neither pharm- 
aceutical organizations nor pharmaceutical journals. The important 
textbooks for pharmacists, with the exception of the American 
Dispensatory, then already in its fourth edition, were foreign. 



214 



A Bit of History. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



The drugs which the apothecary had on his shelves were imported ; 
and so were also his bottles, his jars, and in fact, even his window- 
panes, which made up his odd little show-windows. At this time, 
when Fulton's great invention, the steamboat, was still a novelty, 
and the word sailor still had its original meaning, the Delaware 
harbored ships from the most distant shores. And the inventories 
of cargoes, as published in the old time newspapers, include a large 
and varied list of drugs. It is from these inventories, in fact, that 
one may best reconstruct the old-time drug stock, for very few 
indigenous medicinal plants had received recognition. Here are 
some of the drugs which were deemed important in 1820 — for they 
were obtained from overseas in large quantities: Aconite, Aloes, 
Asafetida, Belladonna, Benzoin, Camphor, Cantharidis, Capsicum, 
Castile Soap, Cinchona, Colchicum, Colocynth, Copaiba, Cubeb, 
Ipecac, Gamboge, Licorice Root, Licorice Extract, Hyoscyamus, 
Jalap, Lobelia, Myrrh, Nux Vomica, Opium, Rhubarb, Castor Oil, 
Sarsaparilla, Scammony, Squill, Tolu, Tragacanth, Valerian, Veratrum 
Album, Veratrum Viridi, Ginger. Yes, the general aspect of the 1820 
drug store, with its old-fashioned shelf -ware, was odd enough ; but the 
antique bottles held drugs which have retained their popularity to 
the present day. 

The apothecary's stock was, however, not limited to vegetable 
drugs; he had a sundry supply of chemicals, as follows: Hydro- 
chloric Acid, Nitric Acid, Sulphuric Acid, Citric Acid, Arsenic, 
Alum, Ammonium Chloride, Black Antimony, Barium Sulphate, 
Lime, Chalk, Marble, Copper Subacetate, Copper Sulphate, Prus- 
sian Blue, Sulphate of Iron, Mercury, Calomel, Corrosive Sublimate, 
Magnesium Carbonate, Magnesium Sulphate, Lead Oxide, White, 
Lead, Saltpeter, Potassium Carbonate, Cream of Tartar, Salt, 
Borax, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sulphate, Zinc Carbonate and 
Zinc Sulphate. His stock included the elements, Antimony, Bis- 
muth, Copper, Iron, Mercury, Lead, Zinc, and Sulphur. These 
chemicals he bought, for they were even then made industrially. 

But many chemicals now made exclusively on the industrial scale 
were early in the nineteenth century made by the apothecary in his 
own little laboratory. To be sure, there were some then, as at 
present, who chose to buy rather than to manufacture. But the 
list of chemicals actually made in stores at that time is surprisingly 
large, and included the following: Solution of Ammonium Acetate, 
Tartar Emetic, Solution of Magnesium Bicarbonate, Silver Nitrate, 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



A Bit of History. 



215 



Solution of Potassium Arsenite, Subnitrate of Bismuth, Lead Plaster, 
Iron Acetate, Iron Carbonate, Iron Oxide, Red Oxide of Mercury, 
Subsulphate of Mercury, Potassium Acetate, Rochelle Salt, Sodium 
Phosphate, Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate, Zinc Acetate and Zinc 
Oxide. 

Of pharmaceutical preparations there was a large and varied list. 
It included Medicated Waters, Medicated Wines, Medicated Honeys, 
Medicated Vinegars, Spirits, Infusions, Decoctions (made when 
required). Tinctures (made by maceration — 10 days) Solid Ex- 
tracts, Mixtures, (some of which were Emulsions), Liniments, Oint- 
ments, Cerates, Plasters, Pills, Powders, and Confections. 

It is indeed strange that the furniture and shelf -ware and equip- 
ment of the apothecary should have become in a hundred years so 
strikingly antique, while the materials which he dispensed, and with 
which he worked, should to so large a degree have continued in use 
uninterruptedly to the present day. How many drugs in the old 
inventories of ship cargoes are now obsolete? Very few. And as 
to preparations note how many have passed through nine pharma- 
copoeial revisions, experiencing radical alterations, but not deletions. 

Nor should we picture the apothecary himself as an aged recluse, 
sitting at his desk, dressed in medieval garb, with metal-rimmed 
spectacles on his nose, "dandruff on his coat collar and a far-away 
look in his eye," sitting there inactive, surrounded by alembics and 
other gimcracks of the alchemist's stage properties — a man with 
whom we have nothing in common. For then, as at present, men 
were old, or young, or middle-aged; and they exhibited many varia- 
tions in personality. But we may be quite sure that the apothecaries 
of 1820, living at a period of great activity, when stirring events were 
transpiring, when political interest was keen, when Philadelphia 
was conspicuously progressive, when the men of the hour were men 
of action — that these old-time pill rollers lived an active and full 
life, with varied interests — and were factors in this community. 

But they indited no books. They published but little. The 
histories of Old Philadelphia fail to chronicle their doings. Their 
shops and stocks have disappeared. The very buildings in which 
they lived and worked have, in many cases, made room for larger 
structures of modern architecture. Yes, the old apothecaries of 
Philadelphia have vanished. "Like streaks of morning clouds they 
have melted into the infinite azure of the past." 

The beginning of a new year always induces a retrospective mood, 



2i6 Comments on Magendie's Formulary, j^'"' •^A^rii!^92o! 

and it may even lead us to read history. But why should we have a 
particular interest in 1820, aside from the interest which attaches 
to a time an even hundred years ago? The fact is, 1820 marks the 
close of an epoch. It marks the time when pharmacy, until then 
wholly dominated by European thought and precedent, awakened 
to its opportunity and struck for a certain independence. That very 
year the first national pharmacopoeia was issued. A few months 
later, in Carpenter's Hall, the first organization of apothecaries 
was formed. And a few months after that, this organization — 
The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries — opened its doors for the 
first session and for the first class of American students in pharmacy. 

Hence, 1820 has a special significance for pharmacy. 

What 1776 is to us as Americans, 1820 is to us as American 
pharmacists. 



COMMENTS ON MAGENDIE'S FORMULARY.* 
By Charles H. LaWali., Ph.M. 

PHII^ADElyPHIA, PA. 

Books reflect the spirit of the time in which they were written as 
well as the knowledge of their authors. 

Few books in science outlast more than a decade, or so, of active 
utility; after that they are usually of value only for occasional refer- 
ence, and a scientific book which is nearly a century old is more in- 
teresting as a curiosity than for any practical value it may have in 
the science to which it relates. 

It is interesting, however, to carefully review one of these older 
books occasionally to bring one to a realizing sense of how conditions 
have changed during a given period of time. 

In pharmacy, medicine and chemistry such surveys are of pe- 
culiar value, for not only has there been a revolutionary change in the 
practice of each of these professions but the very nomenclature has 
undergone such a metamorphosis that the student of to-day would 
often find much of the text unintelligible without the use of a glossary. 

Magendie's Formulary is a small book issued in an English transla- 
tion in 1824. The book is of peculiar interest to pharmacists, chem- 

* Read at the meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association. 



■^TpriW92o:} Comments on Magendie's Formulary, 217 

ists and physicians as will soon be seen by a discussion of some of the 
details of its subject matter. Its translator, Robley Dunglison, M.D., 
was widely known as a medical author in the early part of the last 
century and published a medical dictionary which attained great 
popularity and went through many editions. 

The title page itself is noteworthy for it is called a "Formulary 
for the Preparation and Mode of Employing Several New Remedies : 
namely, Morphine, Iodine, Quinine, Cinchonine, The Hydrocyanic 
Acid, Narcotine, Strychnine, Nux Vomica, Emetine, Atropine, 
Picrotoxine, Brucine, Lupuline, etc., etc." 

To place oneself in the mental attitude of a period in which Mor- 
phine, Iodine, Quinine, etc., are heralded as new remedies requires 
some intellectual exertion, but fortunately the translator in his preface 
makes this easier by the quaintness of his language and the ingenuous- 
ness and frankness of his views and expressions. 

He states : "Great credit is due to the French chemists, and espe- 
cially to M. M. Pelletier and Caventou, for having discovered that 
the active principle of several of our chief remedies resides in peculiar 
alkalis; and also for isolating these alkalis so that they may be used 
in practice according to a determinate and intelligent principle. 
Great praise is also due to M. Magendie for the indefatigable way 
in which he has investigated the action of these new alkalis on the 
human body." 

Here already we see evidences of the transferring from pharmacy 
to chemistry the credit for worthy achievements, for Joseph Bienaime 
Caventou (i 795-1 877) and Joseph Pelletier (i 788-1 842) were prom- 
inent pharmacists of their day in their native city of Paris. In 
1820 when these two brilliant pharmaceutical workers discovered and 
named quinine, Pelletier was 32 and Caventou 25 years of age. 
In those days many important and epoch making discoveries were 
made by comparatively young men. Wohler who revolutionized 
synthetic chemistry a few years later by the transformation of am- 
monium cyanate into urea, was only 28 years old at the time of this 
discovery. 

Continuing, the translator says: "To druggists and to operative 
apothecaries it must be acceptable to have thus collected a full ac- 
count of the mode of preparing these different alkalis." 

This would indicate a more specific and distinctive use of these 
terms than is now accorded them. It is probable that the distinction 
lay in the fact that druggists were simply dispensers while operative 
apothecaries manufactured as well as dispensed. 



2i8 Comments on Magendie's Formulary, j^"" Tiri^YJm 

After commenting upon Magendie's observations concerning the 
use of these 'Vegetable alkalis," which were not yet called "alka- 
loids," the translator continues, in partial disagreement, as follows: 

"There exists, however, an objection to the principle of thus iso- 
lating and concentrating the active part of our remedies. Perhaps 
every practitioner feels that medicinal substances are more efficacious 
as they are presented to us combined by the Hand of Nature, than 
when their active part is isolated and recombined by the hand of 
man. Thus, then we are all inclined to give our remedies in sub- 
stance, as it is called, rather than as prepared by the chemist or the 
druggist, and we are only deterred from using these natural prepara- 
tions by the greater bulk, and other inconvenient properties of them, 
as compared with our more artificial preparations. Thus, also, we 
all feel that our artificial mineral waters, however accurately they 
may imitate the natural ones, do not produce the same good effect 
as those natural ones do; and even some of them, for instance, the 
bath waters, appear on analysis to be so pure and free from extraneous 
ingredients that we are reduced to the necessity of attributing their 
often powerful effects to the presence of some evanescent principle, 
which cannot be detected by chemical analysis." 

Is this latter thought a prophecy of the discovery of radio ac- 
tivity? In this paragraph, too, the use of the word chemist as ap- 
plied by an American translator to one who is concerned with the 
preparation of medicines, indicates again the close correlation at 
that time between chemistry and pharmacy. The word pharmacist 
was not then in general use in America and the word chemist here 
seems to be used synonymously with the word apothecary of the 
earlier paragraph. 

In another paragraph the translator mirrors the sentiment of the 
times with respect to new remedies in a way that shows conditions 
to have been much as they are now, he says, speaking of himself in 
the third person as was the custom : 

"He is almost angry when he sees the popular authors of the day 
sneering at the introduction of new remedies and saying in ignorant 
self conceit, *Ay, here they come, one after another, vaunted to the 
skies for properties which sober investigation shows not to belong 
to them; we shall soon see them laid upon the shelf until they are 
again held up to the world as prodigies by some future enthusiastic 
searchers after novelty.' " 

I wonder whether any other work ever heralded as new remedies 



"^A^rir^92o;} Comments on Magendie's Formulary. 219 

such a constellation of stars of the first magnitude as those given in 
Magendie's little book. 

Many additional interesting views are then given by the translator 
who develops quite a narrative style at times and concludes as fol- 
lows: 

"The translator has added notes, which comprise a reference, 
he believes, to almost all the authorities on the subjects treated of. 
He wishes he could add records of the several remedies having been 
employed by British practitioners; but, with the exception of the 
prussic acid and iodine, which have been somewhat extensively 
used, he believes that the other preparations have not even been 
seen in this country, except as matters of curiosity. It were to be 
wished that M. Magendie had given the particulars of his experience 
of their prescription in the human subject. Several French journals, 
and especially his own excellent Journal de Physiologie, contain an 
abundance of cases in which the Sulphate of Quinine has been used 
with marked benefit in the latter stages of malignant fevers, in all 
forms of intermittent fever, and especially in many varieties of 
neuralgia; but the translator is ignorant that any published cases 
exist in which other alkalis have been employed." 

In the author's preface, which is quite short by comparison with 
that of the translator, the following interesting statements occur: 

''In spite of the opposition of the physicians of the seventeenth 
century (notwithstanding the celebrated decree of parliament which 
prescribed tartar emetic, and in spite of the spiritual sarcasms of 
Guy Patin), the utility of antimonial remedies has been long recog- 
nized. For once, at least, prejudice gave way before evidence.* * * 

These substances * * * * act, when given in small doses. 
Every principle which might mask or hinder their action has been 
separated from them; their effects bear a decisive character which 
cannot be misunderstood for they have been studied with care both 
on animals and on man when in health and when in disease ; a perfect 
knowledge of their chemical properties and great accuracy in their 
mode of preparation are sufficient to secure uniformity with regard to 
their strength and manner of action; and, lastly, each of them forms 
a medicine in its most simple and energetic state. 

"Time alone can pronounce definitively on the advantages and 
inconveniences of these new remedies ; but which ever way it may be, 
the following pages may be useful, by teaching the mode of preparing 
them without making it necessary to consult general treatises in 



220 Comments on Magendies Formulary, j^™- ■^*Airii!Y92o'. 

chemistry, or pharmacy; and by giving medical men every facility 
in submitting them to personal experience, which is frequently, 
after all, the only truly profitable course. 

"I shall feel extremely grateful for any critical or other remarks 
appertaining to the substances treated of in this work. To those of 
my medical brethren who may be kind enough to address them to me, 
I return my thanks beforehand; and I shall hasten to turn them to 
the improvement of science, by inserting them in the next edition." 

The book itself is a small duodecimo volume printed in Philadel- 
phia in 1824. It consists of 268 pages. 

The principal portion or about two-thirds of the book concerns 
itself with the detailed consideration of the "New Remedies" men- 
tioned in the title, an enumeration of which will be interesting, each 
of the following subjects being accorded a separate section or chap- 
ter: 

Morphine Veratrine 
Narcotine Hydrocyanic Acid 

Extract of Opium deprived of Narcotine Solanine 
Extract of Opium deprived of Morphine Atropine 
Iodine Daturine 
Resin of the Nux Vomica Hyoscyamine 
Strychnine Delphinine 
Emetine Picrotoxine 
Pure Emetine Gentianine 
Cytisine Lupuline 
Cinchonine and Quinine Brucine 
Esculine 

There is also given in this portion of the book a posological table 
and a table of preparations and their strengths in active principle. 

There are three appendices to the book : Number one, containing 
a list of preparations and their compounds. Appendix number two 
concerns itself with poisons of mineral, vegetable and animal nature. 
Appendix number three is devoted to the **Art of Prescribing," 
with numerous detailed examples of prescriptions for various kinds 
of symptoms and diseases. An index completes the book. 

Before commenting upon any of the details of the book in a 
systematic manner it may be well to make some general observa- 
tions. 

One of the first things to attract the attention as one scans the book 



Am. jour^^phann.j Commeuts OH Magcndie's Formulary. 221 

is the fact that the subject of weights and measures must have been 
in a transition state when the book was written, as there are paren- 
thetic notes everywhere of which the following examples may be 
given : 

I lb. (15 oz. 6 dr. I grain troy) 

I oz. (7 dr. 52.5 grains troy) 

I gros (59 grains troy) 

4 grains (3.28 grains troy) 

I grain (0.82 grain troy) 
This is very confusing in the light of modern practice and even 
when taking into consideration the pharmaceutical history of weight 
systems and their fluctuations. In the first place it indicates two 
different standards for the grain in actual use, some light is thrown 
upon this in one portion of the book where it is stated, i grain Fr. 
(grain 0.82 troy). As Magendie was a French physician, the system 
was likely a French system. Calculating it in terms of troy grains 
the pound must have weighed 7561 grains troy and the ounce 472.5 
grains troy, the gros (59 grains troy) was evidently the eighth part 
of this ounce. 

It is odd, too, that Magendie should not employ the metric 
system, as it had been in use for some years in France. The only 
reference to it is found in several formulas where the liquid is directed 
in litres, while the solids are directed in grains, a jumbling together 
of the old and the new. 

Another interesting impression gained by a general survey of the 
book is the list of substances and preparations unfamiliar to the 
pharmaceutical practice of to-day. Notable among these are 
Testarum Praeparatum (prepared oyster shells), Castoreum Ros- 
sicum (glands from the Russian beaver), Cuprum Ammoniatum, 
Ferrum Ammoniatum, Syrupus Mori (syrup of mulberries), Infusum 
Armoraciae Composition (compound infusion of horse radish). 
Burnt oyster shell, burnt hartshorn and burnt sponge all seem to have 
been in use at that time. 

The nomenclature, too, must call for passing comment. Sub- 
carbonate was the term employed then where we now employ bi- 
carbonate. Antimonium Tartarizatum was the older name for 
Tartar Emetic. Hydrargyri Submurias for calomel and Hydrarg5rri 
Oxymurias for corrosive sublimate, would look strange on a modern 
prescription. Tinctura Lyttae was the former name for Tincture 
of Cantharides. Turnsol paper was an indicator then used as we 



222 Comments on Magendie's Formulary, j^""' -^TpriPrj^zo'. 

now use litmus paper. The words chloruret for chloride and super- 
tartrate for bitartrate are still intelligible. 

One of the odd things noted is that Iceland Moss (Cetraria) was 
called Liverwort, and another that Opium was classed with the 
gum-resins. 

One striking difference from modern books covering similar 
ground is the complete absence of chemical symbols or formulas. 
Although Dalton's atomic theory had been published fifteen years 
prior to the appearance of this work it is apparent that it had not 
been generally accepted, at least by authors in other countries. 

The most outstanding feature of a cursory study of the book is the 
great amount of credit given to pharmacists for discoveries of value, 
among the pharmacists thus honored are Derosne, Pelletier, Caven- 
tou, Serturner, Boullay, Robiquet, Hecht, Henry, Pessina, Desfosses, 
Vauquelin and Brandes. This reminds us of the fact that the phar- 
macy of that period embraced not only what is now considered the 
professional side of pharmacy but much of chemistry as well. Many 
of those who became prominently identified with the development 
of chemistry obtained their training and experience in the practice 
of pharmacy and some, as Vauquelin, remained prominently identi- 
fied with pharmacy during the whole of their subsequent careers. 

Medicine was more dependent upon pharmacy than is the case 
to-day and there being no large pharmaceutical nor chemical manu- 
facturing establishments, where scientific progress depends largely 
upon commercial exploitations of the product, there seems to have 
been a larger number of scientific workers at that time who were 
interested solely for the sake of the discoveries which could be made, 
than at any subsequent period of medical and pharmaceutical de- 
velopment. 

It is not the intention in this brief review of the book to make 
critical study of the subject matter. It is intended only to give to 
one who has not seen the book an idea of its scope and character and 
to point out details of peculiar or particular interest. Thirty-five 
pages are given to the consideration of the manufacture of Morphine 
and the preparation of the acetate and sulphate of the alkaloid with 
comments upon their physiological action. It is stated that the 
result of the analysis of opium by Derosne, Sertuirner and Robiquet, 
shows opium to be composed of the following constituents: (i) 
Fixed oil; (2) matter analogous to caoutchouc; (3) a vegeto-animal 
substance not fully investigated; (4) mucilage; (5) feculent matter 



■^Tprir^92o:} Comments on Magendie's Formulary. 223 

(starch); (6) resin; (7) vegetable fibre; (8) narcotine; (9) meconic acid; 
(10) another unidentified acid discovered by Robiquet (probably 
lactic); (11) morphine. This list of constituents, excepting for the 
alkaloids, is in close accord with modern teaching and speaks well 
for the thoroughness of the work done by these early apothecary- 
chemists. 

The composition of morphine is stated in percentage terms as 
follows : 

% % 

Carbon 72.00 71.7 

Nitrogen 5 50 4-9 

Hydrogen 5 • 5o 6.7 

Oxygen 17.00 16.7 

The figures in the second column are present figures. 

The comparison with the modern figures, shows a creditable 
degree of accuracy for the ultimate analysis of the time and for the 
atomic weights that were used in the calculation, 

A S3n-up of Acetate of Morphine containing 4 grains to the pound 
is recommended as well as a Syrup of Sulphate of Morphine of similar 
strength. 

A formula is also given for a preparation called Guttae Anodynae 
(Anodyne Drops) which is as follows : 

Acetate of Morphine 16 grains (13.12 grains troy) 

Distilled Water i ounce (7 dr. 52.5 grains troy) 

Acetic Acid 3 or 4 drops 

Alcohol I gros (59 grains troy) 

These drops, it is stated, are a good substitute for liquid lauda- 
num, Rosseaus drops, tincture of opium, etc. 

We here recognize an old friend which for many years was known, 
not by the name proposed by its author, but distinguished by his 
own name, as "Magendie's Solution." An alternative formula is also 
given in which 16 grains of acetate of morphine are directed to be 
dissolved in two drachms of diluted acetic acid, P. L. and 6 drachms 
of distilled water, the reason given being that the former solution is 
unstable from deposition of the morphine. It is probable that this 
same defect was later found also in the product made by the alterna- 
tive methods, for formulas of later years called for 16 grains of Mor- 
phine Sulphate dissolved in i fluid ounce of distilled water. 

It is interesting here to note that a few years after the appear- 
ance of Magendie's Formulary the U. S. P. of 183 1 contained a formula 



224 Comments on Magendie's Formulary. [^^' ■^Tprii!^9'^2o'. 

for a solution of Morphine Sulphate which differed from both of the 
solutions proposed by Magendie, being four times as strong as the 
weaker and sixteen times as weak as the stronger, leading to years of 
confusion and undoubted loss of life through prescribing and dis- 
pensing errors. 

The following prefatory note to the chapter on Narcotine will 
be found of interest: 

"My researches have not led me to consider this matter as a 
medicine. I shall, however, give its history here, because it is one 
of the immediate principles of opium, and has thrown and still con- 
tinues to throw, much uncertainty over the subject." 

The employment here of the word "immediate" as we use the 
word "proximate" is curious but is in accord with the particular 
meaning it is intended to convey. 

Under the Extractum Opii Narcotina Privatum (extract of Opium 
deprived of Narcotine) a curious editorial note is appended by the 
translator in commenting upon Dr. Magendie' s statement that an 
exciting property is noted in extract of opium which is not observed 
in morphine. 

"M. Magendie's conjecture is probably true; and as said in the 
translator's preface, it forms one of the most valuable properties 
of the isolated morphine, that the stimulating and constipating 
effects of opium are thus avoided. Mr. Battley ought to publish the 
formula for his liquor opii sedativus. It is beneath him as an old 
practicing member of the profession and really useful chemist, or 
rather druggist, to practice such a paltry concealment." 

The Extractum Opii Morphine Privatum (extract of opium de- 
prived of morphine), is nothing more than a prepara4:ion made from 
the drugs of the opium left after extracting the morphine by the 
process described under that substance. The author states : 

"This residuum still exerted a certain narcotic property on animals 
and on man; a less marked one, it is true, than that of the common 
aqueous extracts, but sufficiently strong to make it useful in prac- 
tice. * * * It ought to be kept by all apothecaries who prepare 
their morphine." 

Iodine is accorded quite a detailed description as to its properties 
and compounds. Credit is given to M. Courtois for its discovery 
in 1 8 13 "from the mother waters of soda as it is obtained from sea 
weed." Potassium and sodium iodides are referred to as "Hydrio- 



^"AprZ^wTo] Comments on Magendie's Formulary. 225 

dates" of their respective elements. It is stated of them that "their 
solutions are still capable of dissolving iodine; thus forming an 
ioduretted hydriodate." Tincture of Iodine was made of a strength 
of 48 grains dissolved in i ounce of alcohol. The loss of strength 
which was already noted at that time in the tincture as prepared in 
that manner was explained as follows : 

"It is to be feared also that the iodine may take up a portion 
of the hydrogen of the alcohol and thus be converted into ioduretted 
hydriodic acid." That these were days when enthusiasts went to 
almost any extreme in support of their views or to add to the sum 
total of human knowledge is shown by Dr. Magendie's statement 
that: 

"I myself swallowed a spoonful of the tincture without further 
effect than a disagreeable taste, which went away by degrees after 
continuing several hours." 

A formula for solution of Hydriodate of Potash, thirty six grains 
to the ounce is given as well as a formula for ointment of Hydriodate 
of Potash made by incorporating 29 grains of the salt with one and 
one-half ounces of hog's lard (a strength of about 4 per cent.). 

The chapter on Resin of the Nux Vomica concerns itself with a 
discussion of the mode of preparation and uses of the alcoholic ex- 
tract of the drug which is erroneously called the "resin." A formula 
for Tincture of Nux Vomica is given in which 3 grains of dry extract 
of nux vomica are directed to be dissolved in one ounce of alcohol. 
This preparation is less than half the strength of the present standard 
tincture. 

Under Strychnine a method of separating and purifying the alka- 
loid is given. It is stated that: 

"It is supposed that in the native state the strychnine is in union 
with a new acid, called by M. M. Pelletier and Caventou, Igasuric 
Acid from the Malay name of the St. Ignatius Bean." The dose of 
strychnine is given as one-twelfth to one-eighth grain. Formulas 
are given for strychnine pills containing one-twelfth grain of the 
alkaloid to each pill, and directing the pills to be silver coated to 
keep them from sticking together, the excipient and vehicle being 
conserve of roses. The translator adds in commenting upon this: 

"We are accustomed to prevent pills from sticking together by 
rolling them in licorice powder or magnesia or flour; the old plan of 



226 Comments on Magendie's Formulary, j^"" ^A^rif^TIo' 

gilding and silvering pills is very inconvenient, for, if it be perfectly 
done, the pills will be effectually preserved from the action of the 
stomach." 

A tincture of strychnine is directed to be prepared of a strength 
of three grains to the ounce, and a mixture of strychnine which is a 
suspension of the alkaloid in sweetened water of the strength of one- 
half grain to the ounce. 

Emetine is directed to be prepared, as may be expected, from 
ipecacuana. An emetic mixture of emetine of a strength of nearly 
two grains to the ounce in sweetened orange flower water is described. 
Pectoral Lozenges of Emetine containing about one-seventh grain 
of emetine in each dose are described as are also Emetic Lozenges of 
Emetine containing over one-half grain each of the alkaloid. A 
Syrup of Emetine containing sixteen grains of emetine to the pound 
is also directed. 

Another and purer form of emetine is also described and formulas 
given for preparations containing it in which one-fourth as much is- 
directed to be taken of the pure Emetine as was directed in the corre- 
sponding preceding preparations. 

Cytisine is a poisonous vegetable principle from the seeds of the 
Laburnum. No medicinal properties or uses are given. 

Quinine and Cinchonine take up about twenty pages of the work. 
The species of cinchona mentioned are C. cordifolia, C. condaminea 
and C. oblongif olia ; none of these species are recognized by the 
Pharmacopoeia of to-day. Methods fof preparing these alkaloids 
are described, the cinchonine being obtained from the mother liq- 
uors after separating the quinine. 

The percentage composition of quinine as given does not compare 
as favorably with modern figures as does that of morphine, due 
undoubtedly to the mixture of alkaloids which was then known by 
the same quinine. 

Composition 
as Given 

by Magendie. True Composition. 
Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Carbon 73 • 80 74 ■ 00 

Nitrogen 1 3 • 00 8.90 

Hydrogen 7 . 65 7 . 40 

Oxygen 5.55 9.90 

There were two sulphates of quinine described, one called Qui- 
nine Super Sulphate (acid sulphate of quinine). The other was 



Am. jour^Phaj-m.j Comments on Magendie's Formulary. 227 

simply called Quinine Sulphate. These correspond to our present 
day bisulphate and sulphate, respectively. 

The following formulas were proposed for the administration of 
these alkaloids : 

S3n:up of Quinine, thirty-two grains to the pound. 

Wine of Quinine, twelve grains to the litre. 

Tincture of Quinine, six grains to the ounce. 

Syrup of Cinchonine, forty-eight grains to the pound. 

Wine of Cinchonine, eighteen grains to the litre. 

Tincture of Cinchonine, nine grains to the ounce. 

Under Veratrine we find a confusion of fact and error. This 
"new alkali" is stated to exist in the seed of Veratrum Sabadilla 
(which is correct), and in white hellebore (which is incorrect, al- 
though excusable), and in colchicum (which is a startling and inex- 
cusable error). The only method for its preparation, however, is 
that from Sabadilla seeds, although some space is given in this chap- 
ter to the therapeutic effects of colchicum. 

Hydrocyanic Acid or Prussic Acid is described both as to its prop- 
erties and its mode of preparation. Formulas are given of prepara- 
tions for its administration and use. Among these are: 

Mistura Acidi Hydrocyanici (Melange pectoral — Magendie) 

Medicinal Prussic Acid i gros (59.07 grains troy) 

Distilled Water i lb. (15 oz. 6 dr. i grain troy) 

Pure Sugar i V2 oz. (11 dr. 10 grains troy) 

Dose — One dessert spoonful. 

Potio Acidi Hydrocyanici (potion pectoral — Magendie) 

Infusion of Ground Ivy 2 oz. (i oz. 7 dr. 45 grains troy) 

Medicinal Prussic Acid 15 drops 

Syrup of Marshmallows Z oz. (7.52 dr. troy) 

Dose — One dessert spoonful. 

Syrupus Acidi Hydrocyanici (Hydrocyanic Syrup) 

Clarified Syrup i lb. (15 oz. 6 dr. i grain troy) 

Medicinal Prussic Acid i gros (59.07 grains troy) 

The medicinal Prussic Acid above directed is described as being 
made from absolute HCN, by diluting it with 8.5 times its weight 
of distilled water. This produces an acid of about ten per cent, 
strength, which is stated to be of greater uniformity of strength than 
that produced by Scheeles process which, however, is not described 
but is mentioned as being usually of about half the strength of the 
author's. The curious precautionary note is attached to all of the 



2 28 Comments on Magendie's Formulary, j^""- ^°^^rS^\9^\ 

above formulas for preparations that: "It is necessary to shake the 
mixture every time it is used, lest great inconvenience arise from the 
acid being accumulated on the surface." 

Solanine is described as being obtained from Solanum Nigrum 
and Solanum Dulcamara. It is stated to produce vomiting and sleep 
but that it had not yet been employed as a remedy in disease. 

Atropine is stated to have been discovered in belladonna by 
Brandes, a contemporary and co-worker of Vauquelin, who is also 
stated to have discovered Daturine in stramonium and Hyoscyamine 
in henbane. It is stated of atropine that: 

"When M. Brandes was experimenting on this alkali he was 
obliged to desist in consequence of violent headaches, pains in the 
back, and giddiness, with frequent nausea, which the vapor of 
atropine occasioned; it had, indeed, so injurious an effect upon his 
health that he has entirely abstained from any further experiments,, 
and no one has hitherto repeated them. * * * Even the vapor of 
the various salts of atropine produces vertigo. * * * When he 
tasted the salt of atropine the dilatation of the eye followed to so 
great a degree that it persisted for twelve hours and was not in- 
fluenced by the different shades of light." 

Delpkinine is described as having been separated from stavesacre 
seeds by M. M, Fenuelle and Lassaigne in 1819. It had not been 
used as a medicine. 

Picrotoxine is credited to Boullay for its discovery and is described 
as being alkaline in character, a statement not in agreement with 
the fact as we know it. 

Gentianine is also described as a vegetable alkali and M. Henry 
and M. Caventou are stated to have discovered it simultaneously 
and independently. This calls for the following comment from the 
author : 

"This fact is doubly remarkable — first, because it proves how 
perfect the means of analyzing vegetables have become; and, sec- 
ondly, because it shows the change which the progress of science has 
made in those who follow scientific pursuits. One hundred years ago, 
such a coincidence would have produced a violent quarrel, whilst 
now it only induces a feeling of joy in those who find their discoveries 
confirmed by others." 



Am. jour^phann.| Commeuts ou Mageudte's Formulary. 229 

If the author had looked ahead one hundred years he might have 
been somewhat depressed. Such simultaneous discoveries to-day 
would probably result in patent right litigations. 

Lupuline is credited to several investigators for knowledge con- 
cerning its existence in hops. Among these is the only American 
mentioned in the book: M. Ives, of New York. 

Brucine was first isolated by Pelletier and Caventou from false 
Angustura bark, but Pelletier later discovered it in nux vomica in 
association with strychnine. It is stated to be an "organic salifiable 
base." Its properties are described as being those of strychnine in a 
milder degree and the statement occurs : 

"It is for experience to decide whether this new substance should 
be preserved as a medicine or rejected." 

In the posological table under atropine, delpkinine, daturine, 
hyoscyamine, narcotine, picrotoxine and solanine it is stated that the 
dose had not yet been determined. 

Credit for appendix number one is given to "Snyder's Examina- 
tions." This portion of the book comprises about fifty pages and 
contains methods for preparing the following classes of compounds: 
Acids, alkalies and their salts, earths and their salts, metals and their 
salts, vegetable drugs and their preservation, gum resins, expressed 
oils, distilled oils, distilled waters, infusions, mucilages, decoctions, 
extracts, mixtures, spirits, tinctures, wines, vinegars, honeys, syrups, 
confections, powders, pills, animal drugs, preparations of ether, 
plasters, cerates, ointments, liniments and cataplasma." 

This is really a condensed kind of pharmacopoeia in which formu- 
las and brief methods are given for preparing several hundred medic- 
inal preparations. This portion of the book concludes with a table 
of strengths of preparations of opium, antimony, arsenic and mer- 
cury. 

Appendix number two concerns itself with a twenty-page de- 
scription of poisons of various kinds and their antidotes. Tests are 
given under some of the metallic poisons for their detection. Some 
of these are similar to those described in works on toxicology of to- 
day. Under vegetable poisons (alkaloids) the translator, who is 
responsible for the appendices, says : 

"We are possessed of no tests by which we can distinguish poisons 
of this class and can only conjecture they have been taken by their 
taste or smell, and the symptoms." 



230 Clay as a Medicine. {^"^- ^%r^^^^To\ 



In appendix number three there is a short discussion of the 
general principles of prescribing medicines, followed by typical 
examples of prescriptions of various kinds. 

To show the prevalence of prescribing narcotics in this period of 
nearly a century ago it is surprising to see that out of seventy-seven 
examples of prescriptions, seventeen, or nearly one-quarter of the 
total number, call for opium or some preparation thereof. 

It is interesting also to note that the translator has not ventured 
to make use of any of the "new remedies" described in the main 
portion of the work in his prescription examples. 

It is both pleasant and profitable sometimes to wander through 
"quaint and curious volumes of forgotten lore." In the case of 
Magendie's Formulary our journey ends with a realization that the 
workers of that time, although poorly equipped, both as to funda- 
mental facts and apparatus, were giants in achievement and it is 
for us to sincerely say, "Give us the hearts of our fathers of old." 

Department of Pharmacy, 

PHILADEI.PHIA CoivIvEGE OP PHARMACY. 



CLAY AS A MEDICINE. 
By C. B. Lowe, M.D. 

In the "Book of Books" are interesting references to clay. In 
the Book of Job (supposed to be the oldest book in the Bible), Job 
speaks of it as a building material, when he says, "I also am formed 
out of the clay," and in the loth chapter, 9th verse he also says, 
"remember I beseech thee, that thou hast made me as the clay." 
Its tenacity is referred to in Psalm 40: 2, where it speaks of the miry 
clay. 

It is also referred to as an external application in the Gospel 
of John 9:6, where Christ anointed the eyes of the blind man with 
clay, sending him to the Pool of Siloam. It says, "he went his way 
and washed and came seeing." In this case the value of the appli- 
cation was physiological, to stimulate the man's faith. 

In Wycliffe's translation of the Bible, he speaks of "rushes 
glewed with glewish clay and pitch" as the material with which the 
mother of Moses made the ark in which she consigned her infant 
son to the river Nile. As a side remark, the statement has recently 



Am Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Clay as a Medicine. 



231 



been made, that an official of the Standard Oil Co., reading in the 
Book of Exodus of the ark made from bulrushes daubed with slime 
and pitch, was inspired by it to prospect for oil on the banks of the 
Nile; it is reported as having been found in paying quantities. 

We also read in the Book of Exodus of the Children of Israel, 
then in bondage to the Egyptians, being required to make a certain 
number of bricks per day, straw being furnished them as a binding 
material, for the clay of Egypt contains considerable sand. Finally 
to make their tasks harder, straw was refused them, and they were 
required to glean the straw from the fields, but the tale of bricks 
required of them was not diminished. 

Clay was also used for seals, the jars of Egypt were sometimes 
sealed with clay, and mummy pits were also sealed with this sub- 
stance, the remains of which is often found adhering to the door 
jambs. It is quite probable that the tomb in which the body of 
Christ was laid after the crucifixion was sealed with a clay seal. 
The seal used for public documents was rolled on the moist clay and 
afterwards placed in the fire and baked. It is said by Wilkinson 
"the sealing of doors" with clay to facilitate detection in case of 
malpractice is still common in the East. Before going farther it 
would be well to seek a definition of the word clay. The Century 
Dictionary says "it is the material resulting from the decomposition 
and consequent hydration of the feldspathic rocks, especially granite 
and gneiss and of the crystallin rocks in general." The National 
Dispensatory gives us a sharper definition, in which it says, "clay 
is essentially a hydrated aluminum silicate, and that the purest 
forms are kaolin, fullers earth and porcelain clay." 

It is stated that in some parts of the earth, notably in some of 
our Southern States, it is a practice to eat what is called dog clay, 
or clay stone, the persons following this abnormal practice being 
generally lean and cadaverous. According to Dunglinson those 
who practice earth eating are called "geophagists," and the act is 
called "geophagism." 

In trying to substantiate the above statement I came across an 
article in the American Architect, Vol. 23, page 214, by , Dr. Frank 
H. Getchell of Philadelphia. The doctor went on a gunning ex- 
pedition to Salisbury, N. C, in 1888. "In the wild hilly country 
back of the town he met the 'clay eaters,' a miserable race of beings 
with only enough energy to eke out a miserable existence. The 
soil is of a heavy clayey nature, but there are strata of clay heavier 



232 



Clay as a Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



than the rest. In the spring, torrents rush down from the high 
hills, form this clay into pellets, and rolls that accumulate in the 
valleys below, these are eagerly sought for and eaten." He states 
that he entered a cabin where a boy was crying, tied to the leg of 
a table; the mother stated that the boy wanted to go out and get 
some clay to eat, but she thought (although a clay eater herself) 
that he ought to eat some food first, of which there was plenty on 
the table. The doctor brought some of the clay home to Phila- 
delphia and analyzed it with the aid of a friend, when it was found 
to contain arsenic. 

In the Literary Digest of 1916, page 1027, is an interesting arti- 
cle, "Earth as a medicine and food." Some of the statements are 
as follows: "In the upper parts of Italy, Styria in Austria, and in 
certain parts of Germany the workmen butter their bread with a 
fine article of clay nicknamed 'stone butter.' The real home of 
earth eating is stated to be Asia. The famous earth of Nishpiu*, 
Persia, is used either raw or roasted, prepared with spices or perfumes. 
In the markets of Calcutta burnt clay is offered in small disks, the 
women being the principal consumers. In Africa along the shores 
of certain rivers in Senegambia, they use a soft soapy clay as but- 
ter. The natives of New Caledonia eat a ferruginous clay, either 
fresh or preserved in the form of dried perforated cakes for their 
dessert. 

"In the neighborhood of Ouro, Bolivia, S. A., is found a white 
extremely delicate clay which is sent to the neighboring markets 
and eaten preferably with boiled potatoes. 

"The ultimate reason for this dietic curiosity are manifold, the 
agreeable salty taste, and a perversion of the appetite being some 
of them. Sometimes it is the medicinal instinct, the craving for 
these peculiar substances is mainly a tropical instinct. This may 
explain the use of earth as a medicine by some of the greatest 
physicians of antiquity." 

Current Literature published an article in 1902 taken from the 
St. Louis Post Despatch, entitled "The Dirt Eaters of St. Louis." 
It says "the dirt eater is peculiar about what dirt he eats, the article 
of his peculiar diet is technically a sand. It comes from the river 
bottoms and is made up of many little particles of granite, marble 
and flint, rounded with age. The chief dirt eater, Wm. Windsor 
by name, who is fat and jolly, has the sand collected and sterilized 
and distributes it among his followers at 25 cents a sack." It 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920. ) 



Clay as a Medicine. 



233 



seems to me that there is something of value in the claims of the 
health giving properties of this dirt. We all know that many- 
dyspeptics suffer from constipation because there is no "roughage" 
in their food. It is asserted that much of the ill health of the Indian 
tribes on the Government reservations, is due to the Government 
issuing to them as rations, fine wheat flour, so different from the 
coarsely comminuted maize used by the Indians when running wild. 
The coarse grain containing so many indigestible particles stimulated 
the peristaltic movements of the bowels and constipation was un- 
known. 

As to the use of clays as medicines we learn from the very in- 
teresting translation of Schelenz writings by Mr. Raubenheimer 
published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, March, 1909, 
"that Dioscorides taught that alum possessed healing and astringent 
properties, that it cured boils and carbuncles, frost bite, etc. 

"In ancient times, earths got the reputation of being remedies 
against poisons and also against plague or contagious diseases. 

"The ancients went so far as to claim that the dishes and ves- 
sels burned from these clays and earths also possessed medicinal 
properties, inasmuch as they transferred magic power to the liquids 
contained therein. Red clays were also very popular. Bole Ar- 
menia was especially renowned as a remedy against plague. 

"Many family recipes, handed down for centuries involved the 
use of various earths, externally applied as clay poultices for bee 
stings, ulcers, sores and all kinds of inflammations." 

Thos. Keenan in an interesting article in the American Druggist, 
February, 19 14, says that "Antiphlogistine which was placed on 
the market in 1893 was an impure form of kaolin, originally mined 
in Wyoming, now obtained from other sources. The name kao-lin 
is of Chinese origin, meaning high hill in allusion to a high hill in 
the neighborhood of the chief ceramic town in China." 

We find that clay in various forms has been used as a medicine 
for generations, either externally or internally, its value probably 
residing in its powers of both absorption and adsorption. When 
used as a poultice its heat and moisture tend to soften and relax the 
tissues, thus relieving pressure upon the nerves and also taking up 
discharges from suppurating wounds, sores, etc. 

"Prof. Una of Hamburg, a renowned dermatologist, holds that 
the therapeutic action of Cataplasm Kaolin is due chiefly to the 
glycerin, and others have expressed similar opinions. Una contends 



234 



Base for Mustard Oil. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



that by increasing the sensible watery vapor the cataplasm causes 
an increased flow of water to the superficial tissues, and the serous 
soaking causes their softening. This may be, but he has overlooked 
the power of adsorption possessed by the kaolin in addition to the 
extraordinary power for absorbing water, it may be supposed to 
have great selective action in absorbing the secretions of the tis- 
sues. It is well known that clays are capable by adsorption of re- 
moving solid substances from solutions with which they come in 
contact, these bases and substances being held so that they can 
not be washed out again;" for this reason Prof. Fantus of Chicago, 
asserts that it is an effective antidote in strychnine poisoning. For 
pharmaceutical purposes kaolin should be treated with 5% of hydro- 
chloric acid to remove lime, and afterwards levigated to remove 
sand. As it is free from organic matter it is an excellent excipient 
for making pills of potassium permanganate and silver nitrate. 

The Cataplasm of Kaolin is a better preparation than originally 
introduced because both kaolin and glycerin are thoroughly heated 
to expel moisture. 

According to the U. S. P., "clay has been used internally as a 
remedy in Asiatic Cholera, gastro-enteritis and dysentery, its 
effects in the latter condition are largely those of a protective." 

According to Dr. Hess it surpasses either bismuth or chalk in 
lessening diarrhoea. 



A MORE EFFECTIVE AND ECONOMICAL BASE FOR THE 
APPLICATION OF MUSTARD OIL THAN THE 
OLEAGINOUS BASES HERETOFORE EM- 
PLOYED. 

By Geiorge E). E)we, 
PHI1.ADELPHIA, Pa. 

Dr. Torald Sollman, of the Pharmacological Laboratory of the 
School of Medicine, Western Reserve University, recently pub- 
lished an article in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental 
Therapeutics (Volume XI, 191 8, pages 229 and 30), entitled "Cutan- 
eous Irritation by Mustard Oil as Influenced by Various Solvents." 

In that article. Dr. Sollman reported that the various vehicles 
for the mustard oil, which he tried, possessed irritant efficiencies in 
I per, cent, solutions or suspensions in the following order: 



Am Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Base for Mustard Oil. 



235 



T. Olive Oil 

2. Turpentine 

3. Ether I 

4. Absolute Alcohol / 

5. QS% Alcohol \ 1 1 11^- 1 
^ A . 1 , r Marked and lasting hyperemia. 

6. 50% Alcohol J & -7 



Practically no hyperemia. 
Very little hyperemia. 



7. Mucilage of Acacia 

8. Simple Syrup 



Most intense and persistent hyperemia. 



The purpose of this note is to suggest an aqueous vehicle which 
is of more convenient consistency than mucilage of acacia or simple 
syrup. The vehicle which I wish to suggest is an aqueous 3 per 
cent, tragacanth paste. 

This vehicle is made by soaking 3 parts of ribbon tragacanth 
and 97 parts of water together, with occasional agitation, for 24 
hours, or until the ribbons are completely expanded. The paste 
is then squeezed through a piece of cheese cloth to remove obvious 
solid particles, if necessary. The paste, so made, is of ointment- 
like consistency and can be readily spread or rubbed on the skin. 

The mustard oil can be readily incorporated with this vehicle 
by whipping it in with an egg beater (preferably of the covered 
type to prevent loss of oil and also annoyance to the operator). A 
covered emulsifier is also well adapted to the incorporation of the 
oil. 

The mustard oil strength of the application is a matter for indi- 
vidual preference, based upon the effect desired and the length of 
time it is desired to allow the application to act. The average 
commercial mustard' oil application, made with an oleaginous base, 
usually contains about 3 per cent, of mustard oil. Most pharma- 
ceutical manufacturing companies list such a product. Therfore, 
a mustard oil application made with an oleaginous base and con- 
taining 3 per cent, of mustard oil was taken as a standard for the 
strength of mustard oil application, with which the trade is familiar, 
and this application was compared with mustard oil applications 
made with 3 per cent, tragacanth paste and containing various pro- 
portions of mustard oil, in determining the relative irritation effi- 
ciencies of the two types of bases. 

The standard application with oleaginous base was made with 
a base consisting of 15 per cent, of paraffin and 85 per cent, of yel- 
low petrolatum. 



236 



Cmnposition of Salvarsan. 



Am. Jour. Pharm- 
Aprii, 1920. 



Repeated comparative irritation experiments, when made upon 
the shaven abdomens of guinea pigs, led to the conclusion, that, in 
general, a 2 per cent, mustard oil application made with tragacanth 
base, ably represented in irritation efficiency, a 3 per cent, mustard 
oil application made with a base composed of paraffin and yellow 
petrolatum. 

The keeping qualities of the application made with tragacanth 
base are excellent provided the container is kept hermetically sealed; 
the collapsible tin tube being the logical container for this applica- 
tion. 

PharmaceuticaIv Research Laboratory, 
H. K. MuLFORD Company, 
PniiyADELPHiA, Pa. 



THE COMPOSITION OF SALVARSAN. 

At a meeting of the Chemical Society on March 18, a communi- 
cation from the Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories on the 
composition of salvarsan by Professor F. L. Pyman and Mr. R. G. 
Fargher was read by the latter. Commercial salvarsan prepared 
by the reduction of 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsinic acid by means 
of sodium hyposulphite, solution of the 3 : 3^-diamino-4 : 4^-di- 
hydroxyarsenobenzene so obtained in methyl alcohol containing 
hydrogen chloride, and precipitation of the salt by means of ether, 
is generally regarded as 3 : 3^-diamino-4 : 4^-dihydroxyarseno- 
benzene dihydrochloride containing combined solvent. The latter 
according to the earlier work of Bhrlich and Bertheim, is methyl 
alcohol, and it has been suggested recently by Kober that the vari- 
able toxicity of salvarsan can be accounted for on this assumption. 
On the other hand the circulars of the first makers, the Farbwerk 
vorm. Meister, Lucius u. Briining, suggest that the combined solvent 
is water. It has now been shown that the retained solvent consists 
almost entirely of water, support for the view being adduced from 
the elementary analysis of salvarsan and direct estimation of methyl 
alcohol, the amount present varying from nil to 1.4 per cent. The 
replacement of ether by acetone in the precipitation leads to a prod- 
uct, which, in addition to the customary solvent which can be re- 
moved in a vacuum, contains a molecular proportion of acetone. 

^ A contribution from The Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories, 
London, Eng. 



-^^^^192":} Formosa, the Home of Camphor. 237 

It was originally indicated by Ehrlich and Bertheim that the 
crude base from the hyposulphite reduction contained sulphur at- 
tached to arsenic which was removed by conversion into the hydro- 
chloride. The authors found, however, several years ago, that 
commercial salvarsan of both British and German origin invariably 
contained sulphur, the amount varying generally from one to two 
per cent, (compare Medical Research Committee, Special Report 
Series No. 44, Reports of the Special Committee on the Manufacture, 
Biological Testing and Clinical Administration of Salvarsan, No. 
I, p. 8). As the result of a comprehensive series of experiments it 
was concluded that at least a portion of the sulphur was present in 
acidic form, most probably as a sulphaminic acid, R.NH.SO3H, 
and a product closely approximating in composition to the hydro- 
chloride of the monosulphaminic acid of salvarsan, (HCl, NH2) 
(OH) C6H3.As2.C6H3 (OH) (NH.SO3H), was actually isolated. The 
presence of this product, which could be estimated quantitatively 
with some degree of accuracy, did not as a rule account for the whole 
of the sulphur, and evidence was given in support of the assumption 
that a proportion of the remainder was attached to arsenic. It 
was also suggested that owing to the fact that salvarsan possessed 
some of the properties of a colloid sulphur might be present merely 
in physical association. The last section of the paper dealt with the 
preparation of pure diamino-dihydroxy arsenobenzene dihydro- 
chloride, the most satisfactory process being the reduction of 3- 
amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsinic acid with hypophosphorous acid. 
It is interesting to record that a specimen of this pure material 
tested by the Medical Research Committee proved to be more than 
normally toxic. 



FORMOvSA, THE HOME OF CAMPHOR. 

The March, 1920, issue of the National Geographic Magazine 
contains a profusely illustrated article on "Formosa the Beautiful," 
by Alice Ballantine Kirjassolf, in which an interesting account is 
^iven of the camphor production of this isle whose "plateaus covered 
with camphor laurel, are the largest tracts of these valuable trees 
in the world." The information contained therein that is considered 
of especial interest to the student of drug products is presented to 
our readers in this abstract: 



238 



Formosa, the Home of Camphor. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
April, 1920. 



The population of Formosa is mainly agricultural. The culti- 
vation of rice, and more especially sugar-cane, is encouraged by the 
government, and these are grown in great quantities. However, 
the most interesting industry is the production of camphor, and it 
can be truly said to be peculiar to the island, when it is remem- 
bered that Formosa holds a practical monopoly in the world's market 
of this valuable drug. Before the war, Germany, by a secret process, 
succeeded in manufacturing some S3Tithetic camphor, but so ex- 
pensive was the labor entailed, that the artificial product could not 
compete with the natural camphor, nor is it likely to do so for some 
time to come. 

Shortly after the Japanese came to Formosa, 25 years ago, the 
camphor industry became a government monopoly. Before that 
time there had been a great deal of ruthless waste, both in the cutting 
down of trees and in extracting camphor from them. At first, the 
Japanese, too, were careless in this respect, for the supply of cam- 
phor trees seemed practically limitless, but the great increase in the 
demand for the product in late years has made scientific afforestation 
necessary. Now large tracts of land are given over to the cultivation 
of the camphor laurel. The oldest trees are now twenty years of 
age and these, I am informed, are to be cut down next year. 

According to an article appearing recently in a semi-official pub- 
lication of Formosa, the camphor produced in the island at the present 
time is obtained entirely from natural grown camphor trees, the sup- 
ply of which, it is anticipated, will be exhausted within ten years. 
For more than a decade, however, the camphor monopoly bureau had 
been planting camphor trees at the rate of more than 3,000 acres a 
year. In 191 9 its program was expanded to more than 12,000 acres, 
and this will be the annual acreage planted in the future. In recent 
months the demand for Formosa camphor has been exceedingly 
heavy, especially among celluloid manufacturers. For the first 
three months of 1920 the Japanese Government has allotted to the 
United States 379,635 pounds. 

Paradoxically as it may seem at first glance, the savage head- 
hunters of Formosa have been both an impediment and a boon to 
the camphor industry. As the forests are cut down, the head- 
hunters have to be driven further back into the mountains. These 
expeditions against the savages are never very successful, encounter- 
ing as they do heavy obstacles in the way of dense forests, rapid 
streams without bridges, steep mountains without trails, and above 
all, the danger of sudden attack. 



-^Aprir^92'o:} Formosa, the Home of Camphor. 239 

The life of a camphor worker is indeed an adventurous one; he 
is never safe. Although a woodman with an axe never moves 
except in the company of an armed guard, there is always danger of 
an ambush. Tales of the camphor workers recall the days of our 
pioneer fathers in the times of the tomahawk, the poisoned arrow, 
and the scalping knife. And yet if this menace had not existed, 
the camphor forests would have disappeared long ago. Thanks to 
the head hunters, there are still large tracts of virgin camphor 
forests in Formosa. 

Camphor trees grow best on moderate, vvell drained slopes, not 
over 4,000 feet in elevation, w^he^-e the sun's rays can reach them. 
Nowhere else in the world have these trees attained such height and 
girth. In the past, trees with a basal circumference of from 30 to 
40 feet have been noted, but these have inevitably fallen victims to 
the woodman's axe. Perhaps in the uncharted forests, where the 
savage still holds sway, more of these noble specimens still grow un- 
scathed. At present a camphor tree with a basal circumference of 
20 feet is considered a very ample specimen. 

In the point of view of value, few trees can rival the camphor. 
An average tree, say with a basal circumference of 12 feet, will yield 
about 50 piculs of camphor (approximately 6,660 pounds), which, 
at present market price, is worth about $5,000. Strictly speaking, 
there are no camphor forests, as the camphor laurel is only one of a 
number of trees growing together. The camphor trees are unusually 
beautiful, with shapely trunks and wide-spreading branches pro- 
fusely covered with graceful leaves of a soft green. 

Native stills are scattered here and there throughout the districts 
where crude camphor is collected, packed in tins and carried down 
precipitous mountain paths on coolies' backs to the nearest railway 
line, whence it goes to the j-'efinery at Taihoku. 

The still we visited was operated by the members of one Chinese 
family. When our party approached, some of the men were gouging 
chips from the trunks of camphor trees with adzes, while others were 
in the still feeding the fires. Adjoining the still was a shanty, 
where the workers lived, and in front of the door was a woman pre- 
paring the afternoon meal, while beside her a little boy was busy 
playing blocks with chips from which the camphor had been ex- 
tracted. The stills are operated in a very simple manner. Camphor 
chips are placed in a chip retort over boiling water, and as the camphor 
vaporizes it passes through pipes into submerged vats, which are so 



240 



The Fat of Moniordica Seeds. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



arranged that cool water from a mountain stream can run over them 
to accelerate crystallization. After the camphor has crystallized 
the vats are opened, and the product is placed on wooden troughs 
to allow whatever free oil there may be to drain off. This oil will 
yield 90 per cent, of crude camphor in the process of refining. 



At the request of the Assistant Director of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, an examination of the fat contained in the seeds of 
Momordica cockinckinensis (Spreng.) was undertaken with the view 
to ascertaining whether it might prove of commercial value. 

Momordica cockinchinensis is a cucurbitaceous plant indigenous 
to Bengal, Tenasserim, the Deccan Peninsula, Formosa, and the 
Philippine Islands. The seeds are described by Hooker as "^/s" 
X ^/s" and V5" thick, many, horizontal, irregular, ovate, compressed, 
black, corrugated on the margins, sculptured on the faces." {Flora 
of British India y 2: 618.) 

Very little information has been published concerning the fat 
of these seeds. In the Pharmacographia Indica (2 : 77) the state- 
ment is made that the seeds yield to light petroleum ether 43.74 
per cent, of a slightly greenish oil, which smeared on a glass plate 
and exposed to a temperature of 100° G., could be scraped off the 
glass as a white powder, which, when boiled with petroleum ether, 
yielded only a trace of oil. 

A general examination of the seed-coats and kernels has been 
made by Greenish and Baines, with the following results: 

The average weight of each seed was 3.13 Gms., of which the 
seed-coat weighed 36.7 per cent., and the kernels 63.3 per cent. 

A— Seed-Coats. 

The powdered seed-coats were extracted successively with different solvents, 
the solvent evaporated, and the residue dried at 100° C. 



THE FAT OF MOMORDICA SEEDS.* 



By C. B. C0RFIE1.D, F.I.C., AND E. Caird, B.Sc, A.I.C. 



Per cent, of 
Seed-Coat. 



Per cent, 
of Seed. 



1 . Petroleum Spirit Extract 0.33 

2 . Ether Extract 0.16 

3. Chloroform Extract -44 

4. Alcohol Extract 1.62 

No alkaloid was found in any of the residues. 



0.06 
0.16 



0.59 



o . 



2 



* From The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, January 17, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



The Fat of Momordica Seeds. 



241 



B. — Kernels. 



Per cent, of 



Per cent, 
of Seed. 

28 .90 

0.65 



1 . Petroleum Spirit Extract 

2. Ether Extract 

3. Chloroform Extract 

4. Alcohol Extract 



Kernel. 

47.06 
I .03 
0.17 
3-44 



o. 



2.18 



Again it is interesting to note that no alkaloid was present in 
the residue. The residue from the petroleum spirit extract was a 
pale brown viscous oil. On exposure to air it rapidly filmed on the 
surface, and on continued exposure it was converted into a whitish 
solid mass, easily reducible to a powder. 

The result of these experiments led to the present examination 
of the seeds with a view to ascertaining whether the oil would be of 
commercial value as a drying oil. 

Since, as will be shown later, the heating of the oil to a tempera- 
ture approaching 100° C. had the effect of altering the composition 
of the oil, a method, other than that of extraction by means of a 
solvent and subsequent evaporation, was employed. Cold com- 
pression yielded little, since the fat was fairly solid. With the ap- 
plication, however, of slight heat the fat was readily yielded, and a 
method of extraction based upon this result was adopted. After 
removal of the seed-coats the kernels were coarsely powdered and 
submitted to pressure, the necessary heat being obtained by means 
of a steam coil round the press, and was adjusted to produce in the 
mass a temperature of about 40° C. The fat, of which a good yield 
was obtained, was greenish brown in color; had an unpleasant and 
penetrating odor; on cooling, solidified to a pale green, granular 
mass; when worked at atmospheric temperature became fluid. 
The green color was most probably due to traces of chlorophyll 
from the coating of the cotyledons. 

On examination the fat gave the following constants: 

Saponification value 185.2 



Acid value 

Iodine value 

Refractive index (40° C.) 

Ester value 

Melting point 

Unsaponifiable matter . . . . 



a trace 



I .496 
183.3 

28*' 0.-32° C. 



I -9 
23-4 



After saponification of the fat the alcohols were separated, and 
were found to consist principally of glycerol, the residue giving no 



242 The Fat of Momordica Seeds. {^"- %rn,\^^^: 

evidence of the presence of wax-alcohols. The fatty acids on sep- 
aration were found to be yellowish brown in color and solid. The 
following constants were observed: 

Melting point 46 ° C -5 1 ° C . 

Solidifying point 44° C.-42 ° C. 

Acid value 188.3 

Iodine value about 40 

Since some considerable difficulty was encountered in determining 
the iodine value, the figure is not taken as final. Apparently the 
absorption is accompanied by the formation of some unstable com- 
pound, which is decomposed by sodium thio-sulphate. From these 
constants it appears that the fat consists chiefly of the glyceryl esters 
of fatty acids, the larger portion of which are saturated, but no 
attempt has been made to determine the composition of the fat. 

On exposing the fat to the atmosphere a change in color and in 
form was noticed. The fat gradually lost its green color; assumed a 
pale yellow shade; a marked tendency for films to agglomerate 
was apparent; finally it became grandular in appearance. A sys- 
tematic examination of these films was conducted with a view to 
determining the cause of these changes. 

The following tables will show the course of the experiments: 

A. — 3.9536 Gms. Exposed to Air and Light. 

Gain per Gramme 

Time of Exposure Actual Gain. per Day. 

in Days. Gm. Gm. 

1 o .0024 o .00061 

2 0.0070 0.00177 

3 0.0216 0.00546 

4 0.0312 0.00789 

5 0.0505 0.00425 

These figures are no measure of complete change, since, owing to 
agglomeration, the lower layers were not sufficiently exposed. 

B. — 3.5913 Gms., Exposed to Air, Without Access of Light. 

Gain per Gramme 

Time of Exposure Actual Gain. per Day. 

in Days. Gm. Gm. 

1 0.0003 0.0000835 

2 O.OOII 0. 0003063 

3 0.0025 0.0006961 

4 0.0074 0.002060 

7 0.0082 0.000761 



%rii\"9^:} The Fat of Momordica Seeds. 243 

In this experiment there was no agglomeration, and the only 
change in form was the appearance of small, white points in the green 
exposed surface. 

C. — 3.9894 Gms., Bxposkd to Light in Nitrogen. 

For a period extending over seven days no change in weight took 
place. 

From the above figures it is evident that the change observed is 
one of oxidation, which is immensely accelerated by the presence of 
light, sii;ce in that experiment in which the fat was excluded from 
light the change was extremely small, and only affected the most 
exposed portions. The effect that this oxidation has upon the solu- 
bility of the fat in the ordinary solvents was next ascertained. The 
data are tabulated below, and will again show that there was prac- 
tically no change when the fat was kept in the dark: 

Petroleum Carbon Alcohol 

Spirit. Ether. Tetrachloride. (97%). 

Original fat Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble 

Exposed in light .... Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble 
Exposed in dark. .. . Faintly opal- Faintly opal- Faintly opal- Insoluble 
escent solution escent solution escent solution 

Lastly, the effect of heat upon the appearance and properties of 
the fat was observed. 

A. — 3.5712 Gms. Exposed to Air and Light at ioo° C. 

Time of Exposure Gain per Gramme 

in Days. Actual Gain. per Day. 

1 O.1912 0.05652 

2 0.0614 0.03714 

3 0.0140 0.00392 

4 nil nil 

At this point the weight of the film had become constant, in- 
dicating that complete oxidation, and other change, if any, had 
occurred during the period of three days. The appearance of the 
heated film was markedly different from that of the film exposed at 
atmospheric temperature. The green color was lost and the fat 
assumed a granular, gelatinous form, of a pale brown color, finally 
becoming stiff, and easily disintegrated. The effect of heating during 
oxidation was, as in the case of oxidation at ordinary temperatures, 
to render the product insoluble in the fat-solvents, petroleum spirit, 



244 



Assay of Iron Filings. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



ether, and carbon tetrachloride, while it remained insoluble in al- 
cohol. 

The following is a record of observations made on heating the 
fat slowly from 15° C. to 240° C: 

15° 0.-50° C. — The fat became less granular, finally assuming 
a homogeneous appearance, and was of a 
dark brown color. 
50° C.-ioo° C. — No change observed, except that the other color 
assumed a redder tint. 
100° C.-iio° C. — More transparent. 
120° C.-i3o° C— Color still lighter. 

130° C.-i8o° C. — Appearance of small bubbles, probably due 
to the escape of a small quantity of volatile 
matter. 

200° 0.-240° O. — A greenish brown mobile liquid. 

On cooling, the fat remained as a brown viscous liquid of the 
consistency of castor oil, and the solubility remained as that of the 
original fat. On exposure in thin layers this liquid did not exhibit 
the character previously recorded of the fat. During two days no 
film appeared, whereas on further exposure the thinnest portions 
formed a transparent skin of the nature of a varnish. 

In conclusion, the evidence is that the fat shows certain char- 
acteristics of drying oils, such as Tung oil, without the property of 
producing a varnish, as is the case with drying oils, such as Linseed 
oil, whereas after heating it behaves as a semi-drying oil, and it 
would seem that in this condition, admixed with drying oils, it 
might be used in the production of paints and varnishes. 



THE ASSAY OF IRON FILINGS FOR PHARMAOEUTIOAL 

USB.* 

By H. H1NDI.EY, Ph. C. 

Iron in the form of fine filings, though not official in the B. P., 
is frequently used in the manufacture of medicinal preparations 
containing iron, instead of nails or wire, and as it is more liable to 
contamination in this form, it demands more careful examination. 
From a medicinal point of view its actual content of metallic iron 

* From The Pharm. Jour, and Pharm., Feb. 7, 1920. 



^ZrtilTo] Assay of Iron Filings, 245 

is not so important as in ferrum redactum, which depends for its 
medicinal properties on the metallic iron it contains. It is necessary 
however, that it be nearly pure, as the presence of much oxide would 
seriously alter the iron content of the preparation if allowance were 
not made. An estimation of its iron content, both free and combined, 
is therefore necessary. 

Iron filings are official in the German Pharmacopoeia as ferrum 
pulveratum, but the assay process therein given estimates the total 
iron only, whether free or in any state of oxidation. The proportion 
of free metallic iron may be estimated by the official B. P. method 
for ferrum redactum, by allowing the filings to react with copper sul- 
phate solution and titrating the ferrous sulphate thus formed with 
potassium permanganate. In using this process for ferrum redactum, 
it has been pointed out by Peck {Y ear-Book of Pharmacy, 1898, p. 
399), that it is difficult to secure accurate or even concordant results 
unless certain experimental details be adhered to. This lack of 
concordance is due chiefly to the incompleteness of the reaction, 
in varying degree, due to the formation of a protective coating of 
metallic copper on the iron particles, and to the massing together of 
the particles, preventing the reaction proceeding with sufficient 
rapidity to be completed in the specified time. These objections 
apply to filings also, with greater force if they are somewhat coarse, 
and if care is not taken results may be obtained which are below the 
truth or above for a reason to be discussed. Peck directs that the 
copper sulphate solution be added cold to the iron, the solution heated 
in a flask with Bunsen valve for half an hour, then rapidly filtered and 
titrated. In assaying a number of samples of iron filings by the 
B. P. process another complication made itself evident, and the results 
obtained were not only inconcordant, but in some cases impossibly 
high, being several figures over 100 per cent. Using Peck's modifi- 
cation, similar results were obtained. This was not explainable for 
some time, till on one occasion a smell of phosphine was noticed in 
the hot, unacidified solution. The odor was like that of acetylene 
from calcium carbide. This latter smell is really due to traces of 
phosphine, pure acetylene being odorless. The presence of phosphine 
suggests the presence or formation of hydrogen, either as occluded 
hydrogen or formed by galvanic action between the copper and the 
iron, and combing while nascent with the phosphorus in the iron. 
The latter explanation is the more probable. As phosphine, PH3, 
reacts with potassium permanganate, KMn04, according to the 



246 



Assay of Iron Filings. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



equation: SKMnOi + 12H2SO4 + 5PH3 = 4K2SO4 + 8MnS04 + 
12H2O + 5H3PO4 it was considered likely that traces of phosphine 
(and probably some hydrocarbon) were responsible for the abnormally 
high results obtained. It will be seen from the above equation that 

PH3 = 8 Fe 

8KMn04 = 5PH3 = 40FeO — i. e., 

35 = 447 

so that phosphine has the reducing power of about thirteen times its 
weight of iron; consequently, a little in the solution, if calculated as 
iron, would produce the high result. So little as 0.000437 Gm. of 
phosphine reduces i Cc. of N/io KMn04. Sulphuretted hydrogen 
would act similarly, but the proportion of phosphorus in iron (which 
may be 0.7 per cent, in cast iron), judging from published analyses 
of iron, is from four to seven times that of sulphur. That the gas 
evolved was phosphine was proved by dissolving 5 Gms. iron filing 
in dilute sulphuric acid in a flask and passing the gas generated 
through a solution of potassium permanganate in another flask. 
The permanganate solution was then decolorized »vith tartaric acid 
and tested with excess of ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, 
when ample evidence of phosphate was obtained. It might be 
expected that if phosphine is formed it would be precipitated from 
the solution as copper or iron compounds. In the case of small 
amounts, however, and under certain conditions, such as the reducing 
influence to the copper-iron couple, it is possible that precipitation 
may not take place. It was notable that the odor of phosphine 
was not always perceptible, though some may have been formed 
in further experiments on the sample which had previously yielded 
it under apparently the same conditions. In fact, odor of phosphine 
was not the rule. Assuming, phosphine, however, to be the dis- 
turbing factor, prolonged boiling was tried to eliminate it from the 
solution, and this was found successful. The following process was 
employed : 

0.025 Gm. of iron filings and 1.25 Gms. of copper sulphate were 
ground together in a small mortar to thoroughly subdivide the filings, 
then rinsed into a narrow 4,000 Cc. glass beaker with about 60 Cc. 
of cold water. The contents of the beaker were then brought to 
the boil and kept briskly boiling till reduced to about 15 Cc, then 
rapidly filtered, preferably at the pump, through a Gooch crucible 
or through a small Buchner funnel. The time of filtration is thus 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Assay of Iron Filings. 



247 



reduced to a few seconds, lessening the chance of oxidation and 
mechanical loss. But filtration must be thorough, and no trace of 
precipitate must be allowed to remain in the solution, for it has a 
strong reducing action on the permanganate. Wash with about 
100 Cc. of cold water, add sulphuric acid, and titrate as usual. 

This treatment appears to get rid of the phosphine. Either it is 
volatilized as formed, or it is completely precipitated at the boiling 
temperature by the excess of copper sulphate. Brisk boiling also 
aids interaction by keeping the particles from massing together 
There is no fear of oxidation while boiling, as, in the narrow beaker 
the liquid is covered with an atmosphere of steam. The originators 
of the process official in the German Pharmacopoeia may have had 
the effect of such impurities in mind when they devised the method 
which is as follows: 

I Gm. of ferrum pulveratum is dissolved in about 50 Cc. of dilute 
sulphuric acid and made up to 100 Cc. with water. 10 Cc. of this 
solution is treated with V2 per cent, solution of potassium perman- 
ganate, sufficient to produce a faint pink. The solution is then de- 
colorized by means of tartaric acid, 2 Gms. of potassium iodide are 
added. The stoppered flask is allowed to stand one hour, and the 
liberated iodine is then titrated with N/10 sodium thiosulphate. 
The iron and such impurities as phosphorus and sulphur are fully 
oxidized. The final oxidation products of the phosphorus and sul- 
phur have no effect on the potassium iodide, whereas the ferric 
sulphate is reduced to ferrous sulphate, which liberates the equivalent 
of iodine. The process is required to yield 97.7 per cent, of total 
iron. The same process is used for ferrum redactum, which is re- 
quired to indicate 96.6 per cent, of total iron. It must not be for- 
gotten, however, that a standard base on the total iron is sufficient 
to ensure a minimum of the free metal being present when the figure 
approaches 100 per cent., as in the German test. But it fails to 
give a measure of the free metal, and is, therefore, only a check on a 
prearranged standard. Clearly, filings from a cast-iron at 95 per 
cent, or less would be rejected by the German Pharmacopoeia test, 
and only filings from steel or wrought iron which indicate 98 per 
cent, to 99 per cent, free iron are considered suitable. Such a 
standard determined with the precautions indicated, secures medic- 
inal preparations with full iron content. 

The work in connection with this note was carried out in the 
laboratory of Messrs. Evans Sons, Lescher and Webb, Liverpool. 



248 Purified Cresol {Cresylic Acid). i^""' %r-I.\^9^: 

PURIFIED CRESOL (CRESYLIC ACID).* 

By Herbert C. Hamii^ton, 

research laboratory, parke, davis & company, detroit, mich. 

One of the minor problems arising from the war because of 
interference with importations from Europe was that of obtaining 
a substitute or equivalent for trikresol, a proprietary article imported 
from Germany and extensively used as a preservative and disin- 
fectant. As has been shown to be true in many other instances, 
it is equally true in this case that there is no lack in America either 
of crude material or of ability to purify it. There was required only 
the incentive. 

Trikresol is so named because it is a mixture of the three isomeric 
cresols naturally occurring in coal tar. These three cresols are iden- 
tical in composition, but have different physical and bactericidal 
properties. These differences, however, are unimportant and noth- 
ing of practical value results from their separation. 

Trikresol, while useful as a general antiseptic and germicide, 
with a phenol coefficient of 2V2 to 3, found its more extensive appli- 
cation as a preservative for serums, vaccines and similar biologic 
substances. Careful research has proved that for this purpose, with 
one exception,^ no other antiseptic has been found entirely suitable, 
either because of its efficiency or the toxic or irritating action when 
absorbed from a hypodermic injection. 

The cresols have practically the same toxicity as pure phenol, 
as shown in the accompanying table, but the corrosive action is so 
low and the germicidal value so high in comparison, that the use 
of phenol as a germicide is no longer logical. To illustrate: cresol 
with a coefficient of 3, when diluted i to 60, is equal in every respect 
to a 5 per cent, solution of phenol, while the toxicity of the solu- 
tion is only one-third as great because of the degree of dilution, and 
the corrosive action, while not measurable with accuracy, is less than 
one-third as great. 

Superficially trikresol is identical with the cresols of coal tar, 
since an average sample of the latter contains not over 5 per cent, 
of constituents other than the cresols. But it was very promptly 
observed that cresol, as it appears on the market under various. 

* /. Ind. Eng. Chem., Jan. 9, 1920. 

^ Carl Voegtlin, Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin 96. 



Xriri^iS:} Purified Cresol {Cresylic Acid). 249 

names, is inapplicable for use as a serum preservative because of 
three specific reasons, all of which are interrelated, namely : 

1. Incomplete solubility. 

2. Disagreeable odor. 

3. Color. 

Incomplete solubility is due to the presence of one or more of 
three substances, naphthalene, colored compounds formed appar- 
ently at the expense of the cresols, and phenols of higher boiling 
point and less solubility than the cresols. 

The disagreeable odor is largely due to pyridine and partly to 
the naphthalene which have been incompletely separated in pre- 
paring the crude phenol. 

The origin of the color which appears in cresol and phenol is 
more or less uncertain. It is probably not always due to the same 
cause, but may in some cases be due to impurities in the cresol, and 
in others, to incidental conditions, such as the effect of light or air 
or the action of alkali from the glass container. 

It is said that the germicidal value of a highly colored lot is 
greater than that of a clear straw-colored sample. This, however, 
is probably a hastily drawn conclusion from insufficient evidence,, 
since different lots are found to differ much more than a water- 
white and a colored sample from the same lot. Redistillation cor- 
rects the color and can improve the solubility and odor, but not to 
a sufficient extent. 

The development of color appears to be a property not only of 
cresols but also of pure phenol and no method has been devised by 
which such a change can be entirely prevented. The coloring mat- 
ter appears to be a new constituent and to have properties entirely 
different from those of the original cresols. It remains behind on 
redistillation, but further quantities form so that only the freshly 
distilled material is entirely colorless. 

Gibbs^ ascribes the development of color by the action of sun- 
light to a labile hydrogen atom and describes experiments with the 
three cresols in which coloration occurred in varying times with the 
different ones, but all were affected in the same way. 

This, however, does not explain the immediate cause of this 
coloration. A sample of a freshly redistilled lot was set in the sun- 
light and another was kept in an amber bottle in the dark. The 
first, after three months, was very slightly tinged with pink, the 

2 /. Am. Chem. Soc, 34: 1190, 1912. 



250 Purified Cresol {Cresylic Add). l^"^' ^^pril^igTo. 

other was decidedly reddened. This is not an isolated case but 
was a careful demonstration of what frequently occurs in practice 
with large lots. Sufficient observations have not been made to 
arrive at a theory as to the cause or causes of the change and no 
method has consistently prevented its recurrence. 

The disagreeable odor is due to pyridine and naphthalene which 
one would naturally think were eliminated in the process of sep- 
arating the cresols from the creosote oil. In this process the acid 
constituents of the oil are combined with an alkali such as caustic 
soda or lime, and in this form should be readily separated from 
the neutral and basic substances. In fact only a very small per- 
centage of these bodies remain with the cresols and are dissolved 
with it when its alkaline combination is broken up, as it is in prac- 
tice, with carbonic or sulphuric acid. The odor of crude carbolic 
acid is not distinctly like either impurity, since the natural odor 
of the cresols masks the others until they are unrecognizable. Dis- 
tillation carries these impurities over and little improvement can be 
accomplished by this step as the sole purifying process. 

Nevin and Mann^ depended on separation by redistillation to 
obtain the proper fraction but this, as noted above, while removing 
the colored and some of the insoluble impurities, fails to remove 
pyridine and naphthalene, which are responsible for the odor. While 
this odor is perhaps negligible, it is easy to detect the difference 
between two lots of cresol, one purified to remove the odorous 
impurities, as will be described later, and the other purified by 
redistillation only. 

In my experiments an attempt was made to study the sodium 
cresylate compound when prepared in molecular proportions. In 
concentrated solution no observable separation takes place to indi- 
cate that purification by this means is feasible, but on further dilu- 
tion the naphthalene crystallizes out in a well-recognized form and 
often in considerable quantities. This can be filtered out, but on 
again recovering the cresols no material improvement in odor , re- 
sults, because the naphthalene is the less objectionable of the two. 

My next experiments were carried out having in mind the ex- 
amination of sodium cresylate in solid form to see if impurities could 
be detected, identified, and removed by tests applied to the dried 
or crystallized material. 

3 /. Am. Chem. Soc, 39: 2752, 1917. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



Purified Cresol {Cresylic Acid). 



251 



In the process of evaporating the solution it was observed that 
the vapors smelled distinctly of pyridine, and further, that after a 
certain time no odor of this character could be detected. Carrying 
this experiment to its conclusion and recovering the cresols, they 
were found to be practically free from the objectionable odor of the 
crude cresols and on redistillation a water-white soluble product 
was obtained with no odor but that of the pure cresols. 

The practical working out of this process is as follows : Dis- 
solve the crude cresol in a solution of caustic soda molecularly 
equivalent, using sufficient water to dilute the sodium cresylate to 
a 25 per cent, solution. Then boil, or drive live steam through the 
solution until the odorous impurities have passed off with the steam. 
If the solution is boiled over an open flame, care is necessary to avoid 
concentrating the solution too much, as the cresylate breaks up 
and free cresol is volatilized and may take fire. It is important to 
add water to replace that lost by evaporation. 

The time necessary to vaporize the impurities varies with the 
amount present, and can be determined by smelling. "The nose 
knows" when the pyridine is gone. The solution should be allowed 
to become cold and then observed to see if naphthalene or other 
neutral oils are present. Any floating oil can be skimmed off, while 
the naphthalene, if any remains un volatilized, can be removed 
by filtration or centrifuging. 

Treatment with sulphuric acid equivalent to the alkali originally 
used will break up the cresylate and set free cresol which can be 
recovered as a supernatant layer over the sodium sulphate solution. 
Separation should be very complete, as the water otherwise present 
causes trouble in distilling. 

The removal of these two impurities, which rarely amount to 
more than 5 per cent, of the cresols, is therefore equivalent to a 
complete purification of the substance, since the color is auto- 
matically removed by redistillation, and a careful observation of 
the temperature of distillation at the end of this step insures the 
removal of the higher boiling phenols which are less soluble than the 
cresols and may for that reason be considered as impurities. 



Toxicity Assay. 



Sample . 
Animal . 
Method 



Purified cresols 
Guinea pigs 
Subcutaneously 



252 Purified Cresol {Cresylic Acid). {^"'- ^ wifY92'S 



CRESOIv. 

Wt. of Animal. Dose per Kilo. Result. 

0.572 0.6 Recovered 

0.61 1 0.6 Recovered 

0.577 07 Died 

o . 640 o . 7 Died 

0.572 0.8 Died 

o . 43 7 0.5 Recovered 

0.480 0.5 Recovered 

o . 446 o . 6 Died 

o . 480 o . 6 Died 

0.570 0.6 Died 

0.340 0.7 Died 

Toxicity about 90 per cent, of that of phenol: Worth Hale, Hyg. Lab,, 
Bulletin 88; James Leake and Hugh B. Corbin, Hyg. Lab., Bulletin no. 

Germicidaiv Assay. 
Sample Purified cresols. 

Method A. P. H. A. phenol coefficient method. 

(Committee Report, Am. J. Pub. 

Health, 8 (1918), 506.) 
Organism B. typhosus. 

DILUTIONS. time; and RieSUIvTS. 

Sample. 5 10 15 20 

1-300 — — — — 

1-350 — — — — 

1-400 + — — — 

1-450 + + — — 

1-500 + + + + 
Phenol 

i-ioo ^ — — — — 

i-iio + — ■ — — 

1-120 + + — — 

1-130 + + + + 

1-140 + + + + 



Coefficient 3.6. 

The cost of the process is inconsiderable, since no complicated 
chemical or mechanical steps are necessary. It is evident from 
observation of the steps in the process that no unusual equipment 
is needed and only the commonest chemicals are employed. It is 
evident, therefore, that here again the German chemists profited at 
our expense for many years while the crude materials waited only 
for proper development. 

The logical place for the economical production of the refined 
cresols is where the crude material is first separated from the oils 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920 J 



Benzyl Benzoate. 



253 



distilled from coal tar. These crude phenols, necessarily dissolved 
in alkali to separate them from the neutral oils, can, at that point, 
by suitable means, be freed completely from their impurities, and 
after fractional removal of the phenol proper, the cresols could then 
be recovered in pure form with one operation. 

The production of purified cresols is, therefore, a logical open- 
ing for American enterprise, as well as American resources, for here, 
as in Europe, are immense supplies of coal tar on which to draw for 
crude materials. 



BENZYL BENZOATE.* 

As the drug has come into fairly extensive use, some notes on 
its pharmacy, chemistry, and general properties may be of service. 

Benzyl benzoate, C6H5COO.C6H5CH2, is the benzyl alcohol ester 
of benzoic acid. It occurs naturally in several of the balsamic 
resins, such as balsam of Peru and in balsam of tolu. Possibly the 
antispasmodic action of these drugs is due in some measure to its 
presence. It is contained in the volatile oils of many fragrant 
flowers, such as hyacinth, jasmin, orange, etc. It may be obtained 
by the fractional distillation of the oily portion of balsam of Peru; 
it is made synthetically in several ways. On a manufacturing scale 
it may be prepared either by treatment of benzyl chloride and ben- 
zoic acid with phosphorus oxychloride, or by treatment of benzyl 
chloride and sodium benzoate with soda ash. 

It is a colorless oily liquid, odorless or with a faint aromatic odor, 
and having a sharp burning taste. It is insoluble in water or glycerin,, 
but is miscible in all proportions with alcohol, chloroform, or ether. 
When ignited it burns with a smoky flame. Sp. Gr. 1.09 to 1.13 at 
15 ° C. It is neutral to litmus. Alcoholic solution of KOH saponifies 
it readily. This solution when neutralized gives with ferric chloride 
a flesh-colored precipitate, and upon acidulation a white, crystalline 
precipitate of benzoic acid separates. This may be extracted with 
ether and identified by means of the usual tests for benozic acid. 
Benzyl benzoate for medicinal purposes should be free from chlorine 
and should contain not less than 95 per cent, of pure benzyl benzoate. 
The residue from ignition of 10 Cc. should weigh not more than 
0.1 Mgm., that is, practically nil. The volumetric test given by the 
American Medical Association is as follows : To about 2 Gms. benzyl 
*From The Prescriher, March, 1920. 



254 



New Source of Ginger. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



benzoate, accurately weighed, add 25 Cc. half -normal alcoholic 
KOH and heat the mixture to incipient boiling under a reflux con- 
denser for one hour. To the cooled solution add phenolphthalein 
and titrate the excess KOH with half -normal HCl. Each gram 
of benzyl benzoate requires for saponification not less than 8.9 or 
more than 9.4 Cc. of half -normal KOH. 

The dose of benzyl benzoate is 0.3 to 0.5 mil. (5 to 7 minims). 
It may be given in 20 per cent, alcoholic solution (dose, 20 to 30 
drops). A proprietary emulsion contains benzyl benzoate 20 Gm. 
in alcohol 78 Gm. to which 2 Gm. of castile soap is added as an emul- 
sifying agent. Gum acacia may also be used as emulsifier. 



A PROBABLE NEW SOURCE OF GINGER.* 

In times like the present, when every bit of information affecting 
the increased production of vegetable products, whether for food, 
medicine, or manufacture, is especially valuable, the following ex- 
tracts from an article on "Wild Ginger" in a recent number of the 
Agricultural News cannot fail to be of interest. It may be stated 
that the Agricultural News is one of the official publications of the 
Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies. It is 
pointed out that the true ginger plant {Zingiber officinale) is not known 
in a wild state, but that it is doubtless a native of tropical Asia, 
where it has been cultivated and from where the rhizomes have 
been exported from very remote times. From Asia it was introduced 
into the West Indies, and has spread now throughout the warmer 
parts of both hemispheres. The name "ginger" is derived through 
the Greek from the ancient Sanscrit. It was known as a spice to 
the early Greeks and Romans. During the Middle Ages it is fre- 
quently mentioned in European lists of articles derived from the 
Far East. In an interesting account of a journey down the Magdalena 
River and through the Peninsula of Goajira undertaken at the re- 
quest of the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce of the Republic 
of Columbia for the purpose of studying the agricultural conditions 
and possibihties of the region, Mr. M. T. Dawe, F.L.S.,. Agricultural 
Adviser to the Government of Columbia, makes the interesting state- 
ment that he found ginger growing wild over extensive areas on the 

* From The Chemist and Druggist, Feb. 7, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



New Source of Ginger. 



255 



lower hills of the Sierra Nevada range. He thinks, therefore, that 
the theory that ginger was originally a native of tropical South- 
East Asia must be abandoned and Columbia be considered its original 
habitat. This, however, would be open to question, for it is quite 
certain that ginger was introduced by the Portuguese into Brazil 
as early as the middle of the sixteenth century, and it is probable 
that the ginger now found growing wild in Colombia is really only 
the descendant of plants escaped from cultivation which have be- 
come thoroughly naturalized. Mr. Dawe goes on to remark that 
this discovery is of commercial importance, owing to the fact that 
there are extensive wild sources of a valuable product which can be 
immediately exploited and a new local industry established in the 
collection and preparation of the roots. Apart from the question 
of the exploitation of the wild product, there raises the possibility 
of its cultivation and the initiation of a new plantation industry 
for that part of Colombia. Ginger is well known to be fastidious 
as to its soil requirements, and the fact that it is found growing 
wild is a proof that not only the climate but the soil is suitable to 
it. The rhizomes of the wild plant, however, are not nearly so large 
as those of the cultivated ginger. Mr. Dawe adds a word of warning 
to intending exporters of ginger, whether wild or cultivated, to the 
effect that whatever method of curing and drying be employed, the 
rhizomes must be thoroughly dried and bleached before shipment. 
The cultivation of ginger in the Kandy district of Ceylon is also the 
subject of a note in the Tropical Agriculturist, in the course of which 
it . is stated that the area under ginger is extending in the island. 
In the Kandy district during 191 7-1 8 eighty acres, yielding 480,000 
lbs. of green ginger, equal to about 850 cwt. dry ginger, was obtained, 
and particulars are given as to how this was raised, the seed being 
obtained from India. Ceylon could easily produce a large quantity 
of ginger, but the chief obstacle is that the villagers are ignorant of 
the method of curing it for the market. Locally there is always 
quite a good demand for green ginger, which sells at 12 to 15 cents, 
and even 20 cents to 25 cents per lb., so that there are no exports. 
It would be worth consideration whether a profitable business could 
not be started in curing ginger for the market, as a well-cultivated, 
good crop may yield up to 15,000 lbs. to the acre. At the present 
time most of the ginger imported into London is produced within the 
British Empire, but there is no reason why Ceylon should not make 
it a paying minor product. 



256 Glycerin from Sugar. {^'"- Xri^^,^^ro. 

PRODUCTION OF GLYCERIN FROM SUGAR.* 

(Prepared by the Research Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce.) 

At the beginning of the war Germany was "swimming in sugar," 
to use an expression of the Frankfurter Zeitung (May 22, 191 5). 
Production had been greater than ever; large quantities left from 
the previous campaigns were still available; exportation had stopped. 
One of the 10 "war commandments," proclaimed on bills posted in 
all railway stations, advised people: "Use plenty of sugar with 
your meals; sugar is an excellent food." Certain measures of the 
Government, however, soon made it impossible for the people to 
follow that advice, and sugar became scarce in the market, although 
it was known that stocks were plentiful, for the production of the 
1913-14 campaign had yielded 2,715,870 metric tons of sugar. 
Germany had been the leading sugar-producing country of Europe, 
and yet the people suffered from scarcity of sugar during the war 
and were compelled to use honey and saccharin as substitutes. It 
was supposed that owing to the shortage of fats the Government 
was trying to conserve the stocks of sugar. It now appears that 
large quantities of sugar that had been withdrawn from human 
consumption were used in the manufacture of glycerin for war pur- 
poses. The process of production is described by Dr. W. Con- 
stein and Dr. K. Ludecke in Die Naturwissenschaften (1909, p. 403). 

Process of Production. — The consumption of glycerin in the 
manufacture of cosmetics and for other purposes, chiefly in the 
manufacture of explosives, increased enormously during the war, 
while the supply of the raw materials — fats — was constantly dim- 
inishing. It was therefore necessary to seek other sources, and 
sugar was selected, as its chemical structure is somewhat similar to 
that of glycerin. The transformation of sugar into glycerin was 
accomplished by the biochemical method. It has been known for 
a long time that in the ordinary fermentation of sugar with yeast 
small quantities of glycerin would be produced, amounting to about 
3 per cent, of the sugar. By adding alkalies to the liquid in fer- 
mentation the production of glycerin was increased. It was found 
that almost any salt with an alkaline reaction could be used for 
that purpose. Experiments were made with acetate, bicarbonate, 
and dibasic phosphate of sodium and with carbonate of ammonia. 

* Commerce Reports, Feb. 3, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920. j 



Annual Meeting. 



257 



The yield of glycerin was increased to 12.7 per cent, but the alkaline 
mash was found to be an excellent breeding place for all kinds of 
acid-forming bacteria which would pollute the glycerin. This fault 
was remedied by the use of sodium sulphite which acts as a poison 
to the bacteria of lactic acid and others but does not, even in large 
quantities, affect the yeast cells (Saccharomyces) . When sodium 
sulphite was employed as an antiseptic the yield of glycerin was 
increased proportionately to as much as 23 to 36.7 per cent, of the 
sugar. 

The ordinary fermentation produces not only alcohol, carbonic 
acid, and glycerin, but also small quantities of acetaldehyde. When 
the sulphite is added in increasing quantities the yield of acetalde- 
hyde and glycerin increases, while that of alcohol and carbonic acid 
decreases. The acetaldehyde was used largely for war purposes. 
The production of glycerin from sugar had a great practical value 
in war time, according to German writers. The manufacturing 
process, patented in 1915, was exploited on a large scale, and the 
production of glycerin exceeded 2,200,000 pounds a month. The 
invention also possesses an unusual theoretical interest as it shows 
how the transformation of materials by bacteria can be influenced 
by the addition of chemicals. In the words of a German writer 
(Prometheus, Nov. i, 1919), "the biochemical processes open up 
new prospects for the future and seem to be destined to provide 
many substitutes to a people robbed of all raw materials." 

Attempts made during the war in Austria-Hungary to produce 
glycerin from sugar do not seem to have met the success claimed 
for similar attempts in Germany. Complaint was made by the 
Bohemian journals of Prague that carloads of sugar had been wasted 
in recovering negligible quantities of glycerin, and doubts were ex- 
pressed whether such waste of food could be justified even by the 
exigencies of war. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE 
OF PHARMACY. 

The Annual Meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
held at the College March 29, 1920, at 3.00 p.m., the President. 
Howard B. French, presiding. Thirty-four members were present. 

President French read his annual address. The address gave 
in detail the condition of the buildings, the work of the various de- 



258 Annual Meetinf,. T""- Xrir'S 

partments, the classification of the students as to numbers in the 
different courses of instruction and many items of interest in con- 
nection with the College work. 

The following abstract from this interesting address covers 
special recommendations relating to the Centenary of the Founding 
of the College : 

"Your President regrets that he cannot report success in obtain- 
ing a site upon the Parkway for your new buildings. The matter, 
however, is in the hands of the Park Commission and he hopes in the 
near future to be able to submit to them for their consideration, a 
sketch of the elevation for your buildings. He feels confident that 
provisions will be made in the very near future for the proper location 
of your College upon or adjacent to the Parkway. 

"In about a year we shall be called upon to celebrate our looth 
anniversary and it has been suggested at a conference of some of 
your members that an anniversary volume be issued shortly after 
the memorial exercises, which in the opinion of your President, 
should be in June, 1921, at the time of the annual commencement. 
In addition to the report of the exercises, it is thought that a com- 
plete historical account should be given concerning the College and 
its development — including photographs (so far as can be obtained) 
and sketches of those members who have taken an active part in the 
conduct of your institution from its origin in 1821 to the Centenary. 
A complete list of the graduates of the College, with short biographical 
sketches of all that it is possible to obtain should be published in this 
volume. 

"This work, which will prove no small task, should be placed in 
charge of a proper Committee, which, with your sanction, should be 
appointed by your executive. The Committee should in his judg- 
ment be a combined College, Faculty and Alumni Committee. 

"Your Board of Trustees have already placed themselves on 
record as favoring a certain type of building and placed the prepa- 
ration of plans for the same in the hands of a committee. 

"Efforts should also be made to use every means to secure funds 
for the development, maintenance and endowment of the institu- 
tion. No better work could be placed in the hands of an active 
Alumni Committee, which should work in full accord with the Com- 
mittee appointed by the authorization of your body. 

"It is the wish of your Executive that at this meeting you 
authorize him to appoint such committees as in his judgment and 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920 J 



Annual Meeting. 



2.59 



with the approval of your Board of Trustees, would prove efficient 
in carrying out the suggestions made above. He particularly asks 
that you authorize him to appoint an 'Executive Secretary of the 
Centenary Plan.' Such a secretary should be a person of energy 
and enthusiasm to whom could be entrusted the task of formulating 
the details of the comprehensive plan under the supervision and 
guidance of the existing Committee of the Board of Trustees." 

Joseph W. England offered the following: 

"Resolved, That a General Committee on the One-Hundredth 
Anniversary of the College, representing every pharmaceutical 
interest and every section of the country, and sub-committees of 
this General Committee, be appointed by the President; the chair- 
men of the various sub-committees to constitute an Executive 
Committee," which was, on motion, adopted. 

Robert P. Fischelis offered the following resolutions: 
"Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that the General 
Committee on Centenary, to be appointed in accordance with the 
resolution offered by Mr. England, shall consist of one hundred 
and include representatives of the Alumni, Faculty, Trustees and 
Members of the College, and shall be headed by the President of 
the College. 

"Resolved, further, That ten members of this General Committee, 
residing in Philadelphia or within easy access of the City, be desig- 
nated at once by the President as a 'Sub -Committee on Organiza- 
tion,' to work out a plan covering the various activities to be entered 
into and the manner in which they are to be handled in connection 
with the Centennial Celebration, and submit the same for approval 
at a special meeting of the College to be called for that purpose 
within one month." 

This was amended "that the Executive Secretary be selected 
at once and be added to the Committee of Ten." 

The resolutions were fully discussed by many of the members 
and unanimously adopted, and April 26, 1920, was fixed as the time 
for the special meeting of the College. 

Report of the Committee on Publication was read by Prof. 
Charles H. La Wall and on motion the report was received and the 
recommendation of the Committee that the College appropriate 
the usual amount for the use of the American Journai^ of Phar- 
macy for the year 1920 was adopted. 



26o 



Annual Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



The following is a brief statement of the progress of the Journal 
since 191 7: 

Increase in mailing list 132 per cent. 

Increase in total revenue 99 " *' 

Increase in publication expenses ... . 82 " " 

The advanced cost of most everything has materially affected the 
printing trade, but it is hoped that the cost of publication has about 
reached 'its height. 

Prof. LaWall stated that the estate of the late Prof. Henry 
Trimble had sent to the Journal a complete set of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy. On motion, the thanks of the College were 
tendered to Mrs. Trimble for the valuable donation. 

The Editor, Mr. George M. Beringer, reported that Volume 91 
of the Journal had been completed, and the monthly numbers are 
being issued as promptly as the demoralized condition of the print- 
ing trade permitted. Volume 91 contained a variety of original 
contributions, editorials, abstracts, and reprints from current litera- 
ture, the purpose being to recognize the needs and desires of each 
branch of pharmacy and the drug trade interests. The primary 
duty of journalism, in whatsoever field engaged, is to make the 
publication sound, representative, progressive and beneficial to the 
interests it professes to serve. In order to fulfil its obligations to 
pharmacy, the scope of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
had to be broadened and its circle of influence widened. The 
Journal must continue to be the torch-bearer that will illumine 
the path of advances and record the progress of pharmacy and the 
allied sciences. The Journal is developing a policy and taking an 
active interest in all matters pharmaceutic and by so doing its useful- 
ness to pharmacy is receiving more recognition and its influence is 
growing apace. In a marked way this is shown in the growth of the 
list of subscribers. The earnest and hearty cooperation of the 
Committee on Publication, business management and contributors 
is gratefully acknowledged and to these the thanks of the College 
must be accorded for making possible the continued success and 
prosperity of the Journal. 

Mr. George M. Beringer reported the death recently of M. Eugene 
Collin, of France, an honorary member of the College. 

Committee on Necrology reported that but one active member 
of the College had died during the year — Mr. C. Carroll Meyer. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Annual Meeting. 



261 



An appropriate obituary has been prepared by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk and published. 

Prof. Cook, for the Committee on Nominations, reported that 
the Hst of nominations for officers had been printed and sent to all 
the members. 

Prof. F. P. Stroup, who had been acting as librarian ad interim, 
reported verbally that the library had been used more than in any 
similar length of time for many years. 

President French read a communication from Prof. Charles H. 
LaWall in which he suggested that the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical 
Association be invited to hold their meeting in 1921 in Philadelphia 
at the time the College was holding its Centenary celebration. 
He believed hundreds of the Alumni .would come to the city then, 
attracted by the double event. In the discussion that followed the 
reading, it was suggested that other organizations should also be 
invited to hold their meetings about that time. The suggestion was 
favorably received, when, on motion, it was voted to tender to the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association the use of the College 
to hold their meeting in 1921. 

President French read the following communication: 

Camden, N. J., March 24, 1920. 
"Mr. Howard B. French, President, 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dkar Sir: 

The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association have had engrossed 
and framed resolutions upon the death of Prof. Remington. They 
desire to present these to the College as a token of their esteem for 
the late professor. 

I understand that the next quarterly meeting of the College will 
be on Monday afternoon, March 29. If it is agreeable to you I will 
be glad to present this memorial at that time on behalf of the New 
Jersey Association. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) George M. Beringer, Jr." 

Mr. Beringer, Jr., being present, was invited to the floor, and in 
very appropriate remarks, presented the resolutions to the College. 
On motion, the sincere thanks of the College were tendered the New 
Jersey Association for the gift. 



262 



Annual Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



Prof. Heber W. Youngken, Curator, reported that one of the 
conditions growing out of the prohibition laws was the necessity of 
having a bond executed because of the many alcohoUc preparations 
in the College. The alcohol question is now settled and we are 
getting our quota of alcohol for scientific purposes. 

Mrs. F. M. Apple presented a crude drug specimen case. 

Prof. La Wall had secured a section of wood water pipe used in 
the city about 1820. 

The Martindale herbarium was being cleaned. The herbariums 
are being numbered to correspond with the Martindale herbarium. 
Some changes have been made in the classification and other changes 
are in prospect. 

As the result of the ballot taken, the following officers were elected : 

President, Howard B. French. 

First Vice-President, R. V. Mattison, M.D. 

Second Vice-President, Joseph L. Lemberger. 

Treasurer, Aubrey H. Weightman. 

Corresponding Secretary, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. 

Curator, Heber W. Youngken. 

Editor, George M. Beringer. 

Librarian, F. P. Stroup. 

Trustees — C. Stanley French, George B. Evans, Ambrose Huns- 
berger. Warren H. Poley. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings — C. B. Lowe, M.D., 
George M. Beringer, Charles H. LaWall, John K. Thum, Heber W. 
Youngken. 

Publication Committee — Joseph W. England, Charles H. LaWall, 
George M. Beringer, John K. Thum, J. W. Sturmer, R. P. FischeHs, 
E. F. Cook. 

The President made the following appointments: 

Committee on By-Laws — George M. Beringer, Joseph W. Eng- 
land, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. 

Delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association — Charles 
H. LaWall, J. W. Sturmer, F. P. Stroup, E. FuUerton Cook, C. B. 
Lowe, F. X. Moerk, H. W. Youngken, John K. Thum. 

Delegates to Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association — Charles 
H. LaWall, J. W. Sturmer, C. B. Lowe, E. Fullerton Cook, F. X. 
Moerk, O. W. Osterlund. 

Delegates to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association — 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Annual Meeting. 



263 



George M. Beringer, Charles H. La Wall, J. W. Sturmer, C. B. Lowe, 
H. W. Youngken. 

Delegates to the Delaware Pharmaceutical Association — A. W. 
Miller, H. J. Watson, S. Loraine Foster. 

'Delegates to the Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties — 
Charles H. LaWall, J. W. Sturmer, F. P. Stroup, H. W. Youngken. 

On motion of R. P. Fischelis, it was voted that the College send 
a congratulatory message to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation on the occasion of the celebration of its Fiftieth Anniversary 
this coming summer. 

Dr. Wm. Dufheld Robinson stated he had conversations with a 
number of physicians who were also graduates of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and who were favorably impressed with the 
idea of the Centenary celebration, and he suggested the appointment 
of a Committee to consider organizing the physician-pharmacists 
into an alumni association for the purpose of aiding the College and 
contributing to the success of the Centenary celebration. After 
some discussion, Dr. Robinson moved that the President appoint a 
committee to consider such an organization. Seconded and so 
ordered. 

A symposium on the Centenary celebration followed. Prof. 
E. F. Cook was the first speaker. He was very enthusiastic and 
optimistic over the project. He thought the Alumni Association 
would be very active. Groups in every organization could be 
utilized. He wanted to see the College heartily sustained as a 
leader in the science of pharmacy, as well as in practical work; 
the advanced courses recently introduced and the extension of re- 
search work were dominant factors in maintaining the standing of 
the College. 

R. P. Fischelis mentioned the recent celebration of the looth 
anniversary of Colgate University. They had an enthusiastic 
Alumni Association and one of great activity. Fifteen hundred of 
its three thousand graduates were present and had worked hard 
for the success of the celebration. It was an object lesson for us. 
Publicity work was needed to attract students, and the student co- 
operation was desirable, and that of many others, especially the 
help of the large manufacturing houses of the country, a number of 
whom had in their organizations graduates of the P. C. P. 

Dr. P. S. Stout was in favor of the suggestion of Dr. Robinson. 
It would be one element of success in the Centenary campaign. 



264 



Annual Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



Dr. Stewart also approved of the suggestion of Dr. Robinson. 
It would give us a good deal of backing from our medical graduates. 

Mr. McNeary thought it desirable for the officers and trustees 
of the College to enlist the cooperation of and secure contributions 
from those who are among our graduates who have become mil- 
lionaires because of the influence on their lives and their great success 
in life their connection with the College has had. 

Mr. George M. Beringer was glad we had gotten down to a 
definite plan of work. We had talked much previously, but from 
to-day we are going to get down to hard work. This celebration 
was not a local affair, it was a national, yes, even an international 
event. Let us make a big function of it. 

Prof. La Wall suggested to get the American Pharmaceutical 
Association to meet here next year. This was very favorably 
received, and, on motion, it was 

"Resolved to formally extend an invitation to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association to meet in Philadelphia in 192 1 and 
join with us in celebrating the Centenary of the College." 

Mr. Beringer, Jr., said this would practically be a celebration 
of the centenary of pharmaceutical education in this country, and 
he thought that the beginning of pharmacy in Philadelphia had 
not been as well understood as it should be. 

Mr. French suggested that the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation should also meet in Philadelphia in 1921. 

Mr. Beringer had often hoped for a joint meeting with the Penn- 
sylvania Pharmaceutical Association — he thought it would be ap- 
propriate to ask the New Jersey Association to meet about the time 
of the Centenary celebration and hold at least one of their meetings 
in the College. The suggestion was favorably received, and, on 
motion, was adopted. 

Mr. R. T. Blackwood proposed extending an invitation to the 
National Association of Retail Druggists to meet in Philadelphia 
in 192 1. 

Prof. LaWall proposed inviting the Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties, and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. 

A member proposed inviting the Philadelphia Association of 
Retail Druggists to actively participate in the centennial events. 

All of these propositions were adopted. 

Prof. LaWall mov^d that a Publicity Committee be appointed. 
Seconded, approved and so ordered. 



^ApriPi'SS:} ^ews Items and Personal Notes. 265 



In conclusion, Mr. Cliff e moved that we take cognizance of all 
pharmaceutical organizations. Approved. 

C. A. WmDE)MANN, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



NEWS ITEMS AND PERSONAL NOTES. 

DRUG TRADE BOARD OF PUBLIC INFORMATION 

ORGANIZED. 

Representatives from eight national pharmaceutical associations 
met at the Chemists' Club, New York City, March 8, 1920 and 
organized the Drug Trade Board of Public Information. The 
object of this organization is to supply the public press with in- 
formation regarding the various branches of pharmacy and secure 
for the profession that recognition to which it is entitled at the hands 
of the public and which it is not now receiving. The meeting was 
the outgrowth of the plan submitted by the Committee on Federation 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the meeting of 
the latter last August. The associations represented and their 
representatives are as follows: 

National Wholesale Druggists' Association, C. H. Waterbury 
and F. E. Holliday, Mr. Waterbury being the permanent repre- 
sentative. 

National Asso. Boards of Phar., Jacob Diner. 

Am. Conference Phar. Faculties, Edwin S. Newcomb. 

Am. Asso. Pharmaceutical Chemists, H. Noonan. 

Proprietary Asso. of America, E. F. Kemp. 

Nat'l Asso. Retail Druggists, Samuel C. Henry. 

American Pharmaceutical Asso., Robert P. Fischelis. 

Dr. H. V. Arny, chairman of the sub-committee on organization 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, called the meeting 
and presided until the committee was able to organize. A temporary 
organization was formed with C. H. Waterbury, chairman, and 
R. P. Fischelis, secretary and treasurer. This temporary organiza- 
tion will function until May 10, when anothier meeting will be held 
in Washington at which the constitution and by-laws will be adopted 
and plans for active work will be presented. Members of the Board 
are now at work in planning for future activities. Business is being 



266 News Items and Personal Notes. {^"'- ^T^rl^tlio. 

carried on by correspondence and it is felt that when the permanent 
organization is formed in May, American pharmacy will at last have 
an organization as representative as the Drug Trade Conference, 
which will act as the mouth-piece of pharmacy in relation to the 
general public. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA BOARD OF PHARMACY. 

Notice of Examinations. 

Examinations for applicants desiring registration as Pharmacists, 
will be conducted in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 145 
North Tenth Street, Philadelphia, and the Pittsburgh College of 
Pharmacy, corner Pride and Bluff Streets, Pittsburgh, on Friday 
and Saturday, June 4 and 5, 1920. 

Time and Placer. 
' Pharmacist Examination. 

Practical Pharmacy — Friday, June 4, 1920. Class No. i, at 
9 o'clock A.M.; Class No. 2, at 11 o'clock a.m. 

Materia Medica — Friday afternoon, June 4, 1920, 2.30 to 6 
o'clock. 

Chemistry — Saturday morning, June 5, 1920, 9 to 12 o'clock. 
Pharmacy — Saturday afternoon, June 5, 1920, 2 to 6 o'clock. 

Assistant Pharmacist Examination. 

Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, Posology, Toxicology — Saturday morn- 
ing, June 7, 1920, 9.30 to 12 o'clock. 

Pharmacy, Materia Medica — Saturday afternoon, June 5, 1920, 
1.30 to 6 o'clock. 

Assistant Pharmacist Examination — At the Pittsburgh College of 
Pharmacy, corner Pride and Bluff Streets, Pittsburgh, Pa., and the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 145 North Tenth Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., on Saturday, June 5, 1920, 9.30 to 6 o'clock. 

L. L. Walton, Secretary, 
P. O. Box No. 265, WiUiamsport, Pa. 

LEHN & FINK, INC., MOVE TO NEW HOMES. 

Forty-five years ago, Lehn & Fink, Inc., was doing business in 
one floor, cellar and sub-cellar of a small building at 160 William 
Street, New York City. The firm soon had to seek larger quarters, 



^7pril\"^9?o:} News Items and Personal Notes. 267 

which were found at 128 WiUiam Street. This shortly became in- 
adequate and the well-known Lehn & Fink Building at 120 William 
Street was erected. Laboratories and manufacturing plants were 
built in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Increased business had again overtaken Lehn & Fink, Inc. A 
site of 20 acres of land, located on two trunk line railroads at Bloom- 
field, N. J., with ideal motor-trucking facilities to New York and 
with convenient trolleys for Newark and other sections of New 
Jersey, was purchased when it became evident greatly augmented 
manufacturing facilities would soon be necessary. 

Despite uncertain weather and building conditions, new, modern 
manufacturing plants and laboratories were put up on this site 
during the winter and early spring. All departments of the plant 
are now in full operation directed by experts. The whole organiza- 
tion at Bloomfield has been planned to facilitate a maximum pro- 
duction and many new time and labor saving devices have been 
installed. 

Research and testing laboratories occupy a prominent place 
in the new buildings, and rigid inspection is maintained to insure 
the quality. 

The buildings contain every comfort for employees — abundant 
sunshine on every floor, ample wash rooms, lunch rooms and thorough 
ventilation. 

Power is supplied from dynamos driven by oil-burning boilers. 
The water comes from newly driven artesian wells. A machine 
shop and box factory complete the equipment designed to make these 
laboratories and manufacturing plants a self-sustaining unit. 

A NEW MODERN BUILDING IN NEW YORK. 

During the summer, Lehn & Fink's executive offices and stock 
rooms will be moved to the 170,000 square feet of floor space in a 
new steel and stone building at Greenwich, Morton and Barrow 
Streets, New York City. 

P. C. P. STUDENTS VISIT THE H. K. MULFORD CO. 
LABORATORIES. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy class of 1920 were^the 
guests of the H. K. Mulford Company, on the afternoon of March 
18, and visited the Biological Laboratories at Glenolden, Delaware 
County, Pennsylvania. 



268 Current Literature. j^""- ^7prl\''o^: 

Special train service of three coaches was provided, which were 
well filled — there being one hundred and seventy-five in the party. 
Souvenir programs were prepared for the occasion, and as the weather 
was ideal, the trip was a most enjoyable one. The expressions of 
appreciation were universal. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ABSTRACTS. 

Detection of Nicotine.— O. Tunmann {Apoth. Zeit., 33, 485, 
1918; through Chem. Zeit. Rep., 43, 193, 19 19). — A drop of the al- 
kaloid solution is brought into contact with a small quantity of 
^-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde dissolved in a drop of concentrated 
hydrochloric acid. Nicotine yields a red coloration which soon 
changes to violet-red; the reaction may be obtained with as little 
as 0.2 Mgm. of nicotine. Pyridine, coniine, and the common alka- 
loids do not interfere with the test. With a cold saturated picric 
acid solution containing 10 per cent, of concentrated hydrochloric 
acid, 0.0 1 Mgm. of nicotine yields a distinct precipitate, while 
0.003 to 0.005 Mgm. gives microscopic crystals (these appear in 
about two minutes) ; pure pyridine also gives crystals with this test, 
but no amorphous precipitate. (From The Analyst, December, 
1919.) 

Detection of Hydrogen Chloride in Chloroform. — D. 
Vorlander (Ber. Deut. Pharm. Ges., 28, 337, 1918; through Chem. 
Zeit. Rep., 43, 193, 1919).^ — Ten Cc. of the chloroform are treated 
with a very small quantity (about o.oi Mgm.) of powdered p- 
dimethylaminoazobenzene, if hydrogen chloride is present a violet- 
red coloration is obtained. In the absence of hydrogen chloride 
the chloroform is colored yellow. An excess of the reagent may mask 
the coloration given by very small traces of hydrogen chloride. 
The violet-red coloration is destroyed by free chlorine. (From 
The Analyst, December, 1919.) 

Analysis of Saccharin. — O. Beyer' {Chem. Zeit., 43, 537-538, 
1919).— As the result of an examination of methods which have been 
proposed for the estimation of saccharin, the author finds that only 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920 J 



Current Literature. ^ 



269 



two methods are useful: namely, Richmond and Hill's method 
(cf. Analyst, 43, 353, 1918), and the Reichsgesundkeitsamt method. 
According to the latter method 0.5 to 0.7 Gm. of the sample is boiled 
for two hours under a reflux condenser with 20 Cc. of 20 per cent, 
sulphuric acid, the solution then cooled, diluted, rendered alkaline 
with sodium hydroxide, and distilled, the ammonia being collected 
and titrated in the usual way. When the melting-point of a sample 
of commercial saccharin falls below 220° C, it is advisable to esti- 
mate the amount of f-sulphaminobenzoic acid present. For this 
purpose, I Gm. of the sample is heated for two hours under a reflux 
condenser with 10 Cc. of hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.124) and 10 Cc. 
of water; the solution (filtered if necessary) is evaporated to dryness 
on a steam-bath, the residue dissolved in 10 Cc. of hot water and the 
solution kept for at least twelve hours at a temperature below 10° C. 
The para acid separates out as crystals, which are collected, washed 
with a small quantity of cold water, dried at 100° C, and weighed. 
(From The Analyst, December, 19 19.) 

EssBNTiAiv Oiiv FROM Juntperus procera Grown at Nairobi. — 
A. F. Macculloch (/. Soc. Chem. Ind., 38, 364-T, 1919). — The oil 
obtained by steam distillation of fine shavings of the wood of Junt- 
perus procera grown at Nairobi, British East Africa, had the follow- 
ing characters: Sp. gr. 0.987 at 15.5° C. [a]j^,, = —16°, = 
1.480. The oil was miscible in all proportions with alcohol of 90 
per cent, and over, soluble (i : 60) in 70 per cent, alcohol. The 
amount of cedrol formed depended on the interval between the dis- 
integration and distillation of the wood. After exposure of the wood 
for some weeks to a hot sun the distilled oil solidified to a mass of 
crystals. The oil obtained by distilHng wood which had not been 
exposed to the sun after disintegration contained 38 per cent, of 
cedrol (m. p., 75.5° C). (From The Analyst, December, 1919.) 

Oiiv FROM Sumac {Rhus Glabra). —H. W. Brubaker (/. Ind. Eng. 
Chem., II, 950, 1919). — The seeds separated from sumac berries 
yielded on extraction with ether 11. 71 per cent, of fatty oil, the 
average characters of which were as follows: Sp. gr. at 15° C, 
0.92577; [njo^go C., 1. 4710; acid value, 0.9; acetyl value, 9.235; 
saponification value, 192.6; iodine value, 126.76; soluble fatty acids, 
0.766; insoluble fatty acids, 93.54 per cent. The characters of the 
insoluble fatty acids were: M. p., 17° C; solidifying pt., 6° C; 



270 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



[n]D, 1.470; iodine value, 12 1.8. The oil is quite viscid at ordinary- 
temperature, and has a mild odor; it possesses moderate drying 
properties, and compares favorably with other vegetable oils, such 
as cottonseed oil. It is applicable as an edible oil or as a material 
for soap making, or as a semi-drying oil for paints. It is estimated 
that 6 million lbs. of oil could be obtained annually from sumac seed 
in the State of Kansas. (From The Analyst, December, 1919.) 

A Ne:w EssenTiai. Oil. — Challinor, Cheel and Penfold describe 
in /. Proc. Roy. Soc, N. S. W. (52: 175, 1918), the essential oil ob- 
tained from the entire plant of a new species of Leptospermum (L. 
citratum). It is of a pale amber color and pleasant lemon-oil odor, 
15° 

sp. gr. at — C, 0.8841; Opt. rotat. at 18.6° C, + 3.6, refract. 

ind. at 20° C; n^ 1.4730. It contains 90 per cent, of the aldehydes 
citronellol and citral in nearly equal proportions, and is soluble in two 
volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol (by weight). The identification of 
the two aldehydes was made by the approved methods. The non- 
aldehydic portion of the oil is still under examination, as the amount 
available is small. A small proportion of a phenolic substance 
seems to be present as a crystalline benzoate is produced by the ac- 
tion of benzoyl chloride. Color reactions with bromine and with 
hydrochloric ^acid indicate the presence of a small amount of aro- 
madendrene. The data show that the oil is distinctive in character 
and differs from that of any other species of Leptospermum so far re- 
corded. H. L. 

BoTuuSM — The experiments reported on by Dickson and his 
associates were undertaken to determine the thermal death point 
of B, hotulinus and its spores under various conditions. They found 
that the spores of B. hotulinus, when mixed with animal and vege- 
table protein, are much more resistant to heat than has been believed. 
The acidification of the culture medium by the addition of 5 per 
cent, lemon juice does not prevent the growth of B. hotulinus or 
the formation of its toxin, but the thermal death point of spores of 
B. hotulinus is markedly lowered when they are heated in an acid 
medium of similar concentration. The. addition of cane sugar to 
beef broth in concentration up to 64 per cent, does not prevent the 
growth of B. hotulinus or the formation of its toxin, although it does 
inhibit both to a certain extent. Certain fruits which have been 



Am. Jour. Phartn.) 
April, 1920 J 



Current Literature. 



271 



canned in sugar form suitable mediums for the growth of B. botuUnus 
and the development of its toxin. Peaches, apricots and pears were 
tested. Certain of the methods of canning are inefficient if the raw 
material happens to be contaminated with spores of B. hotulinus. 
This is true of commercial canners' processes as well as of the home 
canning processes. {Arch. Intern. Med., Chicago; through /. Am. 
Med, Assoc., January 10, 1920.) 

Modification of Benzidine Test forOccui.tBi,ood. — Gregersen 
has recently found that a frequent cause of failure in the appHcation 
of the benzidine test is that too strong solutions of the reagent are 
used. Following Grundmann's idea, he reached the conclusion 
that many of the positive reactions in normal persons on a meatless 
diet may be explained by the fact that mineral traces of blood were 
mixed with the feces, which, because of the excessive sensitiveness 
of the reagent, produced positive reactions. Boas accepts the idea 
that the use of highly concentrated benzidine solution doses lead to 
false diagnosis, and on that account approves, after careful trials, 
Gregersen's modification of the test. Gregersen uses a 0.5 per cent, 
benzidine solution, and instead of the easily decomposable hydrogen 
dioxide he employs barium dioxide, which is much more stable, 
Gregersen's method is described in detail, and Boas offers what he 
considers a further slight improvement. Boas admits, however, 
that in using the weaker solution very slight hemorrhages, though 
worthy of note, might go undiscovered. {Berliner klinische Woch.; 
from Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., January 24, 1920.) 

Determination of Fiucic Acid. — Perrin {Repertoire de Pharma- 
cie. No. 3, 19 1 9) states that it is essential to determine the amount 
of filicic acid present in extract of male fern, as many an extract may 
have the required content of filicin, without containing a trace of 
filicic acid, the essentially active constituent. He employs the fol- 
lowing method: to the crude filicin, in the weighed flask, obtained 
according to the directions given in the B. P., add 2 Cc. of amylic 
alcohol, allow the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, well 
corked, shaking occasionally. Thereupon, drop by drop, 20 Cc. 
of pure methyl alcohol are added ; the first drops produce a precipitate 
which redissolves; when the precipitate does not redissolve the re- 
mainder of the methyl alcohol may be added at once. Shake, let 
the mixture stand for twenty -four hours in a cool place; filter, wash 



272 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



out the flask, then the filter, twice with 5 Cc. of methyl alcohol; 
allow the filter to dry; then place the filter and the flask in a cold 
oven and gently heat to 100°, allow them to remain at 100° for one 
hour; then weigh. The amount of filicic acid contained in the flask, 
phis the filicic acid on the filter multiplied by 25, gives the content 
of filicic acid in 100 grams of the extract; the amount should be from 
3.5 to 9 per cent., according to the date of harvesting the male fern; 
while the content of filicin scarcely varies, the amount of filicic acid 
present is higher in autumn than in spring. (From The Chemist and 
Druggist, January 10, 1920.) 

FraudulKnT Cocaine;. — Samples of a substance carefully packed 
in tins and labelled cocaine hydrochloride and sold' on the German 
market have been found to consist of magnesium sulphate in un- 
usually minute crystals which seem to have been especially prepared 
to perpetrate the fraud. {The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, Septem- 
ber 27, 1919 ) J. F. C. 

Poisoning Crows with Strychnine:. — Crows have become a 
serious menace to the almond crop in Klicktat County, Wash. 
Green almonds impregnated with strychnine (strychnine sulphate?) 
have been found very satisfactory in exterminating the birds. 
(Weekly News Letter, U. S. Dept. Agric, January 28, 1920.) 

J. F. C. 

SiMPUFiED Method for Detection and Estimation of Dis- 
tribution OF Morphine:. — The presence of morphine in food, or 
in tissues and body fluids, has been determined by Morgulis and 
Levine by heating with 2 per cent, tartaric acid (if solid, the material 
should first be ground or finely minced) to convert all morphine 
into the soluble tartrate. The mixture is rapidly cooled, prefera- 
bly on ice, to solidify the fatty material The solid residue is re- 
moved by straining through cheese-cloth, and is washed until the 
washings are no longer acid to litmus. The liquid, after being fil- 
tered through paper, is evaporated to a pasty consistency. The 
tartrate is then decomposed by the addition of an excess of sodium 
bicarbonate which sets the alkaloid free. The evaporation is then 
continued to complete dryness, and the mass is powdered and ex- 
tracted with chloroform to remove the free morphine. The volume 
of the chloroform extract is noted, and the smallest quantity of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Current Literature. 



273 



extract is found which, on evaporation (in a porcelain crucible over 
the water bath), leaves a residue which yields a definite morphine 
test. In this way the relative amount of morphine in several ex- 
tracts can be determined. Besides knowing the limit of sensitivity 
of the reaction an approximate estimate of the amount of morphine 
in the original sample is possible. Inasmuch as the authors found 
that morphine, whether given subcutaneously or by mouth, is 
widely distributed throughout the animal body, finding its way into 
almost every tissue, they state, that it it is not advisable to limit 
the toxicologic examination for morphine to the alimentary tract 
alone, an examination of at least the kidney and urine and liver 
being indispensable. (From Jour, of -Lab. and Clinical Med., St. 
Louis, 5: No. 5 (Feb. 1920); through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 
Mar. 27, 1920.) 

Botulism. — Three different outbreaks of botulinus poisoning in 
Kiel within a year, which resulted in three deaths, induced Bitter 
to study into the question. The eating of salted herring caused the 
first of the three fatal cases. The herring had a typical rancid odor, 
and Bacillus botulinus was cultivated from two herring. Others 
fed to mice exerted a toxic effect. Too little vinegar had been used 
in preserving them, the pickle containing only 0.6 per cent, acetic 
acid. Experimentation showed that botulinus strains of various 
origin grew almost unchecked in nutrient agar containing up to 
o . I per cent, acetic acid. It was found, however, that a pickle 
containing 2 per cent., or more of acetic acid would prevent the de- 
velopment of poison from B. botulinus. It has also been shown 
that a 10 per cent, brine, such as is usually employed, will protect 
food preserved in it against the botulinus. The second outbreak in 
Kiel, comprising four cases, resulted from the eating of rancid- 
smelling raw ham. There were no fatalities, although the cases 
were typical and severe. In the third outbreak three persons were 
affected by eating salted herring, and two of these died. Bitter 
recommends that in the case of meat, fish and sausage poisoning all 
manifestations resembling botulism should be made reportable 
by law. He places the case mortality from botulinus poisoning in 
Germany at 16 per cent. Greater publicity should be given to the 
fact that if preserved vegetables and meats have a peculiar disagree- 
able odor, taste or appearance there is great danger in their con- 
sumption, and that if they are used, though they look suspicious, 



274 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1920. 



they should be thoroughly cooked, though it is true that cooking 
sometimes fails to protect. As a rule, B. hotuUnus is found only in 
food carelessly preserved or stored in too warm a place. Bitter 
knows of only one instance in which B. hotulinus has been isolated 
from other than damaged foods. Kempner and Pollock succeeded 
in isolating B. hotulinus from the feces of pigs. (From Deutsche 
mediziniscke Wochenschrift, Berlin, 45: No. 47 (Nov. 20, 1919); 
through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Mar. 27, 1920.) 

Micro- AnaIvYSIS of the B1.00D. — Feigl suggests other lines 
in which Bang's micromethod can be instructively applied, with 
slight modifications, as in Ljungdahl's research on volatile substances 
in the blood. The latter uses capillary tubes for the weighing pro- 
cedure, instead of Bang's paper, for determination of the acetone 
in the blood. This capillary technic has a certain number of ad- 
vantages for research of different kinds in this line, especially for 
analysis of lipoids. Instead of Bang's paper, Feigl uses asbestos 
fibers. They take up the blood as well as the paper, and allow 
estimation of the ash and even of its separate elements. Extremely 
small quartz beakers with platinum loops, and platinum iridium 
beakers — eventually filled with loose quartz — also answer the same 
purpose. Another field for research is with microcolorimetry. 
Feigl has succeeded in this way with extracts from as little as 200 
Mg. of blood. Determination of cholesterol is possible also with 
this technic. Picric acid reduction of sugar is another progress. In 
short, he concludes, "the reactive instrumental and theoretical 
possibilities of colorimetry and the wonderful nephelometric find- 
ings open prospects of applying Bang's fundamental principle in 
untried fields which promise great progress." (Nephelometry is 
the method of analysis by measuring the brightness of light re- 
flected by particles in suspension in a tube.) (From Zentralblatt filr 
inner e Medizin, Leipzig, 41: No. 2 (Jan. 10, 1920); through Jour. 
Amer. Med. Assoc., Mar. 27, 1920.) 

Adui^teration of Origanum Majorana. — Origanum Major ana 
is characterized by numerous multicellular hairs mostly curved and 
usually finely warty. Thymus serpyllum has but few multicellular 
hairs; distinctive for this plant are the very short tooth-like hairs 
on the margin of the leaf. T. vulgaris has numerous short, one- 
celled, minutely warty hairs, and also two-celled hairs with a bent 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Current Literature. 



275 



terminal cell. The powdered leaves of 0. majorana have been adul- 
terated with the two last-named, and as they are difficult to dis- 
tinguish, the above characters may be useful. (Griebel and Schaefer, 
Pharm Ztg., 64: p. 784; through The Pharm Jour. & Pharm., Mar. 6, 
1920.) 

Active Principi^KS oi'' Pituitary Gland. — A method of pre- 
paring crystalline residues, very active physiologically, from ex- 
tracts of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is described by 
Dudley. It consists in extraction of the dried and powdered in- 
fundibulum with acidulated water, treatment of the solution with 
colloidal ferric hydroxide and subsequent continuous extraction of 
the filtrate with butyl alcohol at reduced pressure. This extract 
yields a crystalline residue which contains all the uterine stimulant, 
together with some of the pressor principle and contaminating sub- 
stances. Dudley claims the uterine stimulant and histamin are 
not indentical, as suggested by Abel and Kubota, but are two dis- 
tinct chemical substances. The only point of similarity observed 
is that both are readily extracted from alkaline solution by butyl 
alcohol. The pituitary uterine stimulant is more readily extracted 
from acid solution than the pressor principle. (From Jour. Pharm- 
acology and Exper. Therapeutics, Baltimore; through Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., March 6, 1920.) 

ANTHHiyMiNTic Action of Bknzyl Alcohol and Benzyl Es- 
ters. — Experiments were made by Macht on both earthworms and 
roundworms of the pig with benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzyl 
acetate and benzyl benzoate. It was found that all of these drugs 
exerted a toxic effect on the worms but not in the same degree. 
The least effective was benzyl benzoate. Its weak action, however, 
must be for the most part due to its poor solubility and penetrating 
power. Benzyl alcohol was found to be the most powerful anthel- 
mintic of the drugs studied. A 0.5 per cent, solution of it, and 
even weaker solutions, killed earthworms rapidly. Benzaldehyde 
came r^ext in its efficiency and benzyl acetate was third. (From 
Jour. Pharmacology and Exper. Therapeutics, Baltimore; through 
Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., March 6, 1920.) 

Toxicology of Hydrocyanic Acid. — Chelle reports experi- 
mental research which demonstrated that hydrocyanic acid and the 
alkaline cyanides become transformed under the influence of putre- 



276 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



faction processes into sulphocyanic acid. This is reversible under 
the action of a suitable oxidizer. After the death of a dog that had 
died ten minutes after taking 20 Cc. of a i per cent, solution of 
potassium cyanide, the organs were examined for hydrocyanic acid 
the second hour, and the eighth and thirteenth day. It had all dis- 
appeared, having become transformed to sulphocyanic acid, but it 
was easily transformed back again. This may prove useful in sus- 
pected cases of hydrocyanic poisoning. (From Jour, de Medecine 
de Bordeaux; through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., March 6, 1920.) 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Transactions oi^ thk ColIvKge) Physicians of PhiIvAdei.phia 
FOR THE Year of 191 8. 

This is an interesting work containing twenty-one papers read 
before the members of the College of Physicians, and also the Pro- 
ceedings of the Sections on Ophthalmology and Industrial Medicine 
and Health. An interesting paper is by Dr. Victor G. Heiser, 
member of the American Red Cross Commission to Italy, on "Some 
of the Accomplishments of the ItaHan Medical Men in the War." 

To those who know Italy largely through the poor immigrants 
coming to this country, this account of the completeness and high 
efficiency of the Medical Corps of the Italian Army will be a sur- 
prise, in fact the medical corps of our own army could possibly learn 
much from this report. Some idea of the magnitude of work per- 
formed is shown by the fact that the hospital service of Italy ex- 
panded in two years to i ,000,000 beds, while in the whole of our own 
country are only 300,000 beds. The location of some of the military 
hospitals was an object of interest, one was located at the very front, 
thirty to forty feet underground. It was supplied with artificial 
ventilation and modern hospital furniture, with wards and a good 
operating room. Another was 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
hewn out of the side of a cliff, it contained thirty beds. After 
emergency treatment the soldiers were forwarded to the railroad 
by carriages suspended from wire cables passing over chasms 
thousands of feet deep. The improvement in lung surgery in the 
Italian Army has been marvellous, a leading officer thought it possible 
to keep down the mortality from gunshot wounds of the chest to 
5 per cent. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1920.) 



Book Reviews. 



277 



Dr. James M. Anders has given a very interesting memoir of 
Dr. Samuel Gibson Dixon who filled so brilliantly for twleve years 
the position of Health Commissioner for the State of Pennsylvania. 
He organized the department, having been appointed the first 
commissioner by Governor Pennypacker, who was well acquainted 
with his ability. 

At the time of his appointment he was President of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences which office he held for twenty-one years. Pos- 
sessed of an excellent education acquired both in this country and 
in Europe, he was well qualified for this new position. 

To give an idea of his unceasing efforts in behalf of public health 
we mention the following bureaus into which the department was 
organized: Bureau of Vital Statistics, also that of Medical In- 
spection; Sanitary Engineering; Division of Laboratories; Dis- 
tribution of Biological Products; Accounting and Purchase of Sup- 
plies; Tuberculosis Dispensaries and Sanatoria; Bureau of Housing; 
The Division of Public Service, the Control of Narcotics ; and that of 
ChiM Hygiene, and lastly a Division for the treatment of Social 
Diseases. 

Much of Dr. Dixon's best energies and closest supervision was 
devoted to the organization and planning of the tuberculosis work of 
the state. Dr. Chas. W. Burr has furnished a most interesting 
biography of Jean Paul Marat, physician, revolutionist and paranoic. 
He was one of the three monsters (Marat, Robespierre and Danton), 
who incited and pushed the French Revolution in such a heartless 
manner, shedding the blood of many of the bravest and ablest sons 
and daughters of France. "Marat wanted to be a leader. He be- 
lieved he could rule the country if only enough people were killed. 
He was shrewd enough to know that if he shouted long enough and 
loud enough that he was the people's friend, that many would 
believe and follow him. 

"His creed was simple, all that the rich own belongs to the poor 
because they stole if from the poor. His theory of government was 
equally simple. If you don't agree with me you are not a patriot, 
if you are not a patriot the proper punishment is death. Therefore 
we will kill everybody who disagrees with us and then we will have 
the millenium, the brotherhood of man." He came to an end, none 
too soon, by the dagger of Charlotte Corday for he had caused France 
to wade through rivers of blood. 

This volume is a book of 300 pages, well printed and bound, a 
credit to the College of Physicians. C. B. lyOW^, M.D. 



278 



South China Camphor Trade. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1920. 



SOUTH CHINA CAMPHOR TRADE.* 
By Consul General Geo. E. Anderson, Hongkong, Dec. 12, 1919. 

The interesting demand from the United States for suppUes of 
camphor from South China is leading to a very marked activity 
on the part of all interests concerned in the trade and there is every 
indication that there will be a very large development in the volume 
of the output from both Kwangtung and Fukien Provinces, where 
there has always been more or less activity in camphor production 
when there has been a favorable market, and also in Kwangsi Prov- 
ince, where the production heretofore has been of less importance. 

The government officials of Kwangsi Province at Kuelin have 
organized a company for the exploitation of the industry and have 
established a factory at that provincial capital with a view to event- 
ually placing the industry on a modem basis by the introduction 
of modern methods, although for the time being the gum is being 
distilled by the old Chinese processes which give an impure product 
and are wasteful. In other respects the production and export of 
the gum are being organized in an effective way. 

Exports of Camphor to United States — Camphor Oil. — The export 
of the gum from Hongkong is continuing on a large scale. Exports 
to the United States during the month of November amounted to 
164,575 pounds valued at $309,719, and the total exports to the 
United States for the year to date are valued at $1,844,391. An 
effort is now being made by buyers representing American con- 
cerns to establish a trade in camphor oil, which usually contains 
about 60 per cent, of pure camphor, as well as other valuable con- 
stituents. Camphor oil is already being exported in a considerable 
volume from the Kwangtung, Fukien and Kiangsi field by way of 
Kiukiang and the Yangtze valley. It is exported in cases contain- 
ing two old kerosene tins, which hold about 65 pounds to the case. 
The oil, as well as camphor, in the northern field, has been controlled 
to a greater or less extent by Japanese firms heretofore. 

Native reports indicate that the best untouched camphor tree 
field in China is in Kiangsi Province, though the trees in Kwangsi 
Province have been cut out comparatively little. Great interest 
has been shown by a number of investigators in the island of Hainan, 
where the possibihties of camphor production, both from indigenous 
trees and from planted groves, are being looked into. 

* From Commerce Reports, Feb. 11, 1920. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



A NEW LAW COVERING THE SALE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS 
AND WINES FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES ENACTED 



At this year's session of the New Jersey legislature the following 
law was enacted and having received the approval of the Governor 
will become operative on July 4th. 

An Act to restrict the sale at retail of distilled spirits and wines 
for medicinal purposes to bona fide prescriptions and to define 
the prescribing and dispensing of these as in performance of 
professional duty and not in violation of prohibition enact- 
ments. 

Be it enacted by ike Senate and General Assembly of the State of 
New Jersey: 

I . On and after the passage of this act, it shall not be lawful for 
any druggist, except a pharmacist registered as such in accordance 
with the law of this State and engaged at the time in the actual 
practice of pharmacy, to sell at retail distilled spirits and wines and 




EDITORIAL. 



IN NEW JERSEY. 



280 Editorial. ^°May'!Y92^: 

the sale shall be made only on a bona fide prescription written by a 
licensed practitioner of medicine engaged at the time in the practice 
of his medical profession. Distilled spirits and wines may be pre- 
scribed by such medical practitioner when in good faith he believes 
that the use of alcoholic liquors as a medicine is indicated and only 
after a personal physical examination of the patient or after con- 
sultation with another practitioner who has made a personal physical 
examination of the patient, and the prescription shall be written in 
duplicate, the prescriber retaining one copy, and there shall be 
written thereon the name and address of the patient for whom 
prescribed, and the name and address of the prescriber, and the 
prescription shall not be filled more than once, and there shall not be 
prescribed for the same patient for internal administration more 
than one pint of distilled spirits within any period of ten days, and 
the liquor prescribed can be consumed only by the patient named 
in the prescription, and the pharmacist filling the prescription shall 
preserve it for at least two years on a separate file kept for pre- 
scriptions for distilled spirits and wines, and all such files and re- 
cords shall be open at all time to the inspection of any authorized 
officer of the law. 



''"'^"M.y,\%To] Editorial. 281 

2. The prescribing and dispensing of alcoholic liquors on bona 
fide prescriptions in accordance with the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed and is hereby defined as in performance of the professional 
duty of the medical practitioner and the pharmacist, and the pharma- 
cist shall not by reason of such professional duty be classified as a 
dealer in alcoholic beverages nor shall he be subject to the license 
fees that are exacted of dealers in alcoholic beverages, ncr shall the 
dispensing of alcoholic liquors in the discharge of his professional 
service be construed as violating the provisions of the enactments of 
this State or of any political subdivision thereof enacted for the 
purpose of restricting and controlling the sale and use of alcoholic 
liquors as beverages and commonly spoken of as local option and 
prohibition laws; provided, that nothing in this act shall be con- 
strued as preventing the sale and use of alcohol when properly 
medicated and sold in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau 
of Internal Revenue of the Treasury Department of the United 
States nor with the manufacture, sale and use of denatured alcohol, 
nor with manufacture, sale and use of wines for sacramental and like 
religious rites in accordance with the Federal statutes. 

3. Any person violating any of the provisions of section one of 



282 Editorial V'""^"M.y''x9T6. 

this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall 
be subject to a fine of not more than one hundred dollars, and any- 
medical practitioner or any pharmacist who is convicted more than 
once of violating the provisions thereof may have his license to 
practice in this State revoked. 

This act was designed to serve several purposes all of which we 
believe will be to the benefit of the professional practice of phar- 
macy. It aims to prevent the unscrupulous medical practitioner or 
druggist engaging in the nefarious "booze business." It restricts 
the sale of distilled spirits and wines for medicinal purposes to 
prescriptions written in good faith by the physician in attendance 
when indicated by the physical condition of the patient. In har- 
mony with the Federal statute and regulations, it limits the amount 
that can be so dispensed and prescribes the procedures that must 
be followed by both physician and pharmacist. The penalties 
provided for violating any of the provisions relating to dispensing 
should be sufficient to deter any one from such infraction, as he 
becomes liable to a fine for each irregularity of this type and further 
upon more than one conviction for such offenses the physician or 
pharmacist may have his license to practice in the State revoked. 

Under the existing laws and regulations of the U. S. Treasury, 
every pharmacist who dispenses distilled spirits or wines, even 
though such dispensing be done only on bona fide prescriptions,, 
becomes a retail liquor dealer and must qualify and pay the stamp 
tax as such before dispensing any prescriptions for these or for 
pure alcohol intended for external" application. 

Paragraph 12, Sec. looi of the Revenue Act of 191 8 pro- 



'''^■^May^%To] Editorial 283 

vides further that "every person carrying on the business of 
retail Hquor dealer in any state, territory, or district of the United 
States contrary to the laws of such state, territory, or district, or 
in any place therein in which carrying on such business is prohibited 
by local or municipal law, shall pay, in addition to all other taxes, 
special or otherwise, imposed by existing law or by this act, $1,000." 

In many sections of New Jersey local option laws have been 
adopted and as these, as a rule, do not exempt pharmacists in the 
dispensing of prescriptions for liquors, it is apparent that in such 
districts the pharmacist who wished to quality to fill such bona fide 
prescriptions would be prevented by the prohibitive tax of $1,000 
plus the normal Federal Stamp Tax of $25 paid by the pharmacist 
situated in a nearby municipality where a local option law had not 
been adopted. It is manifestly unfair to the patients that they 
should not be able to have their medical needs supplied near home 
and also that such discrimination should exist between pharmacists 
engaged in business in the same State. 

One of the prime objects of this law was to provide for the exemp- 
tion of pharmacists in the dispensing of distilled spirits and wines 
needed for strictly medicinal purposes from the provisions of local 
option or prohibition laws already enacted in the State or sub- 
divisions thereof. By this act, such legitimate prescribing and 
dispensing is defined as coming within the professional duties of the 
physician and the pharmacist and the latter is exempted by the State 
from the odium of being classified as a dealer in alcoholic beverages 
and from the license fees and penalties exacted under these laws. 
Under this construction, the pharmacist in dispensing in accordance 
with the provisions of the act, whith to all intents and purposes are 
the same as those of the Volstead Act, is not carrying on the business 
of a retail liquor dealer contrary to laws of the State or place therein 



284 Testimonial Dinner for John Uri Lloyd j^'"- ^°May^^*92o■ 

in which carrying on such business is prohibited by local or municipal 

law and, consequently, he should not have to pay the additional tax of 

$1,000 as provided by the Revenue Act of IQ18. 

The law enacted in New Jersey may possibly serve as a model 

for similar enactments in other states where prohibition laws act 

as barriers to the necessary dispensing of such medicines. 

G. M. B. 

TESTIMONIAL DINNER FOR JOHN URI LLOYD. 

The bestowal of the Remington Honor Medal in Pharmacy for 
the second time was made the occasion for a testimonial dinner in 
honor of Prof. John Uri Lloyd, the recipient. The presentation was 
at an adjourned meeting of the New York Branch of the A. Ph. A. 
held at Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, on Monday evening, April 
19. Nearly one hundred representative pharmacists from New 




JOHN URI LLOYD, Ph.M 



York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey gathered at this function to do 
honor to the guest of the occasion. 

Prof. William C. Anderson presided and acted as toast master. 
The presentation was made in a masterly address by Dr. Jacob 
Diner, who reviewed the impressions that the work of Professor 
Lloyd had very early in his own pharmaceutical career made upon 



'^"•^''May^^'S:! Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 285 

him and the widespread influence that the scientific investigations 
and Hterary contributions of this eminent worker had exerted in 
fields that were at times beyond the boundaries of pharmacy. Notably 
among such was his early contributions and researches on colloidal 
chemistry which were now being fully recognized as among the original 
and fundamental studies in this interesting branch of chemistry. 

In responding Professor Lloyd announced that this was his 
seventy-first birthday and that but for this event he should have 
been at home enjoying the felicitations of his home circle. He was 
in one of his most happy moods and delightfully reminiscent and in 
his own inimitable manner gave his audience an insight into his 
early induction into the trials and tribulations of the embryo phar- 
macist of nearly sixty years ago and the difficulties that he experienced 
in learning the art of the apothecary. He referred to the unexpected 
incidents in his early career that had impelled him to continue in 
pharmacy and how these had led him up to this occasion and the 
honor, which he believed would not have come to him except through 
the guidance of the unseen influence and the preordination of the 
unexpected events depicted that had determined his future. 

Among others who briefly responded, at the toastmaster's request, 
and voiced in appropriate remarks their tributes and appreciation 
of the life-time research studies of Professor Lloyd were Dean 
Charles H. La Wall, President Edward A. Say re, of the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association, Editor E. G. Eberle of the Jcurnal of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, President Robert S. Leh- 
man, of the New York State Pharmaceutical Association, Pro- 
fessor Charles Baskerville of New York, and George M. Beringer of 
Camden, N. J. 

Regrets at unavoidable absence were received from Professors 
Henry H. Rusby and E- Fullerton Cook. 

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHARMACOLOGY OF COTTON 

ROOT BARK. 

By Charles R. Eckler, M.S. 
purpose:. 

Cotton root bark has been used as a medicine for many years 
by the negroes of the South, and it is stated that they brought the 
knowledge of the drug with them from Africa. The drug has been 



286 Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. {^™- -^'^May^^'o. 

used as a substitute for ergot by some physicians who have claimed 
that its action resembles that of ergot, and that it has the advantage 
over the latter of being safer and more stable. This use of cotton 
root bark has been very largely of an empirical nature, for very little 
experimental work on animals has been reported and the most of 
this has seemed unfavorable to the use of the drug. The majority 
of the clinical reports have also seemed unfavorable. At a com- 
paratively recent date, however, J. C. Scott published a favorable 
report regarding the action on the cat's uterus.^ This author states 
that "gossypii cortex is stable and very active." In the two experi- 
ments which he reports, one on the isolated and one on the intact 
uterus, he seems to have used a powdered extract of the root bark 
suspended in Ringer's solution, which, in the case of the isolated 
uterus was applied directly to the organ, and in the case of the intact 
uterus was apparently given intramuscularly. It became of interest, 
therefore, to know more about the activity of cotton root bark, as 
compared with that of ergot in particular, and to some extent with 
that of pituitary extract. It became of interest, also, to learn 
whether or not there was any distinct difference in activity between 
the "green" and the "dried" bark of commerce, and whether or not 
drug collected at the time of flowering would be more active than the 
commercial drug which is, in either the case of the "green" or the 
"dried," collected after the cotton is harvested, and further, whether 
or not different varieties of the cotton plant would show any distinct 
difference in activity. The purpose of this work was to gain more 
definite knowledge regarding these points. 

MATERIAL. 

Several commercial samples of "green" and "dried" root bark 
were tested, and in addition, samples of thirteen different varieties 
of the cotton plant. The latter were carefully collected at the time 
of flowering. They were obtained by Mr. F. A. Miller, of our bo- 
tanical department, from the Georgia Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Fluidextracts or modified fluidextracts of the drug, only, 
were tested. Aqueous suspensions of powdered extract were not em- 
ployed. A part of the commercial "dried" barks were extracted 
with a menstruum of alcohol and glycerin, 3 to i, and a part with 
75% alcohol. The "green" barks were extracted with the alcohol- 
glycerin, and the thirteen samples were extracted with 75% alcohol. 

Fluidextracts of ergot were used for comparison. These were 



■^l?ay^^9'2":} Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 287 

made from commercial lots of drug, by extraction with 50% alcohol. 

The pituitary extracts used in comparative tests were either samples 
of commercial extract, or laboratory extractions of commercial lots 
of glands. 

METHODS. 

It was decided to test the activity of cotton root barks by the 
methods commonly employed for the testing of ergot, namely, the 
cock's comb, blood pressure, and uterus methods. These methods 
as carried out in this work are briefly as follows : 

cock's comb method. 

The cock's comb method consists in administering to pure-bred, 
single-comb, white leghorn roosters, by injection into the pectoral 
muscles, gradually increasing or diminishing doses of fluidextract 
until a slight but distinct and unmistakable bluing of the comb points 
has been produced. This method is simple and rapid, and has been 
reported as giving results which seem to run closely parallel to those 
obtained by the intact uterus method. Perhaps no other method is 
so commonly employed for the testing of ergot. The end-point, 
unlike that of the other methods, is a purely visual one. 

BLOOD PRESSURE METHOD. 

The blood pressure method consists in recording the change in 
carotid pressure caused by the intravenous injection of the fluid- 
extract by way of the saphenous vein. Young, medium sized dogs 
are the subjects preferred. These have seemed to give the most 
satisfactory records when anaesthetized with morphine sulphate 
(0,010 to 0.012 G. per Kg.) and hyoscine hydrobromide (0.000,064 
to 0.000,128 G. per Kg.). Ether is used for the operation of inserting 
cannulae, etc., but is withdrawn as soon as the apparatus is set up and 
running. Artificial respiration is established in all cases. The com- 
mon mercury manometer was employed in this work. The doses of 
fluidextract, calculated per Kg. of body weight, were diluted for in- 
jection with one or two times their volume of salt solution. 

A few experiments were carried out on decapitated dogs and cats, 
prepared according to the method of Sherrington.^ 

The blood pressure method, essentially as described, is a com- 
monly employed laboratory method for studying the effect of drugs 
on the circulation. It has been used extensively for determining 
the pressor effect of preparations of ergot. 



288 ' Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. {^"^ ^°May^%™: 



THE ISOLATED UTERUS METHOD. 

The isolated uterus method consists in recording the move- 
ments of isolated horns of the virgin guinea pig's uterus. These 
muscular segments are kept bathed in warm, oxygenated Locke's 
solution, and at intervals the drug to be tested is added to the Locke's 
solution in quantitative manner. The segment being attached to 
a writing lever, any contractions or relaxations caused by the applica- 
tion of the drug are recorded on a smoked surface. (A more detailed 
description of the method and apparatus may be found in This 
Journal, 89: 195, 191 7; and in the Jour. Lab. and Clin. Med., 2 : 819, 
1917.) 

The isolated uterus method is commonly employed for determin- 
ing the value of pituitary extracts. The method is also used for test- 
ing ergot and other drugs which cause, by their application, a change 
in the contractility of involuntary muscle. 

THE INTACT uterus METHOD. 

The intact uterus method consists in recbrding the movement 
of the uterus in situ caused by the intravenous injection of the drug, 
usually by way of the jugular vein. The animal, anaesthetized with 
one of the soporific drugs such as acetoform or paraldehyde, is partly 
immersed in a saline bath of body temperature. The uterus is ex- 
posed under the salt solution and attached to a Cushny single myo- 
cardiograph or similar instrument, which records, on a smoked sur- 
face, any movement of the organ. 

The intact uterus method is a very useful one for studying the 
qualitative action of those drugs which are used in medicine for their 
effect on this organ. It seems to be the most logical one for this 
purpose. As a method of quantitative assay, where many injec- 
tions have to be made, it is perhaps less serviceable than the isolated 
uterus method, for the factors governing the uterus are less under 
control and the organ is influenced to a greater extent by the cumula- 
tive action of previous doses of the drug. 

results of cock's comb experiments. 

The fowls to be used for the testing of cotton root bark 
were either given, or had been given, doses of ergot. The re- 
sults of these tests were desired to serve as a control. Fowls 



^''May^^9^:} Pkamiacology of Cotton Root Bark. 289 

vary in their resistance to drugs and occasionally, although 
rather rarely, one will find combs which do not become dis- 
tinctly blue after ergot, the effect being more of a blanching. 
These control tests shewed that the combs could be blued by 
small to medium doses of ergot. 

TABLE 2. COCK'S COMB TESTS ON COTTON ROOT BARK. 
A fluidextract of commercial, dried cotton root bark, made 
with a menstruum of alcohol and glycerin (3 to 1) , gave the 
following results on the fowls previously tested with ergot: 



Fowl 


Weight in Kg. 


Dose per Kg. 






Results 


394 


1.545 


1.0 c.c. 


No noticeable bluing of comb 


386 


1.544 


1.0 c.c. 


u 




u u u 


388 


1.460 


1.5 c.c. 


a 


u 


u u u 


393 


1.388 


2.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u u 


397 


1.665 


2.0 c.c. 


« 


u 


(( u u 


384 


1.705 


2.5 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u u 


388 


1.467 


2.5 c.c. 


a 


a 


u u u 


391 


1.661 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


tl (I u 


396 


1.706 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u u 


398 


1.690 


3.0 c.c. 


(I 


u 


u u u 


400 


1.507 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


(( u u 


501 


1.644 


3.0 c.c. 


Very faint bluing of comb 


502 


1.553 


4.0 c.c. 


Extremely faint bluing of comb 


503 


1.532 


5.0 c.c. 


Faint bluing of comb 



A fluidextract of commercial, "green" cotton root bark, 
made with a menstruum of alcohol and glycerin (3 to 1) , gave 
results as follows : 



Fowl 


Weight in Kg. 


Dose per Kg. 






Results 




511 


1.703 


1.0 c.c. 


No noticeable bluing of comb 


515 


1.532 


1.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


« u 


u 


512 


1.586 


2.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


516 


1.688 


2.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


(( a 


u 


530 


1.630 


2.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


514 


1.441 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


517 


1.337 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


524 


1.498 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u « 


u 


518 


1.576 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


511 


1.635 


3.0 c.c. 


Ci 


u 


u u 


u 


512 


1.578 


3.0 c.c. 




u 




u 


515 


1.528 


3.0 c.c. 


u 


u 


u u 


u 


516 


1.662 


3.0 c.c. 




il 


u u 


u 


385 


1.715 


3.0 c.c. 


Extremely faint bluing of comb 



The commercial drug did not, in any case, produce bluing 
of the cock's comb in doses smaller than 3 c.c. per Kg. Ths 
dose of ergot required for these same fowls was from 0.50 to 
1 c.c. Other symptoms were evident, however, such as 
blanching of the comb, wattles, and areas about the eyes, 
drooping of the feathers, dyspnoea and diarrhoea. With doses 
of 4 and 5 c.c. per Kg. the fowls seemed very sick, and while 
slight bluing was produced, the end point was so indefinite 
that a quantitative assay by this method seemed to be quite 
impossible. Doses of 2 and 3 c.c. per Kg. of each of the thir^ 



290 Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. {^"^ ^ Zay^^Q^: 

teen samples were then given to fowls, the combs of which 
had previously been blued by small doses of ergot. From the 
results shown in Table 3 it may be seen that none of the thir- 
teen samples were distinctly active in bluing the comb in doses 
of 3 c.c. per Kg. This dose is four times the amount which 
was required of fluidextract of ergot to produce a distinct 
bluing in the same fowls. Testing by the cock's comb method 
was therefore discontinued. 

Table 3 

Tests on Samples of Different Varieties of 
Cotton Root Bark, Collected at Flowering 
Cock's Comb Method 
Dose 

Sample Fowl Weight per Kg. Results 

No. 1 540 2.000 2 c.c. No noticeable bluing of comb. 

544 1.713 3 c.c. " " " 

No. 2 535 1.424 2 c.c. " " " " " (?) (Cold) 

548 1.785 3 c.c. 

No. 3 545 1.921 2 c.c. " " " " " (Redder) 

540 1.404 3 c.c. " " " 

No. 4 541 1.852 2 c.c. " " " « « (Redder) 

541 1.923 3 c.c. 

No. 5 554 1.703 2 c.c. " " " " " (Redder) 

535 1.547 3 c.c. " " " 

No. 6 548 1.908 2 c.c. " " " " 

545 1.924 3 c.c. " " Warm red 

No. 7 540 1.957 2 c.c. " " " " " (?) (Cold) 

541 1.981 3 c.c. " " (?) (Cold ) 

No. 8 541 1.859 2 c.c. " " " " " (?) (Cold) 

540 2.106 3 c.c. " " " (?) (Cold ) 

No. 9 545 1.871 2 c.c. No noticeable bluing of comb. 

548 1.776 3 c.c. " (?) (Cold ) 

No. 10 545 1.342 2 c.c. 

544 1.746 3 c.c. " " " " " (?) (Cold) 



No. 11 


535 


1.342 


2 c.c. 


u 




« u 






535 


1.584 


3 c.c. 


u 


a 


u « 


" (?) (Cold) 


No. 12 


544 


1.678 


2. cc. 






u u 






539 


1.716 


3 c.c. 




u 


u u 


" (?) (Cold) 



546 1.775 3 c.c. Extremely faint bluing of comb (?) 
In the cases marked (?) there seemed to be a mere suggestion of bluing, so 
faint, however, that it could not be distinguished with certainty. No. 13 with 
3 c. c. was the most pronounced of these. 

BLOOD PRESSURE EXPERIMENTS. 
Before presenting the results of blood pressure experi- 
ments on cotton root bark, results cf normal blood pre?sures 
of anaesthetized dogs were observed in order to determine 
with what regularity the normal pressure would run when 
recorded by the method and apparatus employed. Such re- 
sults may be seen in Table 4. Slight variations in pressure 
would probably be recorded with the best of apparatus and 
under the most careful technic. Occasionally, however, more 
pronounced changes may be caused by a slight movement of 
the animal as happened in experiment 786. A somewhat more 



'^"'■-^''May^YS:! Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 291 



disturbing change is such as may be seen in experiment 788, 
where there is for some little time a slight but gradual fall 
in pressure, and in 779, where there is a slight but gradual 
rise. In both cases, however, the pressure ran with fair uni- 
formity after the 10 minute period. In experiment 767 a 
slight rise appears after the 20 minute period. No cause can 
be assigned for these changes except by supposing that the 
force or rate of the respiration was not such as to quite ac- 
commodate the needs of the particular animals. These points 
should be considered when viewing Table 6, 6A and 6B, which 
show the results of blood pressure experiments cn cotton root 
bark. Three of the kymograms may be seen, also, in Chart 1. 

Table 4 Records of Normal Blood Pressures of Dogs 

(Morphine-Hyoscine Anaesthesia) 
Pressure ^iven in millimeters 









Kymograms 










767 


773 


788 


775 


779 


786 


Time 


Dog 


Dog 


Dog 


Dog 


Dog 


Dog 




10.2 Kg. 


8.3 Kg. 


11.6 Kg. 


6.2 Kg. 


19.3 Kg. 


10 Kg. 


Start 


110 


119 


148 


125 


104 


123 


5' 


108 


120 


138 


115 


117 


120 


10' 


110 


127 


135 


106 


127 


117 


15' 


110 


124 


132 


105 


133 


114 


20' 


109 


125 


130 


105 


133 


120 


25' 


116 


122 


130 


105 


134 


animal 


30' 


116 


122 


129 


106 


135 


moved 


35' 


119 


118 


127 


119 


134 


141 


40' 


122 


117 


126 




134 


139 


45' 


122 


118 


126 




134 


135 


50' 


122 


118 


128 




134 




55' 


120 


114 


127 




138 




60' 


118 


116 






138 




65' 


115 


115 






138 




70' 


113 


115 










75' 


112 


118 










80' 


109 












100' 


111 












115' 


107 













A few blood pressure tracings were made, showing the 
effect of ergot, in order to compare the action of cotton root 
bark with that of ergot on the circulation, and to show how 
extensively the normal pressure may be influenced. Table 5 
shows the results of six ergot blood pressure experiments and 
gives one a fair idea of the great elevation in pressure which 
is almost invariably produced by carefully prepared fluidex- 
tracts of this drug. 

Table 5 

Blood Pressure Records on Samples of Fluid Extract of Erogt, Taken on Dogs 



Dog Wt. 


Dose 


Normal 


Pressure at Periods After Injection of Drug 
1-3' 5' 10' 15' 20' 25' 30' 


in Kg. 


per Kg. 


Pressure 


12.7 


.05 c.c. 


147 


225 


218 187 


187 


185 178 174 


10.6 


.05 c.c. 


147 


237 


226 206 


195 


189 188 185 


14.4 


.05 c.c. 


150 


214 


214 200 


176 


167 (150at42') 


6.6 


.10 c.c. 


144 


263 


220 204 


190 


188 181 


10.5 


.10 c.c. 


129 


175 


198 190 


184 


182 180 


22.2 


.10 c.c. 


144 


190 


172 220 


234 


220 216 210 



292 Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. {^""^ M''ay^Y92'o: 



Table 6 

Blood Pressure Records of Thirteen Samples of 
Cotton Root Bark on Dogs 
Dose Pressure Pressure at Periods After Injection 
Drug per Kg. at Start 1-3' 5' 10' 15' 20' 25' 20' 

(Kymogram 736. Dog Wt. 12 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr. anaesthesia.) 
Cotton R. No. 1 .1 c.c. 120 124 118 clot 104 
.2 c.c. 100 116 107 114 114 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 115 153 131 133 

(Kymogram 772. Dog Wt. 10.5 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine Hbr.) 
Cotton R. No. 1 .05 c.c. 135 138 135 132 130 

.1 c.c. 130 142 clot 130 134 134 

.2 c.c. 127 145 123 126 

(Kymogram 773. Dog Wt. 8.3 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 1 .2 c.c. 117 133 117 114 

F. E. Ergot 1. c.c. 114 133 

(Kymogram 741. Dog Wt. 8.8 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine Hbr.) 
CottonR. No. 2 1 c.c. 137 147 142 145 152 157 

.2 c.c. 157 168 153 153 clot 143 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 143 158 179 164 162 

(Kmogram 778. Dog Wt. 11.6 Kg. Morphine S.Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 2 .2 c.c. 127 137 130 126 124 
F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 124 140 140 140 

.05 c.c. 140 155 148 154 

(Kymogram 778-A. Dog Wt. 11.7 Kg. Morphine S-.Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 3 .1 c.c. 105 117 108 108 104 103 
.2 c.c. 103 122 106 clot 127 119 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 122 149 134 129 

(Kymogram 743. Dog Wt. 8 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 3 .2 c.c. 126 135 118 118 119 113 
.3 c.c. 113 120 105 108 109 112 
F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 113 134 129 131 137 133 133 

.1 c.c. 133 160 144 

(Kymogram 779. Dog Wt. 19.3 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 

CottonR. No. 3 .1 c.c. 138 152 138 140 140 

(Kymogram 749. Dog Wt. 10 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 4 .1 c.c. 113 128 121 125 124 126 124 

.2 c.c. 124 146 123 131 133 

(Kymogram 750. Dog Wt. 9.4 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 5 .1 c.c. 125 144 135 132 130 130 130 
.2 c.c. 130 148 143 136 133 134 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 141 198 195 166 166 150 153 

(Kymogram 751. Dog Wt. 5.9 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 6 .1 c.c. 149 152 144 150 155 154 154 

.2 c.c. 154 176 154 158 clot 141 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 130 176 151 154 150 141 136 

(Kymogram 753. Dog Wt. 8.8 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 7 .1 c.c. 142 148 146 154 155 155 

.2 c.c. 158 164 161 157 152 147 144 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 145 168 169 160 158 157 

(Kymogram 756. Dog Wt. 13.6 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 8 .1 c.c. 121 137 125 122 118 120 122 
.2 c.c. 139 153 136 138 135 132 131 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 131 164 188 187 172 166 155 

(Kymogram 755. Dog Wt. 14 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR. No. 9 .1 c.c. 124 139 135 136 143 152 153 
.2 c.c. 150 170 150 140 142 139 138 
F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 130 157 137 130 129 130 132 



^"'■■^M''ay^^9'2o:} Pkarmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 293 




.loc, f p. t, .j.,<- Sir;-*-' 




CHART I. 

Kymogram 1294 shows the effect of fluidextract of ergot on the blood pressure 
of the dog. 

Kymograms 778, 773 and 779 represent three different blood pressure ex- 
periments which show the effect of cotton root bark on the blood pressure of the 
dog. 



294 Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. {^"'- ^ M^ay^^™. 



Table 6 

Blood Pressure Records of Thirteen Samples of 
Cotton Root Bark on Dogs 
Dose Pressure Pressure at Periods After Injection 
Drug per Kg. at Start 1-3' 5' 10' 15' 20' 25' 30 

vKymogram 759. Dog Wt. 5.5 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
Cotton R. No. 10 .1 c.c. 134 143 130 132 129 126 120 
.2 c.c. 120 136 128 127 131 129 127 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 127 158 145 148 145 154 157 

(Kymogram 763. Dog Wt. 11.8 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
CottonR.No.il .1 c.c. 114 125 120 117 123 120 123 
.2 c.c. 123 132 124 121 118 118 122 
F E. Ergot .05 c.c. 122 140 138 136 

.1 c.c. 136 157 133 124 121 

(Kymogram 764. Dog Wt. 11.2 Kg. Morphine S.-Hyoscinc IJ Br. ) 

Cotton R. No. 12 .1 c.c. 112 123 135 120 120 120 117 

.2 c.c. 117 127 123 126 117 117 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 118 172 170 169 152 140 

.1 c.c. 127 147 137 11'^ 

(Kymogram 765. Dog W t. 8.9 Kg. Morpiiine S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 

Cotton R. No. 13 .1 c.c. 116 124 129 128 133 133 
.2 c.c. 133 147 141 137 137 133 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 116 140 140 



Drug 
(Kymogram 902. 
F. K. C. (Dry) 
4')' later = 



Table 6-A 
Blood Pressure Records 
of Commercial Cotton Root Bark on Dogs 

Pressure at Periods 
Dose Pressure After Injection 

per Kg. at Start 1-3' 5' 10' 15' 20' 25' 
Dog Wt. 4.7 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anesathesia.) 

.1 c.c. 144 160 145 143 134 

.1 c.c. 106 126 118 117 



Dog Wt. 10 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anaesttiesia.) 

.1 c.c. 110 138 136 127 120 120 
.15 c.c. 120 147 134 136 136 136 
.20 c.c. 136 138 122 134 131 

Dog Wt. 11.8 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anaesthesia.) 

.15 c.c. 136 144 

.15 c.c. 136 136 

.15 c.c. 143 159 145 145 

.20 c.c. 145 158 122 141 140 

.15 c.c. 140 178 170 158 158 151 149 

.15 c.c. Caused death 



(Kymogram 901. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 



(Kymogram 900. 
Alcohol-glyc. 

(3 to 1) 
F. E. C. (Dry) 

F. E. Ergot 
F. E. C. (Dry) 



(Kymogram 894. 
Alcohol-glyc. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 
F. E. Ergot 



Dog Wt. 12 Kg. Morpnine Sulphate Anaestiiesia.) 
.2 c.c. Ill 119 

.2 c.c. 118 128 119 120 114 
.2 c.c. 123 114 clot 124 



(Kymogram 893. 
Adrenal Ext. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 



Dog Wt. 10 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anaesthesia.) 

116 146 130 

138 114 110 
115 clot 112 95 
110 101 101 
Fall Slow recovery. 



,1 c.c. 
.15 c.c. 
.2 c.c. 
.3 c.c. 



116 
129 
110 
103 
101 



(Kymogram 891. 
Adrenal Ext. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 



F. E. Ergot 



Dog Wt. 7 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anaesthesia.) 

135 157 143 143 

.2 c.c. 143 164 143 140 

.2 c.c. 139 150 120 117 123 126 

.2 c.c. 126 136 124 127 127 

.3 c.c. Gradual fall for 5' then slow recovery. 

.15 c.c. Fall, slight rise, then gradual lowering. 



A 



ri.craer 
JO /laceo / /^ooo'"''^'^'^ 




(3 /l-ifsjr 









G 
































/•/coo 1 


• 







CHART 2. 

This chart shows the whole or a part of the kymograms taken in 7 experi- 
ments on the isolated, guinea pig's uterus. Contractions 7, 8 and 9 in A show 
the diminishing effect of succeeding doses of cotton root bark. Compare con- 
tractions 6 and 10 for the effect of ergot before and after cotton root bark. Note 
the first four contractions for comparison of cotton root bark with pituitary ex- 
tract. Kymograms B, C, D and F. G and others show a comparison with ergot. 
F shows a diminished effect of pituitary extract after cotton root bark and an in- 
creased effect after ergot. E gives the effect of alcohol and shows that the effect 
of cotton root bark must be discounted to the extent of the effect of the alcohol. 



296 



Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 



lAm. Jour. Pharm. 
1 May, 1920. 



Drug 
(Kymogram 890. 
Adrenal Ext. 
Alcohol-glyc. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 

F. E. Ergot 



Table 6-A 
Blood Pressure Records 
of Commercial Cotton Root Bark on Dogs 

Pressure at Periods 
Dose Pressure After Injection 

per Kg. at Start 1-3' 5' 10' 15' 20' 
Dog Wt. 8.6 Kg. Morphine Sulphate Anasethesia.) 

143 170 140 
No effect 

146 155 128 126 clot 
122 140 84 93 clot 
Slight rise, then gradual fall. 



.3 c.c. 
.2 c.c. 
.3 c.c. 
.15 



132 
102 



c.c. 



(Kymogram 892. Dog Wt. 27.4 Kg. 
F. E. C. (Green) .2 c.c. 
F. E. Ergot .1 c.c. 



Morph. S.-Atropine S.) 

143 154 146 146 142 144 

144 210 210 204 200 202 



25' 



122 
107 



(Kymogram 691. Dog Wt. 10.8 Kg. Morph. S.-Hyoscine HBr.) 
After Ergot. 

F. E. C. (Dry) .05 c.c. 125 135 130 128 125 123 122 



(Kymogram 982. Dog Wt. 11 Kg. 
F. E. C. (Green) .2 c.c. 

Ale. -glycerin .2 c.c. 

F. E. Ergot .05 c.c. 

F. E. C. (Green) .2 c.c. 



Morph. S.-Hyoscine HBr. Cut Vagi.) 
122 144 126 127 

No effect 

132 190 163 156 135 130 

No effect 



(Kymogram 895. Dog Wt. 2.7 Kg. Morph. S.-Atropine S.) 

F. E. C. (Green) .2 c.c. 112 134 132 132 134 134 130 

.2 c.c. 130 148 124 124 118 112 112 

F. E. Ergot .1 c.c. 112 154 138 131 120 119 119 



Table 6-B 
Blood Pressure Records 
of Commercial Cotton Root Bark on 
Spinal Preparations 

Pressure at Periods 



Dose 

Drug per Kg. 

(Kymogram 896. Preparation Wt. 
F. E. C. (Dry) .2 c.c. 
F. E. Ergot .2 c.c. 

F. E. C. .2 c.c. 



Pressure 
at Start 1-3' 
2.2 Kg. Cat.) • 
82 46-69 
17 38-138 
Abrupt fall. 



After Injection 
5' 10' 15' 20' 



25' 



62 67 

134 126 110 100 78 
Heart stopped. Epine- 
phrin was given and the heart massaged. 
Heart began beating. Later ergot 
caused a rise in pressure. 



(Kymogram 898. P 
Ale. -give. (3 to 1) 
F. E. C. (Drv) 
F. E. Ergot 

F. E. C. 



:ion Wt. 


2.4 Kg. 


Cat.) 




.16 c.c. 


58 


60 


56 


.16 c.c. 


58 


48 


46 


.08 c.c. 


44 


grad. 


80 75 66 






rise 




.16 c.c. 


64 


Fall. 


Heart stopped. 



and epinephrin 



Massag- 
started 



F. E. 
F. E. 



.08 c.c. 
.08 c.c. 



mg 
heart. 
Gradual fall. 

Pressure fell nearly to zero, heart 
stopped but recovered after massaging 
and epinephrin. 



(Kymogram 4015. 
F. E. C. (Dry) 
F. E. Ergot 
F. E. C. 
F. E. Ergot 
Pit. Ext. 1:1000 



Dog preparation Wt. 7.4 Kg.) 



.10 c.c. 


65 


70-63 


56 


.05 c.c. 


51 


65-62 


66 


.10 c.c. 


60 


62-59 


56 


.10 c.c. 


55 


63-58 


60 


.20 c.c. 


60 


63-67 





51 
65 



61 60 































1 ' ' ' 1 T r-7- 1 
















C 










1 


















CHART 3. 

the vTJl'l't,''^l^K l;^°'y^ sections of the kymoKrams of two experiments on the intact uterus of 
comn JeH L^h A H " rP?"""^"^ No. 4204, D seems to show a diminished effect of ergot as 
Pvni^f/nl^t • ^°"on root bark shown in B and C. This 

thrXnf "'tV^ of the two drugs. In experiment 4205. B shows 

the effect of cotton root bark to be dimmished fo.lowing A, even though the dose was increased. 



298 



Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



COTTON ROOT BARK. 



BLOOD PRESSURE EXPERIMENTS ON THE CAT. 



Four blood pressure experiments were carried out on cats. These 
animals were anaesthetized with acetoform. In one case 0.2 Cc. 
per Kg. of F. E. Cotton R. B. caused almost no effect. In the other 
three cases o.i and 0.2 Cc. doses per Kg. caused an abrupt and ex- 
tensive fall, the pressure slowly regaining the normal height or slightly 
above the normal. Following is an example: 



The foregoing work was completed about June i, 19 14. The 
following experiments were carried out during the spring of 19 19. 



For the uterus experiments, fresh samples of commercial drug 
were extracted and made into fluidextracts by the N. F. method. 

The isolated uterus is, in most cases, an extremely sensitive organ, 
easily influenced by the chemical nature of the solutions applied 
to it. Any considerable amount of acid, alcohol, or astringent princi- 
ple in the solution applied is likely to impair the results of the ex- 
periment. Any substance to be applied to the structure should, 
therefore, be in a clear, neutral or nearly neutral, saline solution. 
Such a solution fully representing the fluidextract of cotton root bark 
seemed impossible, for any extensive change in the menstruum, 
such as would necessarily occur when the fluid was diluted in the 
Locke's solution surrounding the uterus, caused a precipitation of 
considerable extractive matter. Such a mixture, however, with its 
very fine, fresh precipitate, was considered preferable to a suspension 
of the powdered extract. The procedure employed was to dilute the 
fluidextract with 9 parts of saline solution, and of this 10% mixture, 
the doses for application were drawn off. These doses were further 
diluted from 50 to 100 times when introduced into the Locke's 
solution surrounding the uterus. The effect of any astringent matter 
in this dilute solution was disregarded. It would seem to be very 
slight if, in truth, any were exerted. According to the work of 



Pressure at start 

0.13 Cc. per Kg. F.E.C. injected. 



86 Mm. 



Pressure 1-3' after injection 
Pressure 5' after injection 
Pressure 7' after injection 



27 Mm. 
92 Mm. 
86 Mm. 



ISOLATED UTERUS EXPERIMENTS. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 



299 



Experi- 
ment or 

Kymo. Drug 

1 Pituitary Extract 

Alcohol 
(( 

Pituitary Extract 



Table 7 

Isolated Uterus Experiments 
Guinea Pig's Uterus 
Commercial Drug 



Dilution 
300,000 
1,333 
1,333 
300,000 



Effect 
85 m.m 
21 " 
17 
67 



(Contractions ,etc.) 
contraction 



Pituitary Extract 
Alcohol 

u 

Pituitary Extract 



300,000 
1,333 
1,333 

300,000 



87 
53 
45 

92 



3E* Alcohol 1 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 

Alcohol 1 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 

Alcohol 1 



1,333 
1,000 
1,333 
1,000 
1,000 



lU m.m. 

38 

20 " 
48 

22 " 



contraction 



Pituitary Extract 
Alcohol-glycerine, 3-1 

u " u 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 
F. E. Ergot 



250,000 
100 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 



27 mm. contraction 
Relaxation (slight) 
No noticeable effect 



mm. 



contraction 



Pituitary Extract 1 

Alcohol-glycerin, 3-1 1 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 

F. E. Ergot 1 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 

F. E. Ergot 1 



300,000 26 mm, contraction 

1,000 No noticeable effect 

1,000 2 mm. contraction 

5,000 4 

1,000 No noticeable effect 

5,000 3.5 mm. contraction 



6D Pituitary Extract 

u " u 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 
F. E. Ergot 



250,000 
250,000 
1,000 
4,000 



24 
21 

1.5 
24 



mm. 



contraction 



7C Pituitary Extract 1 
F. E. Cottou R. B. (N. F.) 1 
F. E. Ergot ^1 



250,000 
1,000 
10,000 



87 mm. 

14 

70 



contraction 



8B Pituitary Extract 1 
F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 
F. E. Ergot 1 



200,000 
500 
5,000 



33 mm. 

9 
24 



contraction 



Pituitary Extract 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 



300,000 
500 



107 mm. 

55 



contraction 



lOG F. E. Ergot 1 
F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 
F. E. Ergot 1 



10,000 
1,000 
10,000 



48 mm. 

26 

43 



contraction 



11 Pituitary Extract 1 
F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 1 
Pituitary Extract^ 1 



300,000 
133 
300,000 



122 mm. 
115 

123 " 



contraction 



12F Pituitary Extract 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 

Pituitary Extract 

F. E. Ergot 

Pituitary Extract 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 

u 

F. E. Ergot 



F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 



250,000 
1,000 
250,000 
10,000 
250,000 
1,000 
1,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
1,000 



30 mm. 

6 
11 
21 
73 

6 

4 

5 

5 
10 
31 
22 



contraction 



300 



Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



Experi- 
ment or 
Kymo. 

13 



Table 7 

Isolated Uterus Experiments 
Guinea Pig^s Uterus 
Commercial Drug 



Drug 

Pituitary Extract 
Alcohol 



Pituitary Extract 

F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 



Pituitary Extract 



Dilution Effect 

300,000 5: m 

1,333 

1,000 

1,333 
300.000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 
300,000 
300,000 



16 
13 
10 
42 
14 
13 
4 
6 
7 



(Contractions, etc.) 
contraction 

fH.T. 
H.T. 
H.T. 
L.T. 
L.T. 
L.T. 
L.T. 
L.T. 



tH. T. = Higher Tonus. L. T. = Lower Tonus. 



14 Pituitary Extract 


1 


250,000 


14 mm. 


contraction 




1 


250,000 


13.5 


a 


u 


Alcohol 


1 


1,333 





u 


u 


11 


1 


1,333 


1 




u 


u 


1 


1,333 


1 


(I 


u 


(I 


1 


1.333 


1 (?) 




u 


Pituitary Extract 


1 


250,000 


30 


« 


u 




1 


240,000 


32 


« 


il 


F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 


1 


1,000 


5 


u 


u 




1 


1,000 


4 


u 


u 


(( 


1 


1,000 


2 


u 


u 


Pituitary Extract 


1 


250,000 


2.5 


u 


u 


u u 


1 


250,000 


4.5 


(( 


u 


15 A Pituitary Extract 

u u 


1 


250,000 


65 mm. 


contraction 


1 


250,000 


66 


a 


(( 


F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 


1 


1.000 


9 


u 


u 


Pituitary Extract 


1 


300,000 


42.4 


u 


u 


F. E. Ergot 


1 


5,000 


70 


11 


u 


u 


1 


10,000 


64 


u 


u 


F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 


1 


1,000 


62 


ii 


u 


u 


1 


1,000 


40 


<( 


u 


u 


1 


1,000 


10 


« 


it 


F. E. Ergot 


1 


10,000 


17.5 


a 


u 


1 


: 10,000 


38.5 


u 


u 


F. E. Cotton R. B. (N. F.) 


1 


1,000 


30 


ii 


u 



*The letters indicate the corresponding kymograms on Chart 2. 

Power and Browning, cotton root bark contains no tannin.^ The 
effect of the alcohol, however, was studied by applying percentages 
equal to and greater than that found in the solutions of cotton root 
bark. 

Table 7 shows the results of fifteen experiments on the isolated 
guinea pig's uterus. 



^ M'ay^^9'2'S:} Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 301 



Table 8 
Xymogram 904. 

.5 c.c. per animal F. E. Cotton R. B. 
.5 c.c. " " F. E. Ergot 
.5 c.c. " " F. E. Cotton R. B. 



Intact Uterus Experiments — Cats 
Cat Weight 2.38^Kg. Acetoform anaesthesia. 

= No contraction. 
= Marked contraction. 
= No contraction. 



Kymogram 905. 
.2 c.c. per Kg. 



Cat Weight 2.3 Kg. 
F. E. Cotton R. B. 



.2 c.c. 


« 


« 


(I 


.2 c.c. 


u 


tt 


u 


.2 c.c. 


tt 


u 


F. E. Ergot 


.2 c.c. 


« 


u 


.2 c.c. 


u 


ft 


F. E. Cotton R. B. 


.2 c.c. 


u 


<( 


F. E. Ergot 


.2 c.c. 


u 


u 


Alc.-glyc. (3-1) 


.4 c.c. 


u 


a 


Pituitary Ext. 



Acetoform anaesthesia. 

= Decided increase in tonus. 
= Shght " « " 

= Hardly noticeable effect. 
= Slight increase in tonus. 

_ u u u u 

= Very slight increase in tonus. 
= Slight increase in tonus. 
= No effect. 

= Slight increase in tonus. 



Kymogram 903. Cat Weight 2.8 Kg. 
.5 c.c. per animal F. E. Ergot 
.005 g. Ergotoxine Phosphate 
1 c.c. Pituitary Extract 
1 c.c. F. E. Cotton R. B. 



Morph. S. -acetoform anaesthesia. 

= No contraction. 

= Increased tonus. 
_ « « 

= No effects. 



Kymogram 909. Cat Weight 3.05 Kg. 
.5 c.c. per animal F. E. Ergot 
.5 c.c. " " 
.5 c.c. « « 



.5 c.c. 
.2 c.c. 



F. E. C. R. B. 

Pituitary Ext. 



Morph. S.-acetoform anaesthesia. 
= No contraction of uterus. 
= Distinct contraction. 
(While uterus was slightly contracted.) 
= Relaxation and then contraction. 
= Relaxation. 
= Distinct contraction. 



Kymogram 907. Cat Weight 2.6 K^ 
.5 c.c. per animal F. E. Ergot 
.5 c.c. " " F. E. C. R. B. 
,5 c.c. " " 
.5 c.c. " " 



Morph. S.-acetoform anaesthesia. 
= Marked contraction of uterus. 



Table 9 Intact Uterius Experiments — Rabbits 

Kymogram M-3987-A. Weight of rabbit 2.2 Kg. Pregnant. Paraldehyde. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (50% Ale.) 35 mm. contraction of uterus. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) 28 mm. " " " 

.05 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) 50 mm. " " 

Kymogram 3987. Weight 2 Kg. Non-pregnant, multiparous. Paraldehyde. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (50% Ale.) No effect. 

A c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) No effect. 

.1 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) 4 mm. contraction. 

Kymogram 3989. Weight 2.2 Kg. Non-preganant, multiparous. Paraldehyde. 

.4 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) 12 mm. contraction. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) 11 mm. " 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. 1:1,000 Pituitary Ext. 12 mm. 

Kymogram 3990. Weight 2.3 Kg. Non-pregnant, multiparous. Paraldehyde. 

.4 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) No effect. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) 7 mm. contraction. 

Kymogram 4204. Weight 1.56 Kg. Virgin. Paraldehyde. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) Many contr's. One = 47 mm. 

.4 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) Wave-like contr's. One= 2.5 mm. 

.8 c.c. p. Kg. " " " " " One= 1 mm. 

■2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) Series of contr's. One = 37.5 mm. 
Kymogram 4205. Weight 1.66 Kg. Virgin. Paraldehyde. 

.4 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. C. R. B. (75% Ale.) Tone increased 11 mm. 

Increased contractions. 

,6 c.c. p. Kg. " " " Wave-Uke contractions = 5 mm. 

.2 c.c. p. Kg. F. E. Ergot (50% Ale.) Series of contr's. One = 18.5 mm. 

.1 c.c. p. Kg. « " " " " " One = 23.5 mm 



302 Pharmacology of Cotton Root Hark. May'^^QTJ. 



INTACT UTERUS EXPERIMENTS. 

The intact uterus experiments were carried out on both 
cats and rabbits. Nothing was known regarding the previous 
condition of the cats. For the experiments, they were anaes- 
thetized with acetoform. The rabbits were anaesthetized with 
paraldehyde. Those which had had young, had previously 
been used for certain biological tests. The virgins were young 
animals which were raised at the laboratory. Tables 8 and 9 
give the results recorded in these experiments. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 

Cock's Comb Method. — Cotton root bark in large doses produced 
very slight bluing of the cock's comb in a few cases. Doses of the 
fluidextract fully four times as large as those required of fiuidextract 
of ergot to produce a distinct bluing, failed to produce a comparable 
effect. Other systemic effects such as dyspnoea and diarrhoea were 
very pronounced. Owing to these severe symptoms produced by 
the cotton root bark in the necessarily large doses, and to the un- 
satisfactory effect on the comb, a close comparison could not be 
drawn between the activity of this drug and ergot. 

By this method, no decided difference could be detected between 
any of the samples tested, which included root bark from thirteen 
different varieties of the cotton plant collected at flowering, and 
several samples of commercial drug both "green" and "dried." 

Blood Pressure Method. — Cotton root bark produced a slight but 
transient pressor effect on the blood pressure of the dog. The ex- 
tent of the effect and the duration were not comparable to that pro- 
duced by very much smaller doses of ergot. The effect of the cotton 
root bark usually passed off in 5 or lo minutes, and occasionally 
this period was followed by one of lowered pressure. Succeeding 
doses produced less and less effect. Similarly, ergot following one 
or more doses of cotton root bark, even though the pressure had not 
been more than slightly elevated, seemingly did not cause its usual 
effect. 

Five kymograms taken on the intact cat showed either a fall or 
no effect on the pressure. 

On the cat spinal preparation, cotton root bark caused a fall in 
pressure. One record on a dog spinal preparation showed a slight 
but very brief rise followed by a fall below normal. 

On these preparations, ergot produced a fairly well maintained 
rise. 

By this method, no appreciable or striking difference was notice- 
able between any of the cotton root products tested. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.^ 
May, 1920.) 



Pharmacology of Cotton Root Bark. 



303 



Isolated Uterus Method. — Fluidextract of cotton root bark in rather 
large doses produced contractions of the isolated, guinea pig uterus. 
A very conservative interpretation of the results obtained would 
seem to be that cotton root bark possesses decidedly less than Vio 
as much activity as ergot, and decidedly less than Vsoo as much ac- 
tivity as commercial pituitary extract. In fact, when given in doses 
corresponding to these figures, the contractions produced by the 
cotton root bark were not comparable to those produced by the other 
substances. Successive doses of cotton root bark produced smaller 
and smaller contractions. Similarly, ergot and pituitary extract 
seemingly did not exert their usual effect after one or more doses of 
cotton root bark. The opposite effect was often observed when any 
of the three substances was given after ergot or pituitary extract. 

By this method, only commercial samples of cotton root bark 
were tested. No decided difference could be noted between any of 
these from the results obtained. 

Alcohol in a dilution of i : 1333, approximately the percentage 
possessed by a i : 1000 dilution of fluidextract of cotton root bark 
which in several instances was found to be active, caused contractions 
of the isolated uterus. A i : 100 dilution of alcohol caused, in one 
instance, an inhibition. 

Intact Uterus Method. —The results obtained on the intact uterus 
show that cotton root bark possesses a slight action on the uterus of 
both the cat and the rabbit. The results on the virgin rabbit's 
uterus were the most satisfactory. These results indicate that the 
action of cotton root bark is not comparable to that possessed by 
ergot. As under the other methods, successive doses of cotton root 
bark seem to produce less and less effect, and ergot given after cotton 
root bark seems to produce less than its usual effect. 

By this method only commercial samples of cotton root bark were 
tested. No decided difference could be noted between any of these 
from the results obtained. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Samples of the root bark from thirteen different varieties of the 
cotton plant, collected at flowering, and a number of samples of com- 
mercial root bark, both "green" and "dried," were tested for activity 
by methods commonly employed for the assay of ergot, namely, 
the cock's comb, blood pressure, and uterus methods. 

Large doses produced a very slight bluing of the cock's comb in 



304 



U. S. P. IX Revision. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



a few cases. In general the results by this method were rather indefi- 
nite and unsatisfactory, and no decided difference could be detected 
between any of the samples tested. 

A very slight and transient pressor effect was produced on the 
blood pressure of the dog. On the intact cat a depressor effect or 
no effect at all was observed. On the cat spinal preparation a de- 
pressor effect was observed, and on a dog spinal preparation a pressor 
followed by depressor. By this method no decided difference could 
be noticed between any of the samples tested. 

Rather large doses produced small contractions of the isolated 
guinea pig uterus and the uterus of the cat and rabbit in situ. By 
the uterus methods only samples of commercial drug were tested. 
No decided difference could be noticed between any of these from the 
results obtained. 

By the four methods employed, the activity shown by cotton root 
bark was not comparable to that possessed by ergot. 

Tables of results and charts of tracings are given. 

1 wish to express my obligations to Dr. A. L. Walters under whose 
supervision this work was carried out. 

Credit is due Mr. C. E. Lawson, for preparing the thirteen ex- 
perimental samples, and Mr. C. C. Hargreaves and Mr. E. E. Swan- 
son for assistance in carrying out the experiments. 

References. 

^ Scott, Therapeutic Gazette, 35: 162, 191 1. 

2 Sherrington, Journal Physiology, 38: 375. 

3 Power and Brownhifr. Pharmaceutical Journal, 93: 420-423. 
Research Department, 

Eli Lilly & Company, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

THE MACHINERY FOR THE U. vS. P. IX REVISION.* 

By E. Fullerton Cook, Ph.M. 
philadelphia, pa. 
GENERAL COMMITTEE OF REVISION. 

The General Committee of Revision, consisting of 51 members, 
one of whom was the President of the Convention, ex-officio, having 
been elected by the Pharmacopoeial Convention of 19 10, the com- 
* Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Chemical Associa- 
tion. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



U. S. P. IX Revision. 



305 



mittee proceeded to elect its chairman, but largely left in his hands 
the details of organization. 

There was to be an Executive Committee of fifteen members to 
be elected from the General Committee and presided over by the 
chairman of the General Committee, and it was understood that 
there would be sub-committees. 

Professor Remington, the elected chairman, fortunately had 
experience in revision work covering at least four decades, and 
qualified by his natural organizing ability, was able to create a ma- 
chine which worked harmoniously and effectively. With the ap- 
proval of the Committee and Board, the following general plan of 
organization was carried out: 

Sub-Committee.—'B^^ch member of the General Committee was 
invited to express his preference for the type of revision work which 
he would care to assume, the list of sub-committees having been 
decided upon at the first meeting of the committee in Washington. 
These sub-divisions consisted of: 

1 Scope. 

2 Therapeutics, Pharmacodynamics and Posology. 

3 Biological Products, Diagnostical Tests. 

4 Botany and Pharmacognosy. 

5 General and Inorganic Chemistr}^ 

6 Organic Chemistry. 

7 Proximate Assays. 

8 Volatile Oils. 

9 Fluid and Solid Extracts, Tinctures. 

10 Aromatic Waters, Spirits, Liquors. 

1 1 Syrups and Elixirs. 

12 Cerates and Ointments. 

13 Miscellaneous Galenicals. 

14 Tables, Weights, Measures. 

15 Nomenclature. 

From these preferences, the chairman of the General Committee 
appointed sub-committee members. Naturally, the botanists indi- 
cated their preference for that type of work; chemists selected 
chemical subjects; the physicians, scope, therapeutics and related 
subjects; while the pharmacists were especially interested in pharma- 
ceutical preparations. These assignments by one who was personally 
acquainted with practically every member of the committee, proved 



3o6 



U. 'S. P. IX Revision. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



generally acceptable and satisfactory. The appointments, however, 
according to the by-laws, were confirmed by the General Com- 
mittee and Board of Trustees. Each sub-committee then proceeded 
to elect its chairman, the election being finally approved by the 
General Committee and Board of Trustees. 

Executive Committee. — By common consent, it was then decided 
that the chairman of sub -committees would constitute the Executive 
Committee, the general chairman presiding according to the by- 
laws. This plan has been very effective, as the Executive Com- 
mitte has thus consisted of representatives from every sub-com- 
mittee and naturally, being chairman, they were all active workers. 

Method of Revision. —The following plan of procedure was then 
adopted: The Sub-committee on Scope decided very promptly 
upon the majority of the substances to enter the new Pharma- 
copoeia. This list, over which there was no difference of opinion, 
was immediately placed in the hands of the other sub-committees 
for their consideration, while the Sub-committee on Scope proceeded 
with the further consideration of drugs, chemicals and preparations, 
over which there was some question concerning admission. As 
these were decided they were reported to the Executive Committee, 
with the vote in the Sub-committee on Scope and finally, if ad- 
mitted, referred to the proper Sub-committee for revision. As a 
preparation, drug or chemical, or possibly a process, was referred to 
a sub -committee, the chairman was given entire liberty of action 
and two different methods were in general use, depending upon the 
preference of the presiding officer. In one instance, the chairman 
compiled all available data on each subject, and submitted it to his 
sub-committee for their consideration and comment. Having com- 
pleted this step, and any necessary experiments or tests, he then 
prepared a tentative text, embodying the desired changes, as indi- 
cated by his own experience and experiments, and the recom- 
mendations of members of his sub-committee. The text was then 
submitted to the sub-committee and again subject to their criticism. 
When finally satisfactory to the sub-committee, the revised text 
was sent to the chairman of the Executive Committee who modified 
the wording, if necessary, to bring it into harmony with the editorial 
style decided for the new book, and then submitted it to the Executive 
Committee for their comment. 

The other plan used by some sub-committee chairmen was to 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



U. S. p. IX Revision. 



307 



assign the subjects submitted for revision, to individual members and 
ask that reports be made promptly to the chairman of the sub-com- 
mittee, embodying the proposals for a revised text. These reports 
were in turn submitted to the entire sub-committee by the sub-com- 
mittee chairman and when finally approved, placed before the 
Executive Committee. The general chairman now compiled all 
comments and discussions, submitted by the members of the Execu- 
tive Committee and these were published before the entire Executive 
Committee, and copies sent to the members of the sub-committee 
which had submitted the original report. 

When practically all of the articles submitted to a sub-com- 
mittee had been reported upon, in most instances arrangements 
were made for the members of the sub-committee to hold a personal 
conference, when all suggestions or adverse criticisms were con- 
sidered, and a report drawn up for submission to the General Com- 
mittee. At this time, the chairman of the General Committee again 
carefully revised the copy from an editorial standpoint, and sub- 
mitted it in full, as proposed for inclusion in the new Pharmacopoeia, 
to all members of the General Committee. 

It must not be thought that the General Committee had no part 
in the revision up to this time. Many subjects of general interest, 
and policies and principles of the revision had been placed before 
the General Committee and the work proceeded, all comments re- 
ceived from many sources and as submitted to the convention, had 
been published in the general committee circulars. Another feature, 
which proved of great value was the placing of monthly "reports 
on progress" from every sub -committee, before the General Com- 
mittee. This feature of the revision work was not generally known, 
but the general chairman sent a request to every sub-committee 
chairman, about ten days before the end of each month, asking 
him to fill out an enclosed blank. This blank covered all likely 
activities of the sub-committee during the month, and these were 
compiled and submitted regularly to the General Committee as al- 
ready indicated. This plan increased activity in the sub-committees 
and at the same time kept the General Committee familiar with all 
parts of the work. As the revision work is largely voluntary, it 
was found desirable to use this publicity method, within the com- 
mittee, to stimulate progress. 

At the same time that this material was submitted to the General 
Committee, abstracts of proposed changes were prepared and pub- 



3o8 



U. S. P. IX Revision. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( May, 1920. 



lished in the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and 
reprints very generally distributed, so that the country could see 
what changes were proposed in advance of the actual publication 
of the book. In the experience of the last committee, it was shown 
that any extensive publicity of proposed changes prior to this point, 
would be premature. During the actual discussion on revision, 
the work would be prolonged beyond all reasonable time if the 
public were admitted to the preliminary committee conferences, 
and discussions are more free and valuable if kept within the sub- 
committees. The experience of the last Revision Committee has 
shown that publication at this stage of the revision gives ample 
time for those who are not on the committee to give valuable criti- 
cism or recommendations and this feature should remain a part 
of any revision scheme. 

Preparing the Manuscript. — Ample time having been allowed for 
comments from the committee and also from those who were in- 
terested in Pharmacopoeial revision, who were not members of the 
committee, but had access to the public abstracts, these were assem- 
bled on sheets containing the latest copy of the proposed text, as 
submitted to the General Committee, and were given detailed con- 
sideration by the chairman, in conference with the different sub- 
committee chairmen. Those which were found of vital importance 
and sufficiently tested, were embodied in the text. The manu- 
script was now made up — every title, the construction of sentences, 
capitalization, punctuation, and other editorial detail being given a 
final polishing, and the manuscript sent to the printer. 

Of course, before this time, sample pages to show styles of type 
and general arrangement, had been approved. The galley proofs 
were submitted on standard size paper (8V2 X 11) perforated for 
binding, and were clean impressions taken from a press, so that 
they were perfectly legible. The galley was now sent to every 
member of the Executive Committee, in duplicate, and as the galleys 
were returned by the members to the general chairman, the com- 
ments were assembled in the chairman's office upon one set of galleys. 
These comments were once more given consideration in conference 
with the sub-committee chairman, and corrected copy for page 
proof returned to the printer. Page proof in duplicate was now 
submitted to every member of the General Committee, and the 
returned comments from the General Committee once more assembled 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



U. S. P. IX Revision. 



309 



on one set of page proof, and from this material the copy for foundry 
proof was prepared. The general chairman finally passed upon the 
foundry and plate proofs and printing was ordered. Two thousand 
copies were in the first printing, and these were sent to the journals 
for review, to all members of the Committee of Revision, and a few 
were sold. A few typographical errors were discovered by this 
critical review of the finished book and these were all corrected 
in the plates before the first large edition of 10,000 copies was printed, 
so that the main edition, from the very start of the printing, was free 
from the majority of the errors which have been only recently 
announced. 

As a result of the experience in the revision of the U. S. P. IX 
there is one outstanding feature which would seem to lend itself to 
broader application in the next revision, namely, an increased 
number of personal conferences. While it is true that the next 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia does not seem to call for as extensive 
alteration, in either style or fact, as heretofore, and therefore will 
naturally require much less time for revision than the U. S. P. IX, 
yet the correspondence method is so cumbersome and time-con- 
suming, that the conference plan for getting results would greatly 
lessen the necessary time of revision. As an illustration of the time 
necessary for the correspondence method, with the committee 
scattered over a large part of the United States, and the time for an 
exchange of mail being at least five days in some instances, the fol- 
lowing general plan had to be followed in voting: 

The subject for consideration was presented to the committee 
by the general chairman, with a statement of the proposal and any 
necessary explanations or comments for the members. Two weeks 
was allowed for assembling all discussions. At the end of two 
weeks, a voting sheet was mailed to each member with all the com- 
ments on the proposition. Two weeks was again allowed for the 
return of the voting sheets before the result of the vote was an- 
nounced, thus four weeks was the minimum time required for a 
vote. As frequently happened, a member would submit an amend- 
ment, which required another two or four weeks for final settle- 
ment. Thus it will be seen that the hundreds of problems before 
the committee involve an extended time for final agreement. 

It is therefore suggested that when the General Committee of 
Revision of the U. S. P. IX submits its recommendations to the con- 
vention for procedure in the new revision, that they advise the new 



Caffeine from Coffee Soot. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



General Committee to meet for at least one day following the con- 
vention, elect a chairman, sub-committees, and sub-committee 
chairmen and dispose of a few of the more important questions of 
policy before adjourning. 

There should then be arranged a personal conference for each 
sub-committee as soon as they have enough material before them for 
arriving at decisions which would probably be about six months 
after their organization. The most important modification to in- 
crease efficiency and lessen the time of revision, however, would be a 
personal conference of the Executive Committee, at least once in each 
two months during the active work of revision. In the interim, 
the general chairman could place many problems before the com- 
mittee, with discussions, and a program for a conference at an 
agreed time, when most of the questions under consideration could 
be decided in a one-day meeting. Full stenographic details of the 
conferences should be presented to each member immediately after 
the meeting and the decks being cleared by the conference, new 
work could be considered in preparation for the next meeting. It is 
believed that if the Executive Committee again consists of the sub- 
committee chairmen, that these personal conferences will tre- 
mendously stimulate the work of the sub -committees, as each 
chairman will be expected to report in full the condition of his own 
sub-committee at each of these conferences. This of course, will 
necessitate a personal sacrifice of the time on the part of the members 
of the Executive Committee, but it is believed that this method will 
so greatly facilitate the work of revision, that it can be concentrated 
into the first year and everyone promptly relieved of the burden. 
Of course, railroad and hotel expenses of these conferences should be 
met by the convention. 



CAFFEINE FROM COFFEE SOOT.* 

suggestion for reclaiming a portion op the constituents which are 
voeatieized in the roasting process. 

By George K. :^we. 

philadelphia, pa. 

The soot which collects in the flues and on the upper inner sur- 
face of coffee roasters frequently contains enough caffeine to warrant 
its use as a raw material for the production of this valuable sub- 

* From The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal, March, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Caffeine from Coffee Soot. 



stance. Since there is considerable demand for caffeine, the collec- 
tion of coffee soot, if established upon a profitable basis, would re- 
sult in an added source of income to coffee roasting firms. 

In order to interest roasters in the collection of the "soot," a 
statement regarding the probable price which might be obtained 
for it is pertinent. No market price has been thoroughly estab- 
lished for this article, because it varies greatly in caffeine content. 
Specimens recently examined in the Pharmaceutical Research 
Laboratories of the H. K. Mulford Co., Philadelphia, ranged all 
the way from 0.08 to 22.2 per cent, in caffeine content. 



Some AnaIvYSKs of Coffee Soot. 

Sample Caffeine 

No. Content. Source of Sample, i 

1 22 .20% Flue of roaster. 

2 18.30% Flue of roaster. 

3 1 1 . 94% Inner walls of roaster. 

4 , 3 25% Ceiling of roaster, 

5 1 .76% Dust collector on roof (mixed with chaff). 

6 0.70% Flue of roaster. 

7 4-i8% Flue of roaster. 

8 1.20% Flue of roaster, 

9 7. 10% Flue of roaster, 

10 11.20% Flue of roaster. 

12 0.08% Flue of roaster. 

13 4.42% Ceiling of roasting room. 

14 15 30% Flue of roaster. 



Since tea fluff, tea siftings, and damaged tea, which contain 
from I to 5 per cent, of caffeine, are commonly used raw materials 
for the production of caffeine, it is evident that collections of coffee 
soot with similar caffeine contents would be excellent material for the 
production of caffeine and should command a price approximately 
equal to that of these tea materials. These tea materials were 
quoted around loc. per lb. during December, 1919. It is encourag- 
ing to report here that one-half of the coffee soot samples which we 
have examined, possessed caffeine contents which were well above the 
maximum content of the starting materials obtained from tea. 

A statement regarding the probable amount of soot collectable 
from roasters in a given time would also be pertinent, but un- 

1 None of the commercial roasters from which these samples were obtained, 
were equipped with collectors for the express purpose of collecting the "soot," 
and only one (No. 5) was equipped with a dust collector. 



312 



Caffeine from Coffee Soot. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



fortunately this cannot be offered, for the reason that no com- 
mercial roaster equipped with a soot collector was met with in this 
investigation. Only a properly designed and properly operated 
soot collector will yield figures for this. 

By coffee soot is meant the smoke-like vapor which arises from 
the roasting barrel during the roasting process. Coffee chaff, which 
is also a by-product of the roasting of coffee, also contains caffeine, 
but its economic use for the production of caffeine has not been 
rendered possible up to the present time. It contains much smaller 
proportions of caffeine than the raw materials from tea, and in addi- 
tion contains considerable pyroligneous or tarry matter which 
makes the production of pure white caffeine very difficult and ex- 
pensive. Specimens .of coffee chaff recently examined in the Mul- 
ford laboratories ranged between 0.6 and i.i per cent, in caffein 
content, 

METHODS 01^ COIvIvECTlNG COI^I^EE SOOT. 

Caffeine is a sublimable substance, that is, it can be made to pass 
into the form of a vapor by heat; and upon cooling this vapor, the 
caffeine will be precipitated as a crystalline "snow." It is by the 
principle of sublimation that caffeine is collected ; since the utilizable 
constituent of coffee soot and flue gases from the roasting of coffee 
is caffeine, it is by sublimation that the caffeine containing coffee 
soot is best collected. 

Coffee soot escapes from the roaster via the flue. In practice, 
a considerable proportion also escapes into the room in which the 
roaster is situated, and where the collection of the soot is made a 
practice for profit, it is a source of loss of income. This loss can be 
prevented by proper regulation of the draft in the flue as described 
later in this article. Since coffee soot escapes via the flue, it is 
necessary, therefore, to connect the collector with the flue. 
Theoretically, the conditions required are a means of cooling the 
coffee soot and flue gases to precipitate the caffeine contained in 
them ; a collector to retain the precipitated caffeine and soot ; and a 
draught regulator to control the rate of flow of the soot and gases 
through the collector so that it is not so fast that caffeine passes 
through the collector and is lost in the outer air, nor so slow that the 
soot is lost by being forced out into the air of the room in which the 
roaster is situated. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920./ 



Cajfjetne from Cojjee Soot. 



313 



The illustration herewith shows the details of a practical coffee 
soot collector. 

DKTAII.S OF A COFFEK-SOOT COIvIvKCTOR. 

The collector consists of a water- jacketed, sheet-iron or cast- 
iron box equipped with baffle plates arranged so as to make a tortuous 



-Electric Fan 



V/aterOutlet^mi 
Hin^e : 



DC 

Baffle Plains 




Hinde- 



Glass window with 



lamp before it 
Screw Clamps 
-Water Jacket 



-Water Inlet 



t 

Front View (without door) 
Cross-section of a Coflfee Soot Collector. 

path for the soot from the coffee-roaster. It is connected in an up- 
right position with the flue of the roaster. 

If the resistance of the baffle plates is too great to permit the 
passage of the soot and flue gases, an electric fan must be installed 
in the exit pipe of the collector. The suction thus created must be 
just enough to prevent the soot and gases from coming out into the 
room in which the roaster is situated, and not enough to carry any ^ 
of the chaff up into the collector. 



314 Cafeine from C of ee Soot {^"' ■^°Ma/^9'20 



The water jacket is required to be operated only in the summer, 
and may not be necessary at all in connection with smaller roasters. 

The glass windows with incandescent lamps before them, in the 
sides of the collector, are required during the installation of the 
collector when the best conditions for operation are being estab- 
lished. 

The door of the collector is attached very loosely so as to allow 
a final tight adjustment by means of the four screw clamps. A soot- 
tight joint is obtained by means of an asbestos or composition 
gasket fixed in a slot around the inner edge of the door. 

The interior of the collector is painted with aluminum paint, 
to prevent rust from forming and becoming mixed with the soot. 

The collected soot is removed by releasing the screw clamps, 
throwing back the door on its hinges and scraping out the soot with 
a long steel or wooden blade. 

Only the soot, and not the chaff, possesses any degree of com- 
mercial value, therefore the collector will probably not be applicable 
to the collection of soot from the type of roaster in the flue of which 
a strong blower must be employed, for the reason that the chaff 
and soot are usually inseparably mixed by the blower. The collector 
can be applied to the collection of soot from a roaster equipped with a 
blower by reducing the speed of the blower, so that none of the chaff 
is blown up into the collector, the speed of the blower being only 
enough to prevent the escape of soot and flue gases into the room 
in which the roaster is situated. If the purpose of the blower is the 
removal of the chaff, reduction of its speed to collect the soot will 
nullify this purpose and add an operation to the roasting process, 
namely the removal of the chaff. This will increase the expense of 
coffee-roasting process, and should be debited against the returns 
to be expected from the collection of the soot. 

FOR EITHE^R GAS OR COAL ROASTEjRS. 

The collector is applicable to the collection of coffee soot from 
either gas-fired or coal-fired roasters, but it must be remembered 
that coal soot or gas soot have no value, and therefore efforts must 
not be directed toward the production of these types of soot. 

No dimensions are indicated in the drawing of the collector, 
> as any size can be used according to requirements; merely keeping 
the dimensions in approximately the same ratio as they appear 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920. j 



Atoms and Chemical Valence. 



315 



in the drawing. For a single roaster, it is likely that a collector 
6 feet in height will completely collect the soot. 

To the writer's knowledge the collection of coffee soot is not 
being practiced in this country, but is in Continental European 
countries with reputed satisfactory returns. The Continental 
preference for more thoroughly roasted coffee may be a factor in 
this respect, because the soot would consequently be richer in caffeine. 
Whether coffee soot can be established as a profitable source of 
caffeine in this country is problematical and is a challenge to our best 
efforts. 

THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS AND ITS BEARING ON 
CHEMICAL VALENCE.* 

By Irving Langmuir, 

general electric co., schenectady, n. y. 

According to the well-established Rutherford-Bohr theory, all 
the positive electricity in an atom is concentrated in a nucleus 
at its center. The dimensions of this nucleus are negligibly small 
compared with those of the rest of the atom, its diameter being of 
the order of 0.00001 of that of the atom. The charge on the nucleus 
is an integral multiple of the charge of an electron but, of course, 
opposite in sign. The remainder of ths atom consists of electrons 
arranged in space about the nucleus, the normal number of such 
electrons (called the atomic number) being equal to the number of 
unit positive charges on the nucleus, so that the atom as a whole is 
electrically neutral. If the number of electrons in the atom exceeds 
the atomic number we have a negatively charged atom or ion, while 
in the reverse case a positively charged atom or ion results. The 
atomic number of any element has been found to be equal to the 
ordinal number of the element in the periodic table. Thus hydro- 
gen has the atomic number i, helium 2, lithium 3, carbon 6, 
neon 10, chlorine 17, nickel 28, silver 47, cerium 58, tungsten 74, 
radium 88, and uranium 92 The atomic numbers can be deter- 
mined experimentally from the X-ray spectrum so that we are not 
dependent upon the periodic table for our knowledge of these num- 
bers. 

* From The Jour, of Indus, and Engineering Chem., April, 1920. 



3i6 



Atoms and Chemical Valence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



Bohr, Sommerfeld, and others have developed an extensive 
and very successful theory of spectra upon the hypothesis that the 
electrons in atoms are in rapid rotation in plane orbits about the 
nucleus in much the same way as the planets revolve around the 
sun. Stark, Parson, and G. N. Lewis, on the other hand, starting 
from chemical evidence, have assumed that the electrons are sta- 
tionary in position. It should be noted that Bohr's theory has had 
its greatest success when applied to atoms or ions containing only 
one electron and that it seems incapable of explaining the chemical 
or ordinar}^ physical properties of even such simple elements as 
lithium, carbon, or neon. 

The two theories can, however, be reconciled if we consider that 
the electrons, as a result of forces which they exert on one another, 
rotate about certain definite positions in the atom which are dis- 
tributed symmetrically in three dimensions. Thus for atoms con- 
taining only a single electron the chemical theory is in agreement 
with Bohr's theory. But for an atom such as neon the eight elec- 
trons in the outside layer would revolve around positions which are 
located about the nucleus in the same way that the eight corners 
of a cube are arranged about the center of the cube. This struc- 
ture is not inconsistent with those parts of Bohr's theory which 
have received experimental confirmation. In fact. Born and 
Lande,^ starting with Bohr's theory and without knowledge of 
Lewis' work, arrived at exactly this conception of the structure of 
atoms {i. e., the cubic atom) from a study of the compressibility 
of the salts of the alkali metals. 

The atomic numbers and the properties of the inert gases fur- 
nish us with a clue to the arrangement of the electrons within atoms. 
The low boiling point, the high ionizing potential, the chemical 
inertness, etc., of helium prove that the arrangement of the elec- 
trons in the helium atom is more stable than that in any other 
atom. Since this atom contains two electrons we must conclude 
that a pair of electrons in the presence of a nucleus represents a 
very stable group. It is reasonable that with elements of higher 
atomic numbers there should be an even greater tendency for this 
stable pair of electrons to form about the nucleus. There are two 
sets of facts which furnish conclusive experimental evidence that 
this stable pair exists in all atoms above helium. 

^ Verh. d. phys. Ges., 20: 210, 1918. 



I 

^"'■^May'!''r92":l ^^toms and Chemical Valence. 317 

In the first place, the properties of Hthium, berylhum, etc., 
show that in these elements also the first two electrons are held firmly 
while the remainder are easily detached. Thus, lithium readily 
forms a univalent positive ion by the detachment of one of the three 
electrons in its neutral atom. The divalence and other proper- 
ties of beryllium prove that there is little or no tendency for a second 
stable pair of electrons to surround the first pair. 

In the second place, the absence of irregularities in the observed 
K and L series of the X-ray spectra of the various elements proves 
that there are no sudden changes in the number of electrons in the 
innermost layers of electrons about the nucleus. From these two 
sets of facts, as well as from other evidence, we may take it as a 
fundamental principle that the arrangement of the inner electrons 
undergo no change as we pass from elements of smaller to those of 
higher atomic number. 

The properties of neon indicate that its atoms are more stable than 
those of any other element except helium. Since the atomic num- 
ber is 10, and the first 2 electrons form a stable pair about the nucleus 
as in the helium atom, it follows directly that the other eight elec- 
trons arrange themselves in a second layer or shell possessing a very 
high stability. If these 8 electrons revolved about the nucleus in a 
single circular orbit or ring, as would be suggested by Bohr's theory, 
there is no apparent reason why there should by any very great 
difference in stability between rings having 7, 8 or 9 electrons. 
On the other hand, we readily see that the geometrical symmetry of 
the arrangement of the 8 electrons at (or rotating about) the 8 cor- 
ners of a cube would not only account for a high degree of sta- 
bility but for the fact that an arrangement of 7 or 9 electrons would 
have no such stability. Chemical considerations and Born and 
Lande's work on compressibility also lead us to this spatial arrange- 
ment of the electrons. We shall refer to the stable group of 8 elec- 
trons by the term octet. From the principles already enunciated 
it is clear that in the atoms of all the elements above neon the inner 
electrons are arranged in the same way as those of neon. 

From the atomic numbers of the inert gases we are thus able to 
determine the number of electrons in the various layers or shells 
of electrons which exist in the atoms. The results are summarized 
in Table i. 

Thus the xenon atom with an atomic number 54 contains 54 
electrons arranged as follows: Close to the nucleus are two elec- 



3i8 



Atoms and Chemical Valence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



Table i — Distribution of Electron in the Various Shells. 



Inert Gas 

Number of Corresponding to 

Shell. Electrons. Completed Layer. 

ist shell 2=2Xi2 He 2 

2nd shell, ist layer 8 = 2 X 2^ Ne 10 

2nd shell, 2nd layer 8 = 2X2^ AriS 

3rd shell, ist layer 18 = 2 X 3^ Kr 36 

3rd shell, 2nd layer 18 = 2X3^ Xe 54 

4th shell, I St layer 32 = 2 X 4^ Nt 86 



Irons which constitute the first shell. This is surrounded by the 
second shell which contains two "layers" of 8 electrons each. The 
third shell, which in the xenon atom is the outside shell, contains 
18 electrons. 

An examination of the numbers of electrons in the layers (Table i , 
2nd column) shows that they bear a simple mathematical relation 
to each other, namely, that they are proportional to the squares 
of the successive integers i, 2, 3 and 4. This is to be looked upon 
as perhaps the most fundamental fact underlying the periodic ar- 
rangement of the elements. It is significant that in Bohr's theory 
these same numbers, i, 4, 9, 16, etc., play a prominent part. Thus 
the energies of the electron in the various "stationary states" are 
proportional to i, V4, V9, Vi6» etc., and the diameters of the various 
possible orbits in Bohr's theory are proportional to i, 4, 9, 16, etc. 
In Bohr's theory the various stationary states correspond to differ- 
ent number of quanta (Planck's quantum theory), the innermost 
orbit corresponding to one quantum, the second orbit to two quanta, 
etc. We should thus consider (Table i) that the electrons in the 
ist shell are monoquantic, those in both layers of the 2nd shell are 
diquantic, etc. It is interesting that Born and Lande, from quite 
other evidence, have concluded that the outermost electrons of the 
chlorine atom (2nd layer of the 2nd shell) are diquantic instead of 
triquantic, as was at first assumed. 

The foregoing theory of the arrangement of electrons in atoms 
explains the general features of the entire periodic system of the 
elements and is particularly successful in accounting for the posi- 
tion and the properties of the so-called 8th group and the rare earth 
elements. It also serves to correlate the magnetic properties of the 
elements. 

Let us now consider the bearing of this theory of atomic struc- 
ture on the phenomena of chemical valence. The outstanding fea- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Atoms and Chemical Valence. 



319 



ture of the theory is that there are certain groups of electrons, such 
as the pair in the first shell and the octet in the second, that have a 
remarkable stability. Those atoms in which all the electrons form 
parts of such stable groups {viz., the inert gases) will have no ten- 
dency to change the arrangement of their electrons and will thus 
not undergo chemical change. Suppose, however, we bring to- 
gether an atom of fluorine (N = 9) ^ and an atom of sodium (N = 11). 
Ten electrons are needed for the stable pair in the first shell and the 
octet in the second shell, as in the neon atom„ The sodium atom 
has one more electron than is needed to give this stable structure 
while the fluorine atom has one electron too few. It is obvious 
then that the extra electron of the sodium atom should pass over 
completely to the fluorine atom. This leaves the sodium atom with 
a single positive charge while the fluorine becomes negatively charged. 
If the two charged atoms or ions^ were alone in space they would be 
drawn together by the electrostatic force and would move as a unit 
and thus constitute a molecule. However, if other sodium and 
fluorine ions are brought into contact with the "molecule" they will 
be attracted as well as the first one was. There will result (at not 
too high temperature) a space lattice consisting of alternate posi- 
tive and negative ions and the "molecule" of sodium fluoride will 
have disappeared. Now this is just the structure which we find 
experimentally for sodium fluoride by Bragg's method of X-ray 
crystal analysis. There are no bonds linking individual pairs of 
atoms together. The salt is an electrolytic conductor only in so 
far as its ions are free to move. In the molten condition or when 
dissolved in water, therefore, it becomes a good conductor. 

The case of magnesium (N = 12) and oxygen (N = 8) is simi- 
lar except that two electrons are transferred from the magnesium 
to the oxygen atom. The resulting ions have their electrons ar- 
ranged exactly like those of the neon atoms and the ions of sodium 

^ We will denote the atomic number of an element by N. 

2 It is convenient and it has been customary with many physicists to speak 
of a charged atom or molecule as an ion, irrespective of whether or not the parti- 
cle is able to wander under the influence of an electric field. The writer has used 
the term in this way in his recent publications. This practice is very distasteful 
to many physical chemists and is apt to be misunderstood by them. Neverthe- 
less, it seems to me probable, especially in view of the recent work of Milner 
and Ghosh, that it will be desirable to abandon the physical chemists' definition 
of the ion and to apply it to all charged atoms or molecules. The ion which wan- 
ders may then be referred to as a "free ion." 



32b Atoms and Chemical Valence. j^'"- May^^g'S: 

and fluorine. Therefore, the crystalline form of magnesium oxide 
and sodium fluoride should be identical, and this prediction of the 
theory has been confirmed experimentally by Dr. A. W. Hull by 
the X-ray method. Because of the much greater forces acting be- 
tween the ions as a result of the double charges, the stability of the 
magnesium oxide is much higher than that of the sodium fluoride. 
This is manifested by the high melting point, low conductiv^ity, low 
solubility, and hardness of magnesium oxide. 

Phosphorus (N = 15) and sulphur (N = 16) have, respectively, 
5 and 6 electrons more than neon, and are thus capable of giving 
up these numbers of electrons. If these elements are brought into 
contact with an excess of fluorine (which because of its proximity to 
neon has a particularly strong tendency to take electrons) all the 
extra electrons pass to fluorine atoms. Thus a sulphur atom will 
supply electrons to 6 fluorine atoms and will form the compound 
SFe. The force acting between the fluorine ions and the central 
sulphur ion is still electrostatic in nature it must be nearly 6 times 
greater than the. force between sodium and fluorine ions. Further- 
more, the 6 fluorine ions would surround the sulphur ion so that there 
would be little stray field of force. Therefore, we should not ex- 
pect sulphur fluoride to be salt-like in character but to consist of 
very stable molecules having weak external fields of force and, 
therefore, readily existing in the form of a gas. As a matter of fact, 
this extraordinary substance has these properties developed to such 
a degree that it is an odorless and tasteless gas with a boiling point 
of — 62 deg. Phosphorus pentafluoride, as would be expected 
from its less symmetrical structure, is a gas having greater chemical 
activity. 

The fluosilicate ion SiFe"" has a structure exactly like that of 
the sulphur fluoride molecule, since the number and arrangement 
of the electrons are the same. This is clear if we consider that the 
atomic number of silicon is 14 while that of sulphur is 16. Thus 
if we should replace the nucleus of the sulphur atom in a molecule 
of sulphur fluoride by the nucleus of a silicon atom, without dis- 
turbing any of the surrounding electrons, we would have removed 
two positive charges and would obtain a negative ion with two 
negative charges of the formula SiFe . In the presence of potas- 
sium ions we would then have the familiar salt potassium fluosilicate. 
The theory is thus capable of explaining typical complex salts. In 
fact, it is applicable to the whole field of inorganic compounds 



M'ay^^9'2o:} ^toMs Gfid Chemical Valence. 321 

covered by the work of Werner, and helps to simpHfy the theory of 
such compounds. There is no time, however, to go into this sub- 
ject. 

The simple theory of atomic structure which we have discussed 
thus far elxplains perfectly what has usually been called "the maxi- 
mum positive and negative valence." The maximum positive 
valence represents the number of electrons which the atom possesses 
in excess of the number needed to form one of the particularly stable 
configurations of electrons. On the other hand, the maximum 
negative valence is the number of electrons which the atom must 
take up in order to reach one of these stable configurations. 

For example, magnesium has a positive valence of two, since its 
atomic number is 12, while that of neon is 10. Sulphur has a posi- 
tive valence of 6, since it has 6 electrons more than neon ; but it has 
a negative valence of two because it must take up more electrons 
before it can assume a form like that of the argon atom. 

It is clear, however, that this theory of valence is not yet com- 
plete.^ It is not applicable to those cases where we have usually 
taken valences of 4 for sulphur, or 3 and 5 for chlorine, etc. But 
more especially it does not explain the structure of organic com- 
pounds and such substances as Hj, CI2, O2, N2H4, PCI3, etc. 

J. J. Thomson, Stark, Bohr, and others had suggested that a 
pair of electrons held in common by two adjacent atoms may func- 
tion in some cases as chemical bonds between the atoms, but this 
idea had not been combined with the conception of the stable groups 
of electrons or octets. G. N. Lewis, in an important paper in 191 6, 
advanced the idea that the stable configurations of electrons in 
atom could share pairs of electrons with each other and he identified 
these pairs of electrons with the chemical bond of organic chemis- 
try. This work of Lewis has been the basis and the inspiration of 
my work on valence and atomic structure. 

As a result of the sharing of electrons between octets, the num- 
ber of octets that can be formed from a given number of electrons is 
increased. For example, two fluorine atoms, each having seven 
electrons in its outside shell, would not be able to form octets at all 
except by sharing electrons. By sharing a single pair of electrons, 
however, two octets holding a pair in common required only 14 

1 The theories of Kossel, Lacomblc, Teudt, etc., which have recently been 
proposed in Germany, have not advanced beyond this point and are therefore 
very unsatisfactory as a general theory of valence. 



322 Atoms and Chemical Valence. {^'"- ^ May^^92'S: 

electrons. This is clear if we consider two cubes with electrons at 
each of the eight corners. When the cubes are placed so that an 
edge of one is in contact with an edge of the other a single pair 
of electrons at the ends of the common edge will take the place of 
four electrons in the original cubes. For each pair of electrons held 
in common between two octets there is a decrease of two in the total 
number of electrons needed to form the octets. 

Let e represent the number of electrons in the outside shell of 
the atoms that combine to form a molecule. Let n be the number 
of octets that are formed from these e electrons, and let p be the 
number of pairs of electrons which the octets share with one another. 
Since every pair of electrons thus shared reduces by two the number 
of electrons required to form the molecules it follows that ^ = 8w — 
2p or p = V2(8n — e). 

This simple equation tells us in each case how many pairs of 
electrons or chemical bonds must exist in any given molecule be- 
tween the octets formed. Hydrogen nuclei, however, may attach 
themselves to pairs of electrons in the octets which are not already 
shared. For example, in the formation of hydrogen fluoride from 
a hydrogen atom and a fluorine atom there are 8 electrons in the 
shells (e = 8) . We place n — i in the above equation and find 
p = o. In other words, the fluorine atoms do not share electrons 
with each other. The hydrogen nucleus having given up its elec- 
tron to the fluorine atoms attaches itself to one of the pairs of elec- 
trons of the fluorine octet, and thus forms a molecule having a rela- 
tively weak external field of force. As a result, hydrogen fluoride 
is a liquid of low boiling point instead of being salt-like in charac- 
ter. 

The equation given above is applicable to all types of com- 
pounds. For example, if we apply it to substances such as sodium 
fluoride, sulphur fluoride, or potassium fluosilicate, which were 
previously considered, we find in each case p = o. In other words, 
there are no pairs of electrons holding the atoms of these compounds 
together. On the other hand, if we consider the compound N2H4, 
we find p = 1. Since there are only two octets, the pair of elec- 
trons must be between the two nitrogen atoms while the hydrogen 
nuclei attach themselves to pairs of electrons of the nitrogen octet. 
It can be readily shown that this simple theory is in fact identical 
with the accepted valence theory of organic chemistry and leads 
to the same structural formulas as the ordinary theory in all those 



^ May^^glS:} When Is Poison Not a Poison? 323 

cases where we can take the valence of nitrogen to be 3, oxygen and 
sulphur 2, chlorine and hydrogen i. In other cases, such as 
those where quinquivalent nitrogen has been assumed, the new 
theory gives results different from the old, but in each case in better 
agreement with the facts. 

The theory indicates a series of new relationships between cer- 
tain types of substances which I have termed isosteric substances. 
For example, it indicates that the molecules of carbon dioxide and 
nitrous oxide should have nearly identical structures and this is 
borne out by the extraordinary similarity in the physical proper- 
ties of these gases. Nitrogen and carbon monoxide constitute an- 
other pair of gases which are similarly related. The same theory 
also points out a number of previously unsuspected cases of simi- 
larity of crystalline form (isomorphism). 

It is clear that in the past the term valence has been used to 
cover what we may now recognize as three different types of valence, 
as follows: 

1. Positive valence: the number of electrons an atom can give up. 

2. Negative valence : the number of electrons an atom can take up. 

3. Covalence: the number of pairs of electrons which an atom 
can share with its neighbors. 

It is recommended that only for valences of the covalence type 
should definite bonds be indicated in chemical formulas. One of 
the particular advantages of the present theory is that it becomes 
easy to distinguish between covalence and the other types and thus 
to predict with certainty in what way electrolytic dissociation will 
occur, if at all. 

References. 

W. Kossel, Ann. Physik, 49: 229, 1916. 

G. N. Lewis, /. Am. Chem. Soc, 38: 762, 1916. 

Langmuir, /. Frank. Inst., 187: 359, 1919; /. Am. Chem. Soc, 41: 868, 
i543» 1919; 42: 274, 1920; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 252, 1919. 



WHEN IS POISON NOT A POISON?*,^ 
By John Uri LivOyd, Pharm. M., 
cincinnati, ohio. 

A reply to the above question might be: When, for any reason, 
a substance is harmless in action, immediate or remote, be it applied 



324 



When Is Poison Not a Poison? 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



externally or taken internally. In other words, it is not then a 
poison. 

This leads to the question: "Can a substance be considered as a 
poison at one time and innocuous at another?" To this one might 
make several replies, as the problem is viewed from its several side- 
angles. 

For example, sulphuric acid, in concentrated form, applied to the 
skin or taken internally, will at once disintegrate flesh. Its action 
is then that of a corrosive agent, its destructive influence resting 
directly upon avidity for water and its power of abstracting water 
from liquids and even from tissue, to the tissue's complete destruc- 
tion. It thus, under these conditions, becomes a corrosive poison. 

As an example, one might state that white sugar is a carbohy- 
drate, composed of carbon and the elements of water in the pro- 
portion to theoretically produce water. Place a lump of white sugar 
on a plate and then pour upon it a little concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Immediately it turns yellow, then black, owing to the liberation 
of carbon (charcoal) by the abstraction of its companion oxygen 
and hydrogen, which the acid takes, to the destruction of the sugar. 

Dilute the same amount of sulphuric acid with water, to pleasant 
acidity, and it no longer destroys tissue on contact therewith, nor 
is it immediately harmful to the stomach. The sugar dissolves in 
it, colorless, when it is thus diluted. Indeed, as an acidulated 
drink (circus lemonade), much diluted and flavored with lemon oil, 
it has been used, without immediate corrosive effect or injury, as a 
substitute for lemonade. This practice, however, is now wisely 
forbidden. 

To sum up, in one form, sulphuric acid is destructive to living 
tissue; in another form (dilute), it acts differently. The amount 
that, concentrated, would disintegrate tissue if applied locally, is, 
when diluted, harmless. 

Take next arsenic. With the normal human being, arsenic, in 
comparatively small doses, is death-dealing. But with some per- 
sons, artificially made immune, a dose that poisons others is harmless. 
Arsenic eaters come within the scope of habit-forming drug addicts. 
The habit-formed principle applies likewise to morphine and similar 
drugs. Be the arsenic or morphine dilute or concentrated, a toxic 
amount to the normal man acts as a poison. Be it, for example, 
six grains of morphine, in substance, or six grains dissolved in an 
ounce of water, the same exerts its poisonous influence, providing 



^ M'ay';Y92":} When Is Poisou Not a Poison? 325 

the whole amount be taken at a single dose. Indeed, dilution may 
even increase its activity. 

Be it said that, although arsenic, morphine and such as these 
act as poisons upon the normal man, an individual may, as above 
stated, accustom his system to the drug, so that enormous doses 
may be taken without apparent injury. In this no comparison can 
be made with the cited action of sulphuric acid of which a drop on 
the skin of any man will bite its way to the tissue beneath, but yet 
can with impunity be swallowed when diluted with water. 

We may likewise pass to other material that exercise special 
influences, but where, so far as we know, artificial habit-forming 
methods have no part. Rhus toxicodendron both excretes a sub- 
stance and carries a volatile something that produces violent toxic 
action on some persons, while to others it is as harmless as bedewed 
grass. A waft of air over the dew-covered vine may close the eyes 
of a strong man exposed to its air- wafted influence, may cover his 
body with a most painful eruption, may drive him to seek his phy- 
sician's aid.^ Another man or a fragile girl comes next and with 
impunity, with bare hands, pulls the vine from its fastenings. The 
eyes of the first man may be closed by the attenuated "poison," 
imperceptibly attenuated by the gentle breeze, beyond the chemist's 
art to indentify, while the other person, bespread with its juice, 
has not even a pimple on his hand. Thus, "poison ivy" is, or is not, 
a poison, as the individual is or is not susceptible to its influence. 

As an illustration, the writer each year has laboratory use for 
many thousand pounds of rhus toxicodendron (poison ivy). The 
green leaves, when in their prime, are gathered by collectors, who 
in midsummer, with bare hands and arms, strip the vines, crush the 
green leaves into sacks, and deliver the product with impunity. 
No immediate, or after-effect, is noticeable. One young lady of the 
laboratory force is so sensitive to the action of the drug as to respond 
to the emanations, although she be in a distant part of the estab- 
lishment. To bottle and label "Rhus," or otherwise handle a prep- 
aration, means to her typical rhus poisoning. Consequently, at 
such time, she has a vacation, not being allowed within the estab- 
ishment. 

Once we knew a man to be vaccinated with a virus-crust that, 
used in equal amount on others, produced no untoward action. 
And yet that man came near losing his arm. It is evident that not 
the virus, but the man, or some undetermined local cause connected 



326 When Is Poison Not a Poison? {^"^- 

with his case, was then at fault. The virus was the actual disturber. 
Let us not overlook that in such cases as these local conditions, such 
as the syringe needle or skin uncleanliness, may be at fault, not the 
virus. 

Physicians may recall the use of a hypodermic syringe from season 
to season, with no complaint. Then, in the course of ordinary 
injections, a patient is ''poisoned" by the same dose of the same 
medicine previously employed, and injected with the same syringe 
needle. The question arises, what caused this exceptional action? 
Blame is likely to be attached to the virus, regardless of its innocence. 

One might fairly imply that either in this one case the syringe 
needle was infected, or that a shred of foreign matter was injected, 
or that this one patient was exceptionally sensitive to the remedy 
employed. Vaccines are not in our sphere; we make no claim to 
capacity to speak as an expert in this field. But yet letters from 
patrons citing exceptional experiences in these directions lead us to 
accept that where one person, and only one, experiences such ex- 
ceptional results with a preparation where hundreds of others find 
no untoward effect, the cause may be accepted as local or systemic, 
its exceptional action lying outside the preparation used. Such as 
this is a problem for serious study. 

Full well is it known that tobacco is destructive to the life of 
most insects, and yet there are worms that thrive on the green leaf, 
as well as insects that thread the dried drug, and delight in the choicest 
cigars. To the one, green tobacco, to the other, dried tobacco, is a 
food. And yet, this writer was made "deathly sick," as frightened 
observers can testify, when a film of collodion containing a fraction 
of a drop of nicotine was painted back of the nail, on the first joint 
of his thumb. Within a few moments alarming results followed, 
the poisonous film was at once washed off with chloroform, ammonia 
to the nostrils and stimulants internally being promptly administered. 
And yet, without any untoward influence, thousands of employees 
breathe with impunity the close air of tobacco warehouses, cigar 
factories, and constantly handle strong nicotine tobacco leaf. 

Capsicum, in substance, is heroic, as all who have experienced its 
direct action will testify. But yet a beetle (undetermined, so far as 
we know), feeds on powdered capsicum, and burrows in its depths. 
To that insect capsicum is a choice food, and to the Mexican, in 
excessive amounts, it is but a pleasant condiment. 

The plant known as sanguinaria (blood root) contains large 



^°May^Y92":} WheU Is PotSOfl Not a Poison? 

amounts of energetic alkaloids that vomit man, when taken even 
in small doses. And yet a single mole exterminated a bed in which 
this essayist took much pride. At least, by circumstantial evidence, 
the mole got the blame for the offense. 

In like manner, biologists are aware that heroic poisons fail to 
act with some animals, while substances "not a poison" are de- 
structive to others. 

"Chambers" is authority for the assertion that natives of Africa 
drive hogs through serpent-infested sections, the hog not being sus- 
ceptible to the virulence of that viper. It is stated that the beast 
presents its cheek to the serpent, then grasps the reptile in its mouth. 
Tradition has it that the hog is likewise immune to arsenic. Country 
people have a tradition that a full pail of milk from a newly-calved 
cow will kill a hog. The father of this essayist doubted the state- 
ment and fed a valuable hog a full portion of the first milking. 
The hog died that night. Seemingly, the experiment succeeded. 
And yet the cheese made of the first milking of the "nannie goat" 
commands exceptional value in Smyrna. 

The miasmatic fog that catches one person may fail to affect 
neighbors equally exposed. A plague may sweep away a multitude 
and yet miss an individual member of that multitude. 

Thus we find that the term poison, whatever the dictionary 
definition may be, carries undercurrents of opportunities for ques- 
tionings, as well as investigations, that make the answer to the 
question, ''When is a poison not a poison?'' more of a problem than 
a cursory glance would indicate. 

And yet, since, as a rule, such peculiarities as these are excep- 
tional, a cause for each exception unquestionably always exists. 
The reason therefor, in obscured conditions, is an opportunity for 
science research, the facts having, as a rule, been incontrovertibly 
established by empirical record. The man of experimentation, 
opportunity and thought has surely, here as elsewhere, accomplished 
his share in the chain of progress when he hands to his co-laborer 
a statement of fact based on balanced observation. 
*From Eclectic Medical Journal, April, 1920. 

^ Definition — Poison: "Any substance applied to the body, ingested, or 
developed within the body, which causes or may cause disease." — Borland. 

2 The remedies offered as "poison ivy cures" are legion. This writer be- 
lieves that the action is often remote from the drug attack. The chain of sys- 
temic reactions that produce the body-bred toxines may be likened to the Bib- 
lical "third and fourth generations." 



328 Present Status of Health Insurance. j'^""- •^°May^^9'2'S: 

THE PRESENT STATUS OF COMPULSORY HEALTH 
INSURANCE. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL INSURANCE READ AT THE NINTH 
ANNUAL MEETING OP THE AMERICAN DRUG MANUFACTURERS' 
ASSOCIATION HELD AT THE HOTEL BILTMORE, NEW YORK CITY, 
APRIL 12-15, 1920. 

This being an off year, legislatively speaking, there isn't much 
to report regarding the movement for compulsory health insurance. 
During the past winter, interest has very largely centered right here 
in the State of New York. As a matter of fact, indeed, the leaders 
of the movement have largely concentrated their forces on New 
York ever since they were so effectively defeated in California two 
years ago. 

COMPULSORY HEALTH OPPONENTS GAINING STRENGTH. 

There is now pending in the legislature of this State a bill pro- 
viding for the realization of compulsory health insurance. This 
is the fifth annual measure of the kind. Last year the struggle was 
most dramatic. It looked for a week or two as though the pro- 
ponents of compulsory health insurance would triumph, but the 
day was finally saved. This year it would appear that the opposi- 
tion is much stronger. We gather from what we are able to learn 
that the present bill is not likely to succeed. Not only are its 
opponents much better organized and far more powerful, but the 
legislature seems to have troubles of its own and the Davenport 
measure has become more or less of a side issue. 

New York State, indeed, is admirably organized against this 
fanatical movement. The Merchants' and Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, with which our body has been affiliated, has carried on a very 
effective campaign of education. The New York League for Ameri- 
canism has likewise stepped into the breach and has done most 
effective work in showing up the sophistries and fallacies of the 
scheme. And the three groups most directly affected, namely, 
the physicians, dentists and druggists, have here and there through- 
out the State cooperated in the establishment of "guilds" and have 
fought compulsory health insurance tooth and nail. 

These "guilds" did heroic work last fall. During the campaign 
just prior to the November election, a working committee was ap- 
pointed in each assembly district composed of two physicians, two 
druggists and one dentist. Each committee called on the candidates 



•^'May^^?2o:} Preseut Status of Health Insurance. 329 

for both the Assembly and the Senate to ascertain their views with 
reference to compulsory health insurance and to ask for a pledge of 
opposition to any bill providing for such insurance. A fight was 
promptly waged against those candidates whose views were held 
to be contrary to the public interest, and the result was that ten 
of them went down to defeat. This furnishes one reason why the 
legislature this year is not quite so keen for compulsory health 
insurance as it was last. 

Passing by the situation in New York State, it may be said, 
as we have already intimated, that the issue has not elsewhere been 
a very active one during the past winter. New Jersey seems at the 
moment to be in favor of compulsory health insurance, but the 
"guild" idea is being developed in resistance to it, and the history 
of New York State will doubtless be repeated. Pennsylvania has 
agitated the subject, but has done nothing acute. The sentiment 
for such insurance in Ohio, under a little stimulation from Governor 
Cox, is rather favorable to the scheme. Indiana has a commission 
at work, but it is apparently not active. Wisconsin has entertained 
some discussion of the subject, but has apparently not gone beyond 
the debating stage. The issue has been a fairly live one in Minne- 
sota, where it forms a part of the propaganda involved in the so- 
called Non-Partisan movement, but nothing is threatened for the 
immediate present. 

So much for the situation at the moment. Now a few words 
about the character of the movement in general. These questions 
are frequently asked: Who are the advocates of compulsory health 
insurance? What sort of friends has the scheme got anyway? 
How active are they? What is the danger of success? 

WHO ADVOCATE COMPULSORY HEAI^TH INSURANCE? 

We should say, after a pretty careful study of the movement 
compassing several years, that the advocates of compulsory health 
insurance divide themselves very naturally into the following classes : 

1. The original group of academic doctrinaires and sociologists. 
These men for the most part are university teachers, and they 
sincerely believe themselves to be right. Unfortunately, as Samuel 
Gompers says of them, they are not open to conviction. They are 
zealous fanatics. 

2. The governors and legislatures of certain States tinctured 
with socialism, especially the western group of States now carried 
away by the misbranded Non-Partisan movement. 



330 Present Status of Health Insurance. { ^M^ay^^r/jS; 

3. The modern bolshevists who are out for anything that 
promises to foment class hatred, promote chaos, curb production, 
destroy prosperity and kill private initiative. 

4. The men in every State who have the nose of a hunting dog 
for political jobs, and who see the vision of a great organization 
feeding at the public treasury. 

Thus we find compulsory health insurance with a peculiar assort- 
ment of friends. It is at once to be observed that, not the lion 
and the lamb, but the zealot and the crook lie down together. Not 
politics only, but socialistic "reforms" as well, make strange bed- 
tnates. 

In the early days of the movement it was thought that the 
medical profession was in favor of it. For a time the medical 
profession, indeed, was in favor of it. But now we find physicians 
arrayed strongly among the opposition, and we observe them to be 
well organized in one or two States where the issue has reached the 
stage of practical danger. In this State, for instance, you will see 
medical organizations resisting the movement to the last ditch. 

LABOR OPPOSED TO COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE- 

The various groups in favor of compulsory health insurance 
all unite in declaring that it is primarily for the benefit of labor. 
But the somewhat amusing and certainly very effective answer 
is that labor itself doesn't want it. It is true that a few scattered 
units of labor, here and there, have at times been in favor of com- 
pulsory health insurance, but the great body of the rank and file, 
as well as the national officers of authority, are vigorously in opposi- 
tion. As recently as January 30, of this year, at a meeting here in 
New York of the National Civic Federation, Samuel Gompers made 
the following statement: 

It has come to me that recently some person has declared that Gompers 
has been won over to compulsory health insurance. I have already made my 
answer, which is that I am unalterably opposed to it. 

We may be perfectly sure that Mr. Gompers and his associates 
would definitely align themselves for compulsory health insurance 
if it were something beneficial to the laboring man. These men are 
in favor of several movements in behalf of the laborer which capital 
is resisting. Surely here is something that labor would want if 
labor found it desirable. The opposition of Mr. Gompers and other 
leaders is perhaps the most staggering thing which the proponents 



^'^^■^''May^%2o:} Present Status of Health Insurance. 331 

of the idea have to face. It also sounds the death-knell of the hopes 
of those philanthropic doctrinaires who really think they are doing 
something for the benefit of the human race. They can't effectively 
push a ''benefit" down the throats of union when labor itself has its 
mouth closed and its lips locked. 

Nevertheless people who are in favor of a particular panacea 
always find it difficult to listen to reason. Mr. Gompers in the 
speech to which we have already referred went on to declare that 
"no matter how convincing would be the proof that compulsory 
health insurance is impracticable and impossible, there would still 
be those who would not change their position in the slightest degree, 
but who would still want it." In other words, they are not open to 
conviction. The doctrinaire doesn't want to be convinced and 
closes his mind against it. The self-seeker doesn't care whether 
he is convinced or not: he is of the same opinion still for reasons of 
profit. 

COMPUIvSORY HKAIvTH INSURANCE) FAIIvS IN ITS PURPOSE 

As a matter of fact, indeed, the only excuse for compulsory 
health insurance is that it would reduce the total amount of sick- 
ness on the one hand, and on the other would give the workman 
medical attention at a reduced cost. Experience in Europe has 
abundantly proved that compulsory health insurance does neither. 
As a committee of the Medical Society of the State of New York 
pointed out last November: 

There is no uncertainty about the evidence that the relative morbidity rate 
infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate, has been much more ma- 
terially reduced in the United States during the past twenty years than it has 
been in Germany and Austria, where compulsory health insurance not alone, 
but the whole scheme, including invalidity and unemployment insurance and 
old age pensions, have been in force. It can, therefore, be seen that compul- 
sory health insurance as such plays a very small part in the reduction of length 
and severity of illness, and that on the whole it has been of extremely little 
value, medically, in those countries; while it has been the cause of a profound 
deterioration in medical service and medical morale. Even in England, where 
it has been in operation for a comparatively short time, it has proved so de- 
fective and ineffective for the purposes for which it was instituted that it is now 
proposed to inaugurate the plan of State medicine to supplant it. 

Compulsory health insurance fails not merely to bring the 
benefits for which it is urged. It actually results in detriment to the 
public welfare. It is plainly prejudicial to the public interest, and 



332 Present Status of Health Insurance, j^'" ^''May^^9''2'S: 

we sincerely trust that the more it is studied the more this fact will 
sink into the consciousness of the nation. 

VOLUNTARY EMPLOYEE INSURANCE THE REMEDY. 

At bottom, of course, there is some modicum of sense to be 
found in the movement for compulsory health insurance. Agita- 
tions of this sort are not all bosh and moonshine. The difficulty 
always is to separate the real from the unreal — the wheat from the 
chaff — the desirable from the undesirable. 

Compulsory health insurance, as advocated by its friends, is 
simply impossible. It would do far more harm than good. But 
it may be possible to strip the movement of its evils and get down 
to the kernel of truth residing somewhere in the heart of the situa- 
tion. It is perhaps undeniable that some means of insurance pro- 
tection against sickness should be afforded to certain groups of 
people. How" can this be afforded wisely and rationally? 

Mr. Dunning has made a survey of the conditions existing in the 
plants of our members, and his findings are printed in connection 
with this report. It will be seen that already manufacturers are 
groping their way in an effort to deal with the employee in a way best 
calculated to protect both him and the employer. It may be ex- 
plained also that during the last few years insurance companies 
have offered manufacturers a type of protection considerably in 
advance of group insurance in its original form. Originally group 
insurance covered death losses only, but it is now possible to buy 
protection which covers sickness as well. 

The insurance companies are earnestly engaged in studying the 
whole problem, but they find it a complicated one. The laws in the 
different States are very confusing, and it is exceedingly difficult 
to suit any one form of insurance to differing conditions and require- 
ments. The general aim seems to be to get up some form of group 
insurance which will cover everything not taken care of under the 
State compensation laws. Evidently, as appears from Mr. Dun- 
ning 's survey, some of our own members are already buying insurance 
of this sort. Ultimately, no doubt, the manufacturer who desires 
to protect both himself and his people against losses from sickness 
will find it possible to get just what he wants at a reasonable cost, 
and when this time comes the solution of the problem will have been 
realized. 

For voluntary insurance is one thing, and compulsory insurance 



■^°Ma^Y92o:} Employee Insurance Conditions. 333 

is quite another. Voluntary insurance can be economically handled. 
It will be subject to the laws of competition. It can be purchased 
by each manufacturer to suit his own particular requirements, 
and used by him just as long as he finds it beneficial. Compulsory 
health insurance, on the other hand, drags a long train of evils 
behind it. It involves an expensive and inefficient organization. 
It means incompetent and underpaid medical service. It means 
cheap drugs. More than anything else it means compulsion — and 
compulsion is repugnant to the free spirit of America. Compulsory 
health insurance has never yet, in any country where it has been 
adopted, worked out to the satisfaction of the impartial student, 
but voluntary insurance may well be contrived which will meet the 
situation as far as it ought to be met. 

Just how far, however, efforts to establish voluntary health 
insurance will head off the movement for compulsory health in- 
surance remains to be seen. The latter is being pushed with an 
astonishing amount of vigor. It is apparently gaining strength 
year by year. Fortunately, however, the opposition is likewise 
gaining strength, and it may be safely predicted that the battle will 
be waged more or less fiercely for a number of years to come. We 
must all of us be on our guard in order to head off a German-made 
propaganda which would do infinite harm to America if it ever 
gained a foothold on our soil. 



A SURVEY OF EMPLOYEE INSURANCE CONDITIONS 
AMONG MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN DRUG 
MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION. 

By H. a. B. Dunning. 

Thirty-two of the fifty-six members of the American Drug 
Manufacturers' Association answered our questionnaire in reference 
to their policy relative to the protection of their employees agaiUvSt 
loss of income through sickness, ill health or misfortune. 

Twenty-seven members stated that they had no form of in- 
surance for their employees against loss of income through sickness, 
ill health or misfortune. Five companies have some sort of pro- 
tection, either for the employees or among the employees, only one, 
however, having anything that approximates a mutual relationship. 
In this instance, one of the plants of the company has group in- 



334 Employee Insurance Conditions. {^™- "^^Ma^^™! 

surance against sickness, ill health or death, the company paying 
one-half of the premium for such employees as desire to pay the 
other half and derive the benefit. 

EMPLOYED PROTECTIVE ORGANIZATIONS. 

The employees of four companies have protected themselves 
more or less independently of their employers. In one instance, the 
employees have a death benefit fund, to which each member, upon 
joining, pays the sum of one dollar, and subsequently is assessed 
one dollar upon the occasion of every death within the organization. 
This is strictly an employees' organization. 

The employees of another company have developed a very 
complete system of insurance, which they call the Mutual Aid 
Society, and which exists for the benefit of factory workers em- 
ployed at hourly rates. Any such employee is eligible to member- 
ship, and dues are paid according to the amount of benefit desired, 
the monthly dues being five per cent, of the sum received per week 
in case of sickness. The amount of compensation is governed by 
the amount of wages earned per week. Any member of the society 
may insure in the grade designated by his salary, or in any lower 
grade, but not in any higher. No member who has not belonged 
to the society for one month may receive any benefit in the case of 
absence. Should the company continue to pay wages to an em- 
ployee during his absence, no benefit is paid by the society. Bene- 
fits are paid for a period of not more than eight weeks in any consec- 
utive twelve months. In the case of deaths, the sum of fifty dollars 
is paid by the treasury of the society to the person or family desig- 
nated as the beneficiary. 

In another company, the employees have an organization in 
which, for a nominal fee paid upon joining, members are protected 
in the event of illness, for a period not exceeding twenty-six weeks. 

In another instance, there exists a Relief Fund, the disburse- 
ments of which are controlled by a committee of employees elected 
by fellow employees. There are no regular dues, but the weekly 
bonuses paid by the company to those who have not been tardy or 
absent during the week are turned over by the company to the fund. 
In cases of illness, the employee may draw upon the Relief Fund for 
money, which is generally considered as a loan, and is paid back upon 
his recovery, although in some cases, where this is impossible or 
would involve undue hardship, the sum is given outright. 



"^"Ma^Yg^o:} Employee Insurance Conditions. 335 

PAYMENT 01^ SAI^ARIKS DURING ABSENCE. 

Of those companies which have no plan of insurance for em- 
ployees, six pay full salaries unconditionally during absence due to 
illness. The general tendency of the majority, however, is to be 
governed by the conditions of each individual case, and the feeling 
seems to be that any hard and fast rule is liable to inflict a certain 
amount of injustice. Full salaries are paid by five companies to 
salaried employees, office workers, heads of departments, etc., but 
in all except one of these cases, laboratory employees or others 
ivorking on an hourly basis of payment, receive no pay whatever 
during absence. Two companies, while not paying full salaries 
during absence, pay all doctors' bills for the employee who is sick. 
In another company, each office employee is allowed thirty days' 
sick leave throughout the year, and receives extra pay for what- 
ever time is not used out of this allowance, there being no pay during 
the actual time of absence. One company in a State which requires 
State compensation insurance, pays the difference, in cases of sick- 
ness, between the amount allowed by the State, which is two-thirds 
of the weekly salary, and full pay. Only one company makes no 
provision at all for absent employees. 

Of those companies which do not pay full salary during absence, 
one pays eighty per cent, of the weekly salary, one pays one-half, 
one makes absolutely no allowance, three pay half or full salary, 
dependent upon conditions, and eight are governed by circum- 
stances as to what portion of the weekly salary is paid during such 
absence. 

In regard to the length of time during which some sort of pay is 
given by the companies to absent employees, there was a wide 
variation. Here again, the individual case governed the course 
followed by many, and length of employment, value of the employee 
to the company, and the amount of salary received are determining 
factors. Fourteen companies replied that they were influenced by 
these considerations. Two companies continue to pay salaries in- 
definitely, so long as conditions justify their doing so. Two com- 
panies pay no longer than a period of two weeks; two pay no longer 
than three to four weeks, unless unusual conditions warrant it; the 
Mutual Aid Society above referred to allows compensation for a 
period of not more than eight weeks during each consecutive twelve 



336 Employee Insurance Conditions. j^""- ■^°May^^9'2o; 

months; the employees of another company are protected by them- 
selves for twenty-six weeks. One company continues to pay salaries 
for three months, but no longer, while two others pay for a reason- 
able time. Two companies continue to pay salaries until the re- 
recovery of the employee, and only one makes no provision at all. 

There was a marked difference of opinion as to how long an em- 
ployee must have been with a company before he is entitled to pay 
during absence. Five companies make no requirement of such 
previous service whatever. Eleven replies state that there is no 
general rule, although length of service is a determining factor in 
their course of procedure. There is a requirement of thirty days' 
membership in the Mutual Aid Society, and the company whose 
employees have organized this society requires an office worker to 
have been employed for six months before any allowance is made 
for absence. Two firms require employees to be with them for three 
months before paying salaries; three firms have a requirement of one 
year's service. Two years' service is required by another company 
while five years or more are required by still another, although ex- 
ceptions to this unusually strict rule are made. 

In conclusion, five companies suggested that they would be glad 
to receive any assistance possible from the Secretary to enable them 
to work out the problem of employees' insurance, to which they have 
been giving considerable thought. One company stated that in its 
opinion any general policy to govern such instances would be unfair, 
as the circumstances of nearly every employee's absence are different, 
and that some injustice would probably follow an attempt to make 
all cases conform to the same rule. Another company suggested 
some form of insurance to which both the employees and the com- 
pany would contribute, thus dividing the responsibility and in- 
creasing the feeling of mutuality between employer and employee. 
Group insurance covering death but not sickness was the suggestion 
of another company, as the payment of salaries during the period of 
absence takes care of the employee without developing the pater- 
nalistic attitude. 

Harry B. Mason, Chairman. 

F. M. BeIvL, 

H. A. B. Dunning, 

E. H. Nelson, 

J. H. FoY. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Association's Latent Power. 



337 



GREAT POSSIBILITIES IN THE ASSOCIATION'S LATENT 

POWER. 

RKPORT OT^ THE SECRETARY, W. J. WOODRUFF, AT THE NINTH ANNUAI, 
MEETING OF THE AMERICAN DRUG MANUFACTURERS* ASSOCIA- 
TION AT THE HOTEly BIETMORE, NEW YORK, 
APRIIv 12-15, 1920. 

This year's report of the Secretary is inspired by a conviction 
that has been growing firmer in his mind for some time. If I may 
be permitted to indulge myself in a home-made text for my sermon, 
let me offer this — "The horse in the barn doesn't turn any furrows." 
To be less figurative, your presumptuous Secretary believes that, 
while the membership, with industry generally, is complainingly 
permitting itself to be seriously hampered by adverse influences, 
it possesses vast potentialities for correcting those evils of which 
it is not availing itself. 

GREAT I.ATENT POWER. 

It is safe to assert that, with the single exception of the Proprie- 
tary Association, no single factor in the Drug Trade or Medicine 
possesses the potential power for remedying its evils that this indus- 
try possesses. It is likewise safe to say that no industry is using so 
small a proportion of its potential power in its attempts to meet 
its problems. 

The fact that an association represents a manufacturing indus- 
try implies powerful reserves of organization experience — of big 
caliber men — the association can say the last without immodesty 
for men who manage such great units can be nothing else — and — 
but here I must focus my meaning well — if I mention capital as a 
source of power, I do not mean to imply its use as a force for coercion, 
corruption, undue influence or suppression of truth or justice, or for 
any other use immoral or even unethical. I mention it rather for 
the legitimate uses to which it can be put, uses in no way inconsis- 
tent with the public welfare. We could be charged with nothing 
worse than a desire to have justice done us if we used it, let us say 
for the dissemination of truthful information that would make the 
public proof against the misrepresentations of either those with 
ulterior motives or of well intentioned but ignorant reformers. 

The A. M. A. has long been regarded by many in pharmaceutical 
and medical circles as the dominant factor in these fields, with 



338 



Association s Latent Power. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



almost irresistible power for bringing the other factors into absolute 
subjugation, if it should ever will to so exercise its strength, which 
I am not contending. Yet, why should this be so? Their organiza- 
tion, it is true, has the advantage of many years more building than 
has our own, but it is nothing that could not be easily duplicated 
were the organization experience of the membership applied inten- 
sively to the task. And outside of this, the natural advantages are 
with this association. It cannot be said that the financial resources 
of the A. M. A. are anywhere near as great as those of this industry. 
And it must be admitted that their organization lacks the coherency 
of one with our smaller and more compact membership. The interest 
of the average physician in the A. M. A. is only general in character. 
The A. M. A. can only deal with problems that affect him indirectly 
in a scarcely palpable way and besides he is not likely to be in sym- 
pathy with all its decisions. It would be a physical impossibility 
for an organization with better than 50,000 members to refl^pt^ ^^a^ 
sentiment of the individual as accurately as does our own asso(,,f- 'on 
of from fifty to sixty members, and to reflect it, moreover, 99.,times 
out of a hundred. The so-called advantages of its members are in 
my judgment negatived by the disadvantages. What elements of 
strength its numbers do possess are offset, it seems to me, by the 
fact that you cannot compare the influence of a single individual 
physician with that of a manufacturing establishment such as goes 
to make up our membership. 

There is nothing that the A. M. A., or any other Association, 
has done or can do that we cannot equal, or — if their activity is 
adverse to our legitimate interest — offset, if the industry is only of a 
mind to devote a fair proportion of its resources of brains and money 
and experience to the enterprise. Let me put you at your ease. 
This is not a preface to the submission of some proposal involving 
vast expenditures. I am not coming to you with a proposition on 
which I expect you to act at this meeting. It is simply my inten- 
tion to put to you more concretely than I have done before some of 
the constitutional remedies that appeal to me as cures. 

If, acting on your own initiative, you should ever see fit to adopt 
them, they would call, it is true, for much larger sums than you have 
been in the habit of expending on Association activities. Their , 
proportion to the sales of the industry, however, would be trifling 
compared to the proportion that an advertising appropriation of 
reasonable size bears to the advertiser's annual gross sales, and the 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Association's Latent Power. 



339 



good they would accomplish would make the expenditure an even 
more profitable investment. 

the; advertising of education. 

In past reports I have hinted in perhaps rather vague terms that 
this industry needs a good constitutional tonic in the shape of a 
more accurate public conception of its importance and a more sym- 
pathetic understanding by the public of its problems. In the belief 
that the membership have grown sufficiently strong in the coopera- 
tive spirit to perhaps lend me a sympathetic ear, I intend now to 
speak more concretely and pointedly on this subject. I hope what- 
ever reputation for level headed judgment I may possess will not 
suffer. To speak frankly rather than modestly I don't think it 
should. If my ideas seem radical, then I am in the same boat with 
the best brains of many other representative industries of the country 
foi fy are doing what I believe this industry should do. They are 
cc '^li g out openly as becomes honest men, and are using the adver- 
tising columns of the newspapers and periodicals to portray for the 
public their ideals and their problems and the interest that the public 
has in their welfare. 

This is not the advertising of buying and selling; it is the adver- 
tising of education. Those who are advertisingly near sighted and 
coi$oeive of advertising simply as a medium for telling the reader 
you have something to sell should put on glasses that will enable 
them to see the bigger field beyond in which advertising loses its 
commercial character and takes on the guise of an educational force 
that commands respect and silences critics. 

We find a host of industries using it as means of broadening the 
vision of the people as to the useful possibilities of some utility, and 
thus increasing the market for that utility as a whole without refer- 
ence to a particular brand. In this undertaking are enlisted the 
orange growers, the manufacturers of white pine, and a number of 
other industries whose names I do not recall. This advertising has a 
commercial aspect, it is true, but it has not a selfish aspect for, to 
increase the public knowledge of the uses of white pine, for instance, 
benefits all manufacturers and growers of this lumber regardless of 
membership in the Association under whose auspices the advertising 
is conducted. 

But the faintest taint of commercialism cannot be attributed to 
that phase of advertising that is dedicated solely to the purpose of 



340 



Association's Latent Power. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



cultivating a better public appreciation and understanding of an 
industry and the country's interest in its welfare. We find the 
packers, the telephone companies, the Ayer's Advertising agency, 
and, a recent recruit, the National Canners' Association, to say 
nothing of many others, all maintaining advertising campaigns of 
this character. Were you to read one of the better types of adver- 
tising copy of this class in other than the make-up of an advertise- 
ment, you would be more inclined to suspect it of being a portion 
of an article from the reading columns, written by some disinterested 
party, so restrained are they apt to be in their references to the indus- 
try in whose interest they are published and so commendable are 
many of them from the standpoint of literary criticism. You might 
be impressed by the new and greater conception of that industry 
that the imagination of the copywriter imparted to you by figures 
of speech that would do credit to an author of literary pretensions, 
or you might admire the rich fancy of the artist who illustrated the 
text with a finesse akin to that of a master of the academy. You 
would find in short an appeal to your cultural rather than to your 
commercial sense. 

To make my meaning more clear by example, just consider the 
following copy that appeared in an educational advertisement of the 
Telephone Company but which might just as well have formed a 
part of an essay. 

"Cave Life or Civilization. 

"Civilized man is distinguished from the cave man by his habit 
of cooperation. 

"The cave man lived for and by himself; independent of others, 
but always in danger from natural laws. 

"To the extent that we assist one another, dividing up the tasks, 
we increase our capacity for production, and attain the advantages 
of civilization. 

"We may sometimes disregard our dependence on others. But 
suppose the farmer, for example, undertook to live strictly by his 
own efforts. He might eke out an existence, but it would not be a 
civilized existence nor would it satisfy him. He needs better food 
and clothes and shelter and implements than he could provide 
unassisted. He requires a market for his surplus products, and the 
means of transportation and exchange. 

"He should not forget who makes his clothes, his shoes, his tools, 
his vehicles and his tableware, or who mines his metals, or who 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Association' s Latent Power. 



341 



provides his pepper and salt, his books and papers ; or who furnishes 
the ready means of transportation and exchange whereby his myriad 
wants are supphed. 

"Neither should he forget that the more he assists others the more 
they can assist him. 

"Take the telephone specialists of the Bell System: the more 
efficient they are, the more effectively the farmer and every other 
human factor of civilization can provide for their own needs and 
comforts. 

"Or take our government, entrusted with the task of regulating, 
controlling and protecting a hundred million people. It is to the 
advantage of everyone that the government shall be so efficient in 
its special task that all of us may perform our duties under the 
most favorable conditions. Interdependence means civilized exis- 
tence." 

BVADING The: physician's PREJUDICE- 

It has long been a belief of the ethical medicinal manufacturer 
that, since his sales leverage is on the physician, any advertising of a 
popular nature would be a lethal dose to his business. Like a good 
many other business traditions, it has been accepted as an axiom 
unnecessary of proof. A little effort to think all around the subject 
would, I believe, dethrone it from this position just as many other 
so-called business axioms have been dethroned by some hewer of 
new trails who has made an undreamt of success largely because he 
disregarded the rules of the game and played it in a new way. 

The ban ' of the medical profession against advertising to the 
public is based on the very laudable principle that the calling of the 
physician is too noble to be made a subject of commercial exploita- 
tion. It was imposed in the days when advertising was a crude 
thing of "best on earth" boasts in brazen and ugly display and when 
a business man had no other vision of advertising than as a medium 
of telHng greater numbers than his salesmen could reach that he had 
something that he wanted them to buy. It is the very antipodes 
of the educational advertising of the sort proposed here, advertising 
that seeks only to enlighten and whose physical nature is commend- 
able from both literary and artistic standpoints. The prejudice 
of the physician against advertising that goes to the people should 
not be regarded as a rock that absolutely bars the passageway. It 
may be a rock but there are plenty of passages around it, and it is 



342 



Association s Latent Power. 



Am. Joiir. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



only a case of steering wisely to evade it. It simply means that 
care must be exercised to avoid the slightest exaggeration, the 
slightest misstatement, the slightest suggestion of idle, boasting, or 
the slightest tendency to lower the dignity of the medical profession 
or to commercialize human suffering. These are negative virtues 
and, not content with their observance we should seek to impart 
qualities to our advertising that would positively tend to win the 
commendation of the physician. 

Copy of a restrained tone written in a style that would reflect 
lofty sentiment could not do otherwise than impress him favorably; 
neither could an illustration artistically picturing some of the nobler 
aspects of the physician's art, or some altruistic phase of medicinal 
manufacture. And if the advertising treated of the whole cycle of 
the healing art, the physician, and the pharmacist, as well as the 
manufacturer, picturing to the people the public service the physi- 
cian and pharmacist renders, your advertising would not only be 
unobjectionable to him but it would be a positive agency in cementing 
his goodwill, and the goodwill of the druggist as well. 

STYLK OF COPY RECOMMENDED. 

And now let me give you a concrete illustration of how such^copy 
as I have described could be used to cultivate a sympathetic public 
attitude and at the same time the goodwill of the physician and the 
druggist. It is hurriedly written without due consideration of the 
points of which the first advertisement should treat, and falls far 
short of literary merit but it serves to illustrate the style that I am 
trying to explain. 

When the faint glow of the last ember of life brightens under the 
ministrations of the physician at the bedside, and your loved one 
comes back to you from the brink of the Great Shadow, your heart, 
for the first time, wells up with all the gratitude that this, humanity's 
greatest earthly friend, deserves. 

You repay him then in speechless thankfulness for his sleepless 
nights of watching, his midnight hours of study, and the sunny holi- 
days of 3^outh spent in sombre college laboratories. And in your 
gratitude, think sometimes of his silent partners — the workers to 
whose tireless research and exacting care are due the contents of the 
bottle with which the magic was wrought. 

The genial proprietor of the corner drug store may seem simply 
an obliging merchant to whom you are indebted for a hundred little 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Association s Latent Power. 



343 



services, but he, too, is a professional man — a pharmacist who has 
paid his toll in arduous study. Had he erred in the pharmacist's 
delicate, hairline task of filling the prescription, the physician's skill 
might have only served to mend the ravages of your passionate grief. 

And behind the physician and the druggist is the great army in 
the manufacturing establishments in which the ingredients of the 
prescription were made. The bacteriologists, the pathologists and 
the research chemists who, in the face of a weary chain of failures, 
developed and perfected the formulas. The financial captains who 
unflinchingly watched thousands upon thousands of dollars sunk 
in fruitless experiments before the first glimmer of success. And 
the workers who throughout every step of the transformation of the 
crude chemicals into the finished preparation tested and retested 
its power and purity. 

SUGGKSTKD FACTS. 

You observe that I would rely on indirect suggestion to get my 
points home rather than on the force of direct statement or argument. 
It is because facts that are implanted in the reader's mind subcon- 
sciously by force of suggestion are less likely to be challenged by him 
than are those which are stated baldly to be facts. As for argu- 
mentative copy, its use immediately puts the reader in an argumen- 
tative frame of mind and he is very likely, from the sheer contrariness 
of human nature to take the other side. 

In the last paragraph it is the intention to awaken the reader to 
two facts which I believe are contrary to the prevailing impression — 
first to the fact that the plant of the medicinal manufacturer is really 
a scientific laboratory and his force composed of scientific experts, 
and second to the fact that it is to the medicinal manufacturer that 
Medicine owes a big share of the progress in the development of 
remedial agents. 

In the manner in which these points are here stated their accept- 
ance by the reader is assumed and this very fact tends to induce 
him to accept them under the impression that nobody questions 
them. Were the entire five paragraphs to be devoted to proofs of 
the truth of these propositions, it is doubtful if the reader could be 
induced to accept their verity as readily. The very fact that you 
deemed it necessary to prove them would cause him to reserve judg- 
ment under the impression there are "two sides to the story." 

The latter method, it is true, would leave no question in the mind 



344 



Association s Latent Power. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



of the reader as to what you are "driving at," and, conversely, it is 
true that the methods used in the copy, being less obvious, might 
cause the meaning to escape more persons than in the case of the 
former. But the secret of successful advertising is the repetition of 
the same thought in a number of fresh ways until continuity of 
impression has firmly implanted it in the mind of the reader, and if 
you can get your idea home without stirring up doubt your task in 
the end will be a shorter one. 

AIMS OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

Every advertising campaign that hopes for conspicuous success 
should be carefully planned from beginning to end before the first 
piece of copy is written. Its aims should be carefully defined and 
every individual advertisement should be prepared with that aim in 
view, in order that each may contribute to the continuity of impres- 
sion that means advertising success. What the points should be 
in the first campaign of this industry is a matter for careful discussion. 
I would venture the suggestion however, that 

1. It should explain the mission of each of the principal factors 
in the drug and medical worlds and endeavor to impress the public 
with their worthiness and their vital consequence. This would 
make such a campaign seem more altruistic and help to instill in the 
public an impression that the industry is inspired by other than 
purely selfish motives. It would, moreover, increase the goodwill 
of these other factors for the industry and would serve to contribute 
to. 

2. The second aim which is to awaken the public to the fact that 
the remedial agents of the medical profession do not "just grow" 
but are the product of a distinct industry. 

3. Thirdly, it should impress the people with the fact that this 
industry is imbued with the ideals of the medical profession and 
that while it is naturally looking for a reasonable profit its zeal to 
serve the public and the profession will brook no sacrifice in quality 
or service. 

4. That it is to the medicinal manufacturer that Medicine owes 
the development of its medicinal agents, and 

5. That there is no industry in whose welfare the average individ- 
ual has a greater interest, that undue restraint on its liberty of action 
hampers one of the biggest factors in medical progress, and that it 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
May, 1920.) 



Association's Latent Power. 



345 



is to the interest of the pubhc to safeguard its production in times of 
embargoes, shortages and other adverse conditions. 

SIZK OF THK CAMPAIGN. 

It would of course be neither feasible nor wise to attempt a cam- 
paign of the dimensions of the Wrigley's three million dollar per 
annum appropriation. Nor would it be positively necessary to 
resort to a campaign of the size employed by the Telephone Com- 
pany or the Canners' Association. The industry could feel its v/ay, 
always remembering however that there is a minimum beneath 
which its advertising effort would not be worth the ineffectual results 
accomplished. Of what that minimum consists is a matter for 
careful consideration. I woidd suggest the following however as 
the most conservative campaign from which justifiable results could 
be expected. There should be selected the six representative na- 
tional magazines of general circulation which would cover the country 
as adequately as possible. The industry could contract for six 
insertions in these magazines for the year to be alternated so as to 
give it three insertions in three magazines one month and three in 
the second trio the following month. Your advertisements would 
thus follow each other at monthly intervals and this would mean 
that a large proportion of your readers, those, in other words, who 
read two or more of the magazines in question would be reached 
every month. 

The amount of space taken should in your Secretary's judgment 
be a full page. This space tends to give your reader the impression 
of a large campaign and humanity has great respect for size, attrib- 
uting to the full page advertiser a place as one of the larger and more 
representative industries of the country and consequently one whose 
standing is in some measure a guarantee of integrity. 

The full page advertisement likewise has greater proportionate 
attention value for the page carries no other advertisement with 
which yours must compete for the reader's attention. It must also 
be borne in mind that the effect of the admirable lay-out of one adver- 
tisement may be absolutely destroyed by that of an adjacent adver- 
tisement which does not harmonize with it. Then, too, the full 
page displays your illustration or your copy to an advantage that is 
lost in smaller size space. The necessity for the use of larger space 
increases moreover with a reduction in the number of insertions. 

It is not pretended that a campaign of this number of insertions 



346 



Association s Latent Power. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



in this number of mediums would be as effective as a campaign of, 
for instance, twelve insertions in a larger number of journals, all 
conditions being equal. But it could be made as effective as many 
campaigns of twelve insertions in a much larger list of mediums, if 
careful workmanship and a policy of giving quality the right-of-way 
were fruitful in producing advertisements of unusual interest and 
attention value, and also if the six mediums were selected with 
requisite care. 

FOI.LOW-UP OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

The auxiliaries that could be brought to the support of such a 
campaign are multifarious but there is one that I would particularly 
recommend. Your magazine advertisements should be calculated 
to arouse an interest in the reader — perhaps in the form of curiosity — 
for further information of a character that would further the objects 
of your campaign. If the advertisements were a success in this 
respect, we would find our readers impressed in varying degrees at 
any given stage of the campaign. Some would be just sufficiently 
interested perhaps to watch for the next advertisement, others would 
be sufficiently interested to send for a booklet giving promise of 
satisfying their human thirst for accounts of the mystical or the 
magical or the unexpected. The very fact that he thinks of alcohol 
only as a thing of evil would arouse the reader's curiosity in a booklet 
with some such title as "Our Faithful Servant Alcohol," while others 
who take umbrage at the loss of their daily glass of beer or wine 
would be interested in it out of a sympathetic attitude for a friend 
whom they think is being unduly abused. A colorful but accurate 
story in popular language of the wonders alcohol performs as a sol- 
vent would be of as great if not greater interest than "the story of a 
grain of wheat" or "the story of a piece of coal" or other popular 
science stories of their ilk. 

In thinking of the distribution of such booklets through popular 
advertising, you must think in terms of hundreds of thousands. 
Think of what it would mean to educate such an army to the fact 
that there is a praiseworthy use of alcohol that must be safeguarded, 
and if you made proper use of your material you would incidentally 
develop some one of the fundamental aims of your campaign. To 
take one of those I have suggested you could in the development of 
your story of alcohol treat of some conspicuous example of a thera- 
peutic agent developed in the laboratory of the manufacturer and 



^"'•■^°May^Y92o:} AssociatM s Latent Power. 347 

impress this same army with the fact that the medicinal manufac- 
turer is one of the most important factors in the scientific progress 
of curative agents. 

BFFKCT OF CAMPAIGN. 

In the past years of the Association's existence, I verily believe 
that the industry has not become known to as many as ten thousand 
persons outside the medical and pharmaceutical worlds. In one 
year, a campaign of this character would bring it to the attention, 
and that in a most favorable light, of hundreds of thousands, if not 
millions, of people, making them less susceptible to unsound propa- 
ganda and less likely to add their voices to the demand for legisla- 
tion in response to it. 

Besides this you have the consideration that magazines are read 
not only by the rank and file, but also by the bureau chief who for- 
mulates the regulation you must follow, by that legislative activating 
agent of great potency, the public-spirited clubwoman, and no less 
by the legislator, the editor, the preacher, and a hundred other 
influential elements in the body politic. 

One legislator thus influenced might give your cause a champion 
sufficiently strong to turn the tide of a legislative contest in your 
favor and one editor impressed with your important public mission 
and your worthiness might give your cause the weight of a journal 
of great influence in molding the opinion of thousands of readers. 

You stand to gain not only the benefit of a sympathetic public 
opinion in the aggregate but also the championship of single elements 
in that heterogeneous mass called the people whose goodwill can be 
of great direct benefit to you. Your activities would likewise tend 
to stimulate a public interest in matters medicinal that would react 
on the public press and stimulate the publication of articles to your 
interest, articles all the more influential because they would not 
bear your stamp. 

PUBLIC ESTEEM THROUGH SCIENTIFIC ATTAINMENT. 

I hope I have said enough on this point of publicity to illustrate 
that the matter of giving ethical medicinal manufacture an influential 
and representative place among the industries of the country, a place 
that will make it proof against the domination of any other force, 
is simply a question of employing the great latent forces within our- 
selves that are now lying dormant. 



348 



Association' s Latent Power. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



Advertising in national magazines is not the only channel through 
which these forces can be applied. In fact the imagination can con- 
ceive of so many others that it is my purpose merely to cite one or 
two b}^ way of illustration rather than to attempt to cover them all 
comprehensively. Let one additional one suffice. 

When you consider the years of experience and accumulated data, 
the wealth of scientific brains, the elaborate organizations of labora- 
tory equipment, and the great advantage of organized capital that is 
behind this industry your imagination must conceive a rather glow- 
ing picture of the leading place that the industry could attain in 
medical science if it would only make full use of its powers. It is 
quite true that we have the prejudice of the scholastic scientist with 
which to contend, but I hope to show that the prejudice is no very 
formidable obstacle after all. 

There are innumerable drugs on which the literature is unsatis- 
factory or meagre. There are scientific men universally recognized 
as authorities and whose work on these drugs would at once receive 
recognition from all factors in the scientific world. In the archives 
of our members are many years accumulations of invaluable data 
on these drugs. There are besides some fifty odd laboratories whose 
cooperation would give a research worker ample corroborative tests. 

If the membership were disposed to make full use of its resources 
the Association could select some problems whose solution would 
constitute a conspicuous contribution to the science of medicine, it 
could likewise retain a man of this caliber to devote a year or more 
of his time to it, and it could give him many years start on a private 
investigator working alone by placing the experience of its members 
at his disposal and by giving him the cooperation of these fifty odd 
laboratories. 

His report published under the auspices of the Association and 
given freely to the world would be accepted on the strength of his 
name by even those ultra academic scientists who deprecate the 
work of commercial laboratories. 

Conceive of the interest with which a work of so elaborate a 
character would be received by the Pharmaceutical and Medical 
worlds and ask yourself if many years would pass before these annual 
or biennial contributions to science by the American Drug Manu- 
facturers' Association would take their place as one of the most eagerly 
awaited and most authoritative of scientific series. And, judged in 
the light of this work, the American Drug Manufacturers' Associa- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920 J 



Good Drinks Made of Milk. 



349 



tioti and the industry it represents would most certainly grow in 
public esteem. 

It is from your Scientific Section that this recommendation, 
fathered by Dr. Eldred of Eli Lilly & Co., comes and though it may 
be the most ambitious recommendation ever made by the section 
it is only in keeping with the scale on which the Association should 
begin to do things if it would make the most of its possibilities. 

The growth in the cooperative spirit in the industry which your 
Secretary has watched with a good deal of satisfaction during the 
past four years causes him to hope that the message of this report 
does not wander too far beyond the confines within which you think 
the Association should be kept. But if it does, he accepts your 
dictum with all the good grace of a loyal servant and he hopes in 
turn that you will pardon his frankness as inspired by a sincere 
desire to advance the interests of the membership. 



GOOD DRINKS MADE OF MILK.* 

Milk drinks, made right, are unquestionably good. They are 
healthful, nourishing and delicious, and when made according to 
the methods prepared by milk specialists of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, no difficulty should be experienced in marketing 
them. Following are some methods for making buttermilk, yogurt 
or Bulgarian buttermilk, buttermilk lemonade and kefir or koumiss. 

Buttermilk. — In making buttermilk from milk the same procedure 
should be followed as in making a starter for cream ripening. A 
good, clean-flavored mother starter should be carried along with 
every possible precaution to prevent contamination. Good com- 
mercial cultures can be obtained, but if it is not convenient to use 
one of these a natural starter should be secured. For this purpose 
the following procedure may be followed. 

Select milk from several sources; put about one pint from each 
source into clean glass jars or bottles and allow them to stand in a 
warm place until the milk is curdled. When this occurs, put about 
I pint of milk into each of an equal number of bottles and hold in 
steam or boiling water for one-half hour. When these bottles of 
milk are cooled, transfer about i teaspoonful of milk from each of 
the bottles of sour milk obtained in the first operation to one of 
the bottles of heated and cooled milk. Allow these samples to cur- 

* From Pure Food Products, Feb., 1920. 



350 



Good Drinks Made of Milk. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



die and repeat the process until one sample is obtained which curdles 
in at least 8 or lo hours with a smooth curd free from whey and gas 
bubbles, and with a pleasant acid taste. 

Gas bubbles, or the separation from the curd of a milky or straw- 
colored whey, show that the lactic-acid bacteria are still mixed with 
other kinds. Considerable variation in flavor can be found in dif- 
ferent cultures, and care should be exercised to select one that gives 
a clean, sharp taste. 

Propagate this culture in the same way from day to day. The 
amount of this mother starter which should be carried will depend 
upon the amount of buttermilk to be made. One quart should be 
enough for 20 to 30 gallons. 

Add the mother starter to the milk to be used for buttermilk, 
or pasteurize the milk in a continuous pasteurizer at 180 to 185 
degrees F. (82 to 85 degrees C), or preferably hold the milk in water- 
jacketed vats or cans at 180 degrees F. (82 degrees C), for thirty 
minutes to an hour, cool to about 70 degrees F. (21.1 degrees C.) 
and add the mother starter. The most desirable temperature for 
this fermentation is 70 to 75 degrees F. (21.1 to 24 degrees C). 

When this milk has curdled, cool it at once to about 50 degrees 
F. and churn thoroughly to break the curd into fine particles. 

Buttermilk may be improved especially as to its texture and 
tendency to whey off, by the addition of about 10 per cent, of a 
milk culture of Bacillus Bulgaricus. 

Yogurt or Bulgarian Buttermilk.— 'Propsigate a small culture of 
the Bacillus Bulgaricus from day to day as indicated for the lactic 
culture for buttermilk. This culture may be obtained from var- 
ious commercial laboratories. To prevent contamination by yeasts 
or gas-forming bacteria, it is necessary to carry this culture at a 
temperature of about no degrees F. A small egg incubator may be 
used for this purpose. 

Carry in a similar way a culture of the ordinary sour-milk or- 
ganism, which may be obtained from many of the commercial lab- 
oratories. 

Thoroughly pasteurize the milk to be fermented. If a small 
quantity — 5 to 10 gallons, for instance — ^is to be made, it may be 
done by holding a can of milk in a tub or vat of water heated by a 
steam hose. If a larger quantity is made, one of the starter cans 
used in creameries will be found convenient. These are essentially 
.cylindrical vats with mechanical stirrers and a jacket which can be 



'^'"•^M'ay';Y92":} Good Dfinks Made of Milk. 351 

filled with steam for heating or water for cooling. The milk should 
be held at a temperature of at least 180 degrees F. for not less than 
30 minutes. 

Cool the milk to about 100 degrees F. Draw off one-half and 
inoculate it with the culture obtained in the second operation. In- 
oculate the remaining half with Bulgaricus culture obtained in the 
first operation. The amount to be added will depend on the quan- 
tity of milk to be fermented, the time at which it is desired to have 
it curdled, and the temperature maintained during the fermentation. 
This can best be determined by experience. One pint should be 
sufficient for any amount between 10 and 20 gallons. 

The milk inoculated with the product of the second operation 
may be held at ordinary room temperature. Precautions must be 
taken to hold that part inoculated with the Bulgaricus culture at 
a temperature of 90 to 100 degrees F. for several hours. If the 
milk is in cans it may be set in a tub of warm water. A large vol- 
ume of milk in a warm room will maintain the proper temperature. 

If one is unable to hold the milk at the desired temperature the 
amount of culture inoculation should be increased. 

When the milk has curdled — which should be in 10 or 12 hours — • 
mix the two lots thoroughly by churning or stirring together, bottle, 
and put on ice to check the acid formation. 

Buttermilk Lemonade— A refreshing and nutritious drink may be 
made by the addition of lemon juice and sugar to buttermilk, fol- 
lowing the same procedure as in making ordinary lemonade. It 
will usually be found necessary to use more sugar and more lemon 
juice than in making lemonade with water. Buttermilk lemonade 
should be served very cold. 

Kefir or Koumiss. — Use buttermilk or freshly curdled sour milk. 
This should be thoroughly agitated to break the curd into fine 
particles. Buttermilk containing Bacillus Bulgaricus will give a 
flavor too acid for most tastes. 

Add I per cent, cane sugar (1V2 oz. to the gallon). Add a small 
amount of yeast cake — one-fourth of a cake will be sufficient for i 
gallon of buttermilk. The yeast cake should be ground up in 
water so that it will be well distributed. 

Bottle this preparation, leaving sufficient space to permit a thor- 
ough shaking of the contents. Strong round bottles of the type 
used for carbonated drinks should be used, as considerable pressure 
is developed by the fermentation. If the bottle is not provided 



352 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



with a sealing device the corks must be securel}^ tied or wired in 
place. 

Hold for 4 or 5 days at a temperature of 65 to 70 degrees F., 
shaking every day to keep the curd well broken up. At the end of 
this time there should be considerable gas but not enough to blow 
the milk out of the bottle. It should have a pleasant acid taste 
with a slight bitterness. The fresh milk sometimes has a yeasty 
taste, but this gradually disappears. If the milk is kept on ice it 
will remain in good condition for two weeks or more. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 

MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

Estimation 01^ Sugar in Bi^ood in Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment. — A study of more than 700 cases of diabetes by Cammidge 
has shown that there is no constant blood sugar level for the appear- 
ance of sugar in the urine in quantities recognizable by ordinary 
tests; also that there is no definite relationship between the per- 
centage of sugar in the blood and either the percentage or total amount 
of sugar excreted by the kidneys. Patients with a permanently 
high blood sugar may pass comparatively little sugar in their urine, 
while, in some instances, a normal, or even a subnormal, blood sugar 
curve may be associated with frank glycosuria. In either condition, 
examination of the urine alone does not give a correct picture of 
the case, and, if it is not checked by blood sugar estimations under 
controlled conditions, may readily lead to mistakes in diagnosis 
and treatment. As a rule, young diabetics have a lower threshold 
point for clinical glycosuria than those of middle age, and the thresh- 
old rises with advancing years. It is, therefore, important that 
the presence of even small amounts of sugar in the urine of persons 
of middle age should not be dismissed as of little significance, un- 
less a series of blood tests have shown that their tolerance for carbo- 
hydrates is not seriously defective. Hyperglycemia may exist 
without clinical glycosuria, that is with an insufficient percentage 
of sugar in the urine to give the ordinary tests for sugar. The re- 
verse condition, glycosuria with a normal or subnormal percentage 
of sugar in the blood, is not as uncommon as is generally supposed. 
Cammidge' s observations suggest that many cases of latent dia- 
betes are essentially hepatic in origin, and that so long as the patient 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
May, 1920.) 



Current Literature. 



353 



avoids sugar and foods containing sugar as such, he may take any 
starchy food in moderation without harm, provided that the protein 
and fat content of the diet are also controUed. He warns that too 
hasty a diagnosis of diabetes should not be made from the presence 
of an excess of sugar in the blood nor even from an abnormal blood 
sugar curve after a test meal of sugar, for other diseases may be as- 
sociated with hyperglycemia. In the later stages of nephritis, for 
example, the percentage of sugar in the blood is usually high, often 
equalling the amount met with in severe diabetes when uremia is 
imminent, but the blood picture is one of complete metabolic failure, 
and the end products of nitrogen metabolism are correspondingly 
increased. Some excess of sugar in the blood is usually found in 
patients suffering from carlo vascular diseases with high blood pres- 
sure, even when there is little or no indication of renal disturbance. 
Carcinoma is another condition in which it is said that there is 
often moderate hyperglycemia. (From Practitioner, London 104: 
No. 2, (Feb. 1920); through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Mar. 27, 1920.) 

Poisoning by Oii, of Eucalyptus. — Auerbach reports a case 
of poisoning in a man of 47 who had ingested about 20 Cc. of oil 
of eucalyptus. Half an hour afterward he was found unconscious 
in bed. Auerbach found the patient cyanotic; with a weak, slightly 
accelerated pulse, and covered with a cold sweat. The pupils were 
contracted and fixed. The area of cardiac dullness was increased, 
and breathing was shallow. Ingestion of milk caused vomiting, 
and milk lavage brought forth distinct evidence of eucalyptus oil. 
The condition of the patient slowly improved, and complete recovery 
followed on the fourth day. Auerbach gives this account of the 
case because he finds in the literature few reports of poisoning from 
oil of eucalyptus. (From Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, Ber- 
lin, Oct. 16, 191 9; through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Feb.' 14, 1920.) 

Quantity of Diastase in Normai^ Urine. — The urine of 114 
persons was examined by Saigusa by the one-half hour method of 
Noguchi and Wohlgemuth. The quantity of diastase thus deter- 
mined varied from 8 to 64, in the majority of cases ranging from 16 
to 32. It had, to a certain extent, a relation to the specific gravity 
of the urine. The starch paste used by Saigusa in his experiments 
was prepared from official potato starch by heating it for a certain 
time to destroy amylopectin contained in it, and then passing it 
through a filter. The author claims that this starch paste could 



354 



Current LiteraUire. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



well take the part played by the soluble starch of Kahlbaum in this 
experiment. {Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., February 21, 1920.) 

Prejparation 01^ Ste:riuze;d Camphorate;d OiIv for Injection. 
— The I : 10 solution of camphor in olive oil, which is widely pre- 
scribed in French practice for administration by hypodermic in- 
jection, may be easily and- effectively prepared as follows: Pure 
olive oil preserved from contact with the air by means of a layer of 
alcohol (95 per cent.) is heated in a long-neck flask in a boihng water 
bath until all the alcohol is evaporated. The oil will be perfectly 
sterilized by this procedure. The flask is then removed from the 
source of heat, and when the temperature of the oil has fallen to 
about 40° C. the camphor is added and dissolved. If necessary, 
the camphor may first be dissolved in a small quantity of ether. 
The author has prepared more than 5,000 camphor injections by 
this method, and has never had a case showing any ill effects follow- 
ing the administration. (E. Cabannes, Bull. Soc. Pharm. de Bor- 
deaux, 57: 158, 191 9; through The Pharm. Jour, and Pharm., Feb. 
14, 1920.) 

GuAiAcoiv AS AN An AESTHETIC. — Dr. Gcorges Laurens advises 
the use of guaiacol as an anaesthetic for the more ordinary operations 
on the ear, nose and throat. As regards the ear, and more especially 
paracentesis of tne drum, he employs a solution of synthetic guaiacol 
in oil. The latter should be prepared in the manner recommended 
by Lucas Championniere. Very pure olive oil should first be treated 
with chloride of zinc in order to get rid of resinous and proteid sub- 
stances ; then washed with alcohol to remove any fatty acids formed, 
and finally it should be kept at a temperature of 100° C. for some 
time. The product thus obtained is extremely pure. Dr. Laurens 
at first made use of a i in 10 solution of guaiacol, but he soon aban- 
doned it in favor of a i in 20 solution, as he found that the latter 
produced quite satisfactory anaesthesia. As regards the technique, 
he follows very closely that recommended by Dr. Lehmoyez. The 
ear is cleansed first with tepid sterile water, and then with a solution 
of carbolic acid. Five or six drops of the guaiacol solution are next 
introduced into the ear and allowed to remain during 15 or 20 min- 
utes. It is then removed by means of a tampon of cotton wool, so 
that the passage is quite clear and the operator may see what he is 
doing. For the operations in the nose and throat, the solution is 
applied by repeated paintings. The quantity of solution used has 



-^^Ma^^glo: } Extension of German Chemical Industry 355 

never been more than 2 Cc. It is important to note that anaes- 
thesia is obtained much more slowly than with cocaine. With the 
latter ten minutes sufficed; but with guaiacol one must wait at least 
fifteen or twenty minutes. {Med. Press, Dec. 31, 1919; through 
The Pharm. Jour, and Pharm., Feb. 14, 1920.) 

DejterioraTion oif Crystalunu Strophanthin in Aoukous 
Solution. — Experiments were undertaken by Levy and Cullen to 
ascertain the cause of the deterioration of aqueous solutions of 
strophanthin in relation to the altered hydrogen-ion concentration, 
and to advise a method for preparing a stable solution for thera- 
peutic purposes. Many of the glass containers commonly used in 
the laboratory, and most of the glass ampoules employed in mar- 
keting sterile solutions for hypodermic or intravenous medication, 
were found to yield sufficient alkali on autoclaving, to change the 
reaction of distilled water from 6.0 to 9-0- T'^is increase in 
alkalinity is sufficient to render biologically inert and partially to 
decompose aqueous solutions of crystalline strophanthin in the con- 
centration ordinarily employed in the clinic. It is suggested that 
for clinical use, crystalline strophanthin be dissolved in 0.02 M 
standard phosphate solution at 7.0, and marketed in hard glass 
ampoules, thereby insuring stability of reaction with preservation 
of biologic activity. (From Jour. Exper. Med., Baltimore, Mar. 
I, 1920; through Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., April 10, 1920.) 



EXTENSION OF GERMAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.* 
By Trads Commissioner C. E. Herring. 

BRUSSEivS, BEI.GIUM. 

That the German chemical industry is determined to regain 
its former ascendancy in world markets if possible is indicated by 
a further increase in the capitalization of large German establish- 
ments. At a recent meeting of the companies mentioned below, 
which grouped themselves about two years ago, increased capi- 
talization was decided upon, although the capitalization was also 
increased when the group was organized. The new issues will 
bring the total capitaHzation to 1,073,520,000 marks, distributed 
as follows : 

* From Commerce Reports, December 31, 1919. 



356 News Items and Personal Notes 



Badische Anilin 
F. Bayer & Co. 

Hoechts 

Cassela & Co. . . 
Stede Treptow . . 

Greisheim 

Weiler ter Meer . 

Total 



Present 
Stock 
Marks. 

90,000,000 

90,000,000 

90,000,000 

45,000,000 

33,000,000 

25,000,000 

10,400,000 



383,400,000 



New Stock 
Common 
Marks. 

90,000,000 

90,000,000 

90,000,000 

45,000,000 

33,000,000 

25,000,000 

10,400,000 



383,400,000 



New Stock 
Preferred 
Marks. 

72,000,000 

72,000,000 

72,000,000 

36,000,000 

26,400,000 

20,000,000 

8,320,000 



306,720,000 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 

Total 
Marks. 

252.000,00a 

252,000,000 

252,000,000 

126,000,000 

92,400,000 

70,000,000 

29,120,000 



1,073,520,000^ 



PRODUCTION OF VANILLA IN THE SOUTH INDIAN 

OCEAN. 

By Vice-Consul K. A. Feibelman, 

TANANARIVE, MADAGASCAR, JANUARY 1 9, 1920. 

The production of vanilla beans in Madagascar and dependen- 
cies, including the Comoro Islands, and in the islands of Reunion 
and Mauritius for the season 1919-20, has been established as 
follows : 

Madagascar and dependencies: Pounds. 

Comoro Islands 403,204 

East Coast 423,503 

Nossi-Be 110,230 

Total 936,937 

Mauritius 2,646 

Reunion 198,414 

Statistics just received by the consulate from the governor of 
the Seychelles Islands indicate that the vanilla production in that 
archipelago is estimated at 6,614 pounds of cured vanilla for the 
year 191 9. — From Commerce Reports, March 19, 1920. 



NEWS ITEMS AND PERSONAL NOTES. 

De^ce^ase) of Frank G. Ryan. — The decease of Frank G. Ryan, 
President of Parke Davis & Co., at his home in Detroit on April 20th, 
is announced. An appropriate memoir of this eminent and influ- 
ential character in the drug trade will be published in an early 
number of the American Journal of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1920. ) 



News Items and Personal Notes 



357 



FairchiIvD Brothers and Foste:r Secure Additionai, Buii.dings. 
— The growing business of this well known firm engaged in the 
manufacture of pharmaceutical specialties, has necessitated additional 
facilities. They have recently acquired the properties Nos. 70, 
72, 74, 76 Laight Street, 413 Washington Street and No. 428 Green- 
wich Street, New York. 

This entire space is to be occupied by Fairchild Brothers and 
Foster for offices, warerooms and factory purposes. 

The; American Drug Manui^acturers' Association Kndorsks 
THE Cooperative Publicity Plan of the A. Ph. A. — At the annual 
meeting of this Association held at the Biltmore Hotel, New York, 
April 13, the following resolution of indorsement vv^as adopted: 

Resolved, That the American Drug Manufacturers' Association 
endorse *the plan of the Federation Committee of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association for cooperative publicity in American 
Pharmacy as set forth in the six enumerated propositions in the 
Committee's report for 191 8 through 191 9, and that the President 
be and is hereby instructed to appoint a Committee on Publicity of 
three members whose chairman shall sit on the National Committee 
on Pharmaceutical Publicity. And be it further 

Resolved, That the Committee on Publicity be authorized to 
extend a sum not exceeding $200 per annum. 

The cooperative publicit}^ plan endorsed by the preceding resolu- 
tion is as follows : 

1. Each national association invited to send delegates to the 
Federation Conference held in Chicago last j^SlX (191 8), be requested 
to appoint a committee on publicity and the chairman of each com- 
mittee thus chosen or some other representative of the particular 
organization shall constitute a national committee on pharmaceu- 
tical publicity, to which shall be added as an ex-officio member the 
editor of the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

2. Certain pages of each issue of the A. Ph. A. Journal (not to 
exceed six at first) shall be set aside for the reproduction of matter 
furnished by members of the national committee on publicity; said 
matter consisting of journal editorials, abstracts of papers and news 
items that are of interest to the public. 

3. All such material described in Section 2 shall be sent to the 
editor of the Journal of the A. Ph. A. at least ten copies of each 



358 



News Items and Personal Notes 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1920. 



such articles being furnished by the contributor. It shall be the 
duty of the editor of the A. Ph. A. Journal to submit each article to 
each member of the national publicity committee, and if one negative 
vote is recorded such article will not be published. 

4. All approved articles which have been published on the 
special pages of the A. Ph. A. Journal described in Section 2 will be 
sent as soon as possible after publication in the Journal as reprints 
preferably in sheet form, to a selected list of newspapers and maga- 
zines; the list of such publications being compiled by a sub-committee 
of the national committee on pharmaceutical publicity. 

5. The expense of printing, reprinting and mailing reprints to 
magazines and newspapers shall be apportioned among the several 
organizations represented on the national committee of pharmaceu- 
tical publicity, upon such basis as the committee and its, partici- 
pating associations shall decide. 

6. In addition to the publicity method outlined in Sections 
2, 3, .4 and 5, the committee shall be empowered to arrange for the 
publication of special original articles bearing on pharmacy, in popu- 
lar journals of large circulation; details for such methods of publicity 
being left to the proposed national committee. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



THE SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The 1920 meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
held in the New Willard Hotel, in Washington, May 6 to May 10, 
is now an event of the past. The Capitol city, always beautiful, 
looked at its best with the bright foliage of the full spring time en- 
riching the landscape view. With ideal weather and an attentive 
local committee under the able chairmanship of Samuel L. Hilton, 
determined to make every one enjoy himself or herself to the utmost, 
another memorable cycle in the history of American pharmacy was 
completed. The space at our command will not permit of a re- 
count of much that occurred and so we can only here record some 
of the occurrences that impressed themselves upon the writer as the 
high spots of the convention. 

Wednesday, May 5, the day immediately preceding the opening 
of the A. Ph. A. meeting, was devoted to meetings of the collateral 
associations, the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy and 
the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. Probably 
the most important action considered by the latter body was the 
recognition of the fact that two years for the instruction in the course 
for pharamacy students, as outlined by the Syllabus, was totally in- 
adequate. The conclusion arrived at was that commencing with 
1925 this should be lengthened to a three-year course of instruction. 
Thoughtful pharmacists long ago realized that a sound professional 
superstructure, the pharmaceutical education now necessary, could 
not be erected, even with the improved foundation assured, in 
two years of collegiate instruction. It appears to us as a rather 
anomalous position that this conference, many of whose leading 




36o 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



members have been so vociferous in proclaiming for higher pro- 
fessional pharmacy, should have been so slow in recognizing the 
necessity for a more thorough collegiate education as a basis for 
professional status and still more strange that having come to such 
a realization that a public acknowledgment was required, they 
should still persist in delaying for five more years a reform that 
should be inaugurated at once. The arguments used as a justifi- 
cation for this postponement are not at all consistent with the ideals 
that have been professed. 

The first general session of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation was opened on Thursday, May 6, at 3 p.m., in the small 
ballroom on the tenth floor, and without unnecessary formalities. 
Local Secretary Hilton announced that the policy of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association was to receive the credentials of the 
delegates from the Government Departments and from other Asso- 
ciations and to refer these to the House of Delegates and in the meet- 
ings of this House these delegates would have the privilege of pre- 
senting whatever messages they had to convey. 

President L. E. Sayre called Vice-President T. J. Bradley to the 
chair and read his presidential address. In this the various topics 
that are at this time demanding consideration of pharmacy and 
several internal problems of the Association were discussed in a 
manner that demonstrated that the President had deliberated on 
these and had a clear conception of their importance and had arrived 
at a definite conclusion on a number of them. 

The efforts of the A. Ph. A. to interest veterans of the World 
War in the work of the Association through the medium of an 
"Advisory Committee" and later the creation of a War Veterans' 
Section was recounted. His reference to the centennary of the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia and the discussion of the vexing question of what 
should be included in the U. S. P. and the N. F., was thoughtful 
and consistent and the conclusions quoted such as we can endorse 
as to the best interests of the professions which these volumes serve. 

"As long as medicine is both a science and an art, and so long 
as clinical therapeutics is able to produce results by the use of remedial 
agents whose worth cannot be demonstrated by the pharmaco- 
dynamic experiment, we will be forced to admit drugs and prepara- 
tions of both classes. To do otherwise would be tantamount to 
destroying the work of centuries of experience and dogmatically 
asserting the value of scientific method which has not yet been able 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Editorial. 



361 



fully to prove itself. No one will claim that the present scope and 
content of the U. S. P. is perfect and beyond reproach. A certain 
amount of judicious "pruning" must be done with each successive 
revision. Even the ardent conservatists do not believe in keeping 
worthless material in an official volume. They do, however, most 
emphatically insist that until there is proof positive, not alone by 
the methods of experimental pharmacology, but also by the bed- 
side experience, that a drug is worthless, that it be recognized and 
standardized as are those of more evident potency. 

"If we should agree to limit as useful drugs and preparations 
those only that give visible results in the pharmacological laboratory, 
and recognize for standardization only these, I am convinced we 
should be guilty of unfair treatment to the art of medical practice. 

"Until medicine and pharmacy shall become more exact sciences 
than they are to-day, there will always be plenty of room for a dif- 
ference of opinion as to what is valuable and what is not among 
the remedial agents which are now recognized; what is worthy of 
recognition in the United States Pharmacopoeia and National 
Formulary and what shall be excluded as unworthy of such recogni- 
tion from these volumes. The policy of admission into these na- 
tional publications has been very largely based upon what is gen- 
erally accepted as remedial in character by the medical profession 
as a whole; not by the few, but the many, who find occasion for 
their use. What is thus regarded as useful by the many, it is be- 
lieved, should be standardized as far as pharmaceutical and medical 
science may accomplish this end. It is interesting to note here how 
doctors disagree as to what is and what is not useful. A prominent 
physician made to me the significant remark: 'As long as clinical 
data and laboratory findings are at such variance it is unwise to be 
opinionated on the point of drug values.' It should always be 
borne in mind that U. S. P. and N. F. recognition does not carry 
with it a favorable recommendation. The U. S. P. and N. F. are 
not to be considered as treatises on therapeutics, but that they have 
the same relation to medicine as the United States publications 
containing certain standards for foods have to the public. What 
the public uses as foods is included in the U. S. standard for them. 
It must be admitted that a certain kind of prestige is given to a 
remedial agent when it is admitted into either the U. S. P. or N. F., 
but if one mistakes this kind of prestige for a recommendation the 
fault lies with one's power of discrimination." 



362 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



The treatment of the subject of prohibition and the duty of 
pharmacy under the Congressional enactment for its enforcement 
is in full accord with the editorial position on this subject assumed 
by the American JournaIv of Pharmacy. 

"Pharmacists, and revisers of our national standards for drugs, 
have been brought face to face with problems connected with the 
administration of the prohibition law. This law, aside from its 
strictly moral phase, is an expression of the decent element of society 
irrespective of party against intemperance and the saloon. One 
of our English writers has said that, speaking from a European 
point of view, one of the curious things about the adoption of pro- 
hibition in the United States, extremely characteristic of the American 
temperament, is the good-natured way in which it was accepted. 
Men who were not prohibitionists, many who had drunk all their 
lives and believed that liquor was necessary for their well-being, 
have made willing sacrifice. Whether this critic understands the 
American psychology or not, the liquor interests are practically 
out of business. This is a condition, not a thoery, the public faces, 
whether good-naturedly or not. As to the pharmacists, they have 
as a class been advocates of prohibition, and they very naturally 
resent, after being recognized by the Government as legal custo- 
dians of medicinal alcoholic liquids (including medicinal liquors), 
being classified as retail liquor dealers. It is worthy to note in passing 
that the Volstead Act is a distinct recognition of the pharmacist as a 
proper dispenser of medicine and that the dispensing of alcoholic 
liquors can be controlled through the profession of pharmacy. 
Since the Volstead Act recognizes the sale of distilled spirits and 
wines for medicinal purposes and other prescribed non-beverages 
and places upon the pharmacist alone the responsibility of dispensing 
them for medicinal use, the contention may fairly be held that, the 
sale of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes being no longer 
lawful, to license a pharmacist as a liquor dealer as now prescribed 
by statute makes him appear to be a violator of the purpose and 
intent of the prohibitory law; this is unjust. If the Government 
wishes to recognize as a public need the sale of spirits and wines for 
medicinal purposes and places this task (and it will be a task) on the 
pharmacist, it should not begin by prejudicing the public against 
the pharmacist by designating him as a vender of the very articles 
the sale of which the country has specifically chosen to prohibit. 
"Council letters presenting the situation indicate that a protest 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Editorial. 



363 



should be made — one that will doubtless meet the hearty approval 
of this Association and one that will result probably in the elimina- 
tion of the objectionable title. We are told that an Act of Congress 
would be necessary to change the classification. Doubtless our 
Congressmen will appreciate the fairness and justness of this protest 
and it is to be hoped that our Association, at this time, will provide 
proper measures, through the Council, to bring about a relief to 
pharmacists from the odium which this unfortunate classification 
brings. By headlines and articles, by what should be considered 
as unwarranted reflections upon the profession, sensation mongers, 
in exploiting their trade, are doing much to make this odium more 
difficult for the professional pharmacist to bear. It may be said, 
in this connection, that one of the prominent members of the Council 
believes that the pharmacist should be entirely relieved of dispensing 
of liquor and the Government should be asked to assume the sole 
responsibility of dispensing it. It is the opinion of your president 
that the dispensing of medicines is a duty properly belonging to 
the pharmacist. So long as those liquors, the sale of which has been 
prohibited except as medicine, are regarded as remedial agents, it 
would certainly be an evasion of responsibility to decline to perform 
this service of dispensing. If any pharmacist degrades himself 
and his calling by illegally dispensing these medicinal agents, he 
should be held responsible and prosecuted the same as if he wilfully 
violated the narcotic law. 

"As unpleasant and unfortunate as it may appear, should we 
not be true now to the duty placed upon us, a^nd in the meantime 
may we not, by constant and persistent research, reduce the use 
of liquors in every way feasible and endeavor to find a proper and 
adequate non-habit producing substitute for them? Here is a 
field of investigation worthy of the cooperation of the pharmaceutical 
and medical professions." 

Among the topics of internal interest to the Association was the 
question of the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
and the various suggestions that had been offered for changing the 
scope and improving the Journal and for increasing the activities 
of the the Association by increasing the income from dues. It 
may be said in passing, later it was determined that at least some of 
these questions will be submitted to the membership in a referendum 
vote to be taken by mail. 

The question of pharmaceutical research has been one of the 



364 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Uppermost topics for several years and this not only occupied atten- 
tion through the presidential reference to the subject but cropped 
out in the report of the Committee on Research and also in the 
discussions in the sessions of the Association and of its Council. 

The President's estimate of the Council and its work and es- 
pecially that of the Executive' Committee of the Council which 
merited his approval is in marked contrast with some of the criti- 
cisms that have been made of the actions and recommendations 
emanating from the St. Louis meeting of this Committee held during 
the year. 

Following the reading of the President's address the Nominating 
Committee was appointed and again discharged its duty in the same 
way that has been so frequently criticized and which by a majority 
vote the members present at a later meeting determined to continue. 

An adjourned meeting was neld on Thursday evening preceding 
the President's reception. An address was delivered by Dr. C. E. 
McClung, representing the Division of Medical Sciences of the 
National Research Council. The speaker detailed the methods 
that had been adopted for the organization of this Research Council 
and the distribution of the millions of dollars that had been sub- 
scribed for promulgating scientific researches. It was only too ap- 
parent to his audience that the possibilities of pharmacy as one of the 
most important fields for research for the benefit of mankind had 
not been given proper consideration. 

Happily, Prof. J. U. Lloyd was called upon to respond to Dr. 
McClung and in his inimitable manner he very cleverly pointed out 
the inexhaustible fields from which pharmacy draws her stores; 
how every portion of the globe, every natural kingdom, the air and 
earth and its mines, as well as the animals and vegetation that thrived 
thereon, supplied the remedial agents employed by the pharmacist 
and the unlimited fields for investigation for the advancement of 
science and the sum of human knowledge to the benefit of mankind 
was opened through pharmaceutical research in the special fields 
that the researches spoken of as contemplated did not cover. 

Despite the fact that but eight months had elapsed since the 
prior meeting was held in New York, there was no lack of papers and 
each section was able to arrange an interesting program. In recent 
years the Section on Commercial Interests has forged ahead with 
addresses on timely subjects by leading authorities and this again 
was in evidence at the Washington meeting. On Saturday morning, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Editorial. 



365 



Mr. Merle Thorpe, the editor of the Nation's Business, the magazine 
pubHshed by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 
dehvered a most enlightening discourse upon the ethics of business. 
Taking as his title, ''Business is Business," his audience was treated 
with a presentation of the modern methods of the model man of 
commerce and a view of the expanding field of commercial enterprise 
and export trade in various lines open to the industries of the United 
States. He closed his discourse by reading a poem to Spring, whose 
serio-comic lines filled his audience with visions of the happy days 
when they were "filled with Juniper and Sassafras" and left them 
convulsed with mirth and enjoyable delight. 

Prohibition Commissioner John F. Kramer then addressed the 
meeting on the subject of the work of the prohibition enforcement 
division. The prohibition of the liquor traffic for beverage purposes 
was not only a radical but also a very sudden change in the policy 
of this Nation and the work of organizing a governmental department 
to enforce the legislation enacted was a gigantic task, a big job for any 
man, but they were going to get away with it. The progress already 
made was satisfactory and the attitude of the people of this country 
showed that prohibition was here to stay. He expressed his sym- 
pathy with pharmacists upon whom the Volstead Act had placed 
greater responsibilities as the sole dealers in alcoholic liquors at 
retail. He was of the opinion that the liquor dealer as a handler of 
beverage spirits was a thing of the past and that the treasury laws 
and regulations should be modified so that the title of "Retail Liquor 
Dealer" would not be retained for the pharmacist who was granted a 
permit under the Enforcement Act to use and sell non-beverage 
spirits for medicinal purposes. 

He expressed himself as gratified as to the attitude of helpful co- 
operation with his department that had been shown by representative 
men in pharmacy and the drug trade organizations and appealed for 
universal assistance from the druggists as the class of men whose 
interests were the most affected by prohibition legislation. 

Immediately following Commissioner Kramer, Mr. William L. 
Crounse, Attorney for the National Wholesale Druggists' Associa- 
tion, read a carefully prepared paper on "Alcohol — Its Importance 
in Science and Industry." In this the writer declared that alcohol 
was the most essential chemical raw material known to science. 
He criticized the attitude of the prohibition zealot and the ignorance 
of this class who were continuously guilty of gross misrepresentation 



366 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



of the necessary uses of alcohol as a basic material in pharmacy and 
the chemical industries. His comments upon the work of the Bureau 
of Internal Revenue should be viewed as constructive criticism of 
value to the officials thereof. His review of the divided opinion 
among pharmacists themselves as to the proper attitude that they 
should assume regarding the dispensing of liquors on prescription, 
was a very fair presentation of an unfortunate difference. This 
address, we hope to publish in full in the next number of the Journai^. 

One of the most encouraging signs of the time, was the changed 
attitude of the Governmental Departments concerning pharmacy. 
On the opening day of the meeting of the A. Ph. A., a committee 
composed of members of the Committee on Status of Pharmacists 
in the Government Service, had very pleasant interviews with Sec- 
retary of the Navy Daniels, Admiral Thos. Washington, head of the 
Bureau of Navigation, U. S. N., Surgeon General Braisted, of the 
Navy and Surgeon General Ireland of the U. S. Army. The spirit 
pervading was in marked contrast to that of a few years ago when 
it was officially declared "that pharmacists were not essential to the 
Army." Not only were the medical departments of the Army and 
Navy represented by officers officially appointed by the respective 
surgeon generals who attended the meetings of the Association and 
in the House of Delegates presented the greetings of their commanding 
officers and expressed the desire of their departments for the assist- 
ance of pharmacists and the aid of representatives of the profession 
in organizing and improving the medical service insofar as it related 
to pharmacy. Moreover, Surgeon General Braisted of the Navy, 
who was likewise President of the American Medical Association, 
welcomed the opportunity for making a personal address to the 
Association. 

The Committee on Nominations submitted the following names 
for President, 1921-1922: Henry Kraemer, Ann Arbor, Mich.; 
Charles W. Johnson, of Seattle, Wash.; Samuel L- Hilton, Wash- 
ington, D. C. The election will be by means of a mail ballot. 

The Council later elected as the Honorary-President for this 
year John F. Hancock, of Baltimore, Md. The Council was re- 
organized with Prof. Charles H. LaWall as chairman, and Dr. 
Ao G. DuMez as secretary. It was decided to hold the next meeting 
in New Orleans in September, 1921. G. M. B. 



june.^Jg^b^^^'""'} The Pharmacopoeial Convention. 367 

THE PHARMACOPOEIAL CONVENTION. 

On Tuesday morning, May 11, the delegates composing the 
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention for the Tenth Revision 
of the U. S. P., assembled in the ballroom of the New Willard Hotel 
in Washington. Shortly after 10 a.m., the appointed hour, the 
President, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, called the convention to order 
and the business of the assemblage was proceeded with in a most 
expeditious manner. Beyond the appointment of delegates from 
the several departments of the government service represented, 
official Washington took no cognizance of an important gathering 
of professional and scientific experts for the explicit purpose of 
performing a most valuable service to the American people, the 
preparation of the standards for the most commonly dispensed 
medicines and which by the laws of Congress and many of the 
States, become the official standards of the country for drugs. 

The report of the Committee on Credentials was read by Sec- 
retary M. G. Motter and showed no contests and required only a 
few corrections. It exhibited, however, a pathetic ambition on the 
part of some pharmacists to be admitted as delegates to this conven- 
tion. Proxies and credentials from distant organizations, by some 
agency, found their way to persons who were recorded as delegates 
of such bodies with which prior to this perambulation they had not 
the slightest acquaintance and with which they were in no way 
whatever associated. 

President Wiley called Fifth Vice-President Dr. W. A. Bastedo 
to the chair and read his presidential address which on motion was 
referred to a committee for consideration and report at the subse- 
quent meeting. This was followed by the reports of the chairman 
of the Board of Trustees, Secretary and Treasurer of the convention, 
the latter showing a very comfortable balance available for the 
expenses of the convention and revision. 

The report of Chairman LaWall for the Committee of Revision was 
read and this, and, likewise, the President's address contained touch- 
ing references to the services of the late Chairman Remington and 
tributes to his work. On motion the president appointed Dr. S. 
Solis-Cohen, Charles H. LaWall and George M. Beringer as a com- 
mittee to prepare a minute expressing the sentiments of this con- 
vention on the decease of Chairman Remington. In connection 
with his report Chairman LaWall read a paper prepared by E. 



368 The Pharmacopoeial Convention. l^""- ■^°j;ne^Y92'o: 

FuUerton Cook on "The Machinery of the Pharmacopoeial Revision," 
containing a number of suggestions for the expediting of the revision. 
The convention referred these to the incoming revision committee. 
(The report of Chairman La Wall appears in this number of the 
American JournaIv of Pharmacy and the paper of Prof. E. Fuller- 
ton Cook, embodying the suggestions made to the convention, was 
published last month.) 

The several amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws recom- 
mended by the Board of Trustees and which had been published 
in advance in the medical and pharmaceutical journals, were adopted 
as offered. 

The Committee on Nominations was then selected, each dele- 
gation, as the organization was called by the Secretary, naming its 
representative thereon, and the meeting adjourned till Wednesday 
morning. 

At the second session, held on Wednesday a.m., the Committee on 
President's Address made its report recommending that this be 
published and given a wide distribution. The committee to draft 
an appropriate minute concerning the decease of Chairman Rem- 
ington submitted the following, which was adopted by a rising vote 
in silence. 

"The Pharmacopoeial Convention assembled for the tenth 
decennial revision, deeply mourns that Professor Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, Chairman of the Committee of Revision, who bore the brunt 
and burden of the labor of the revision was called from this life on 
January i, 191 8, before this body could express its appreciation for 
his painstaking efforts in the eighth and ninth revisions, by which 
the scientific standing of the volume was advanced and its leading 
position in the pharmacopoeias of the world established. No man 
can have a nobler monument than has Joseph P. Remington in this 
work. 

"This Convention records its deep sense of the loss which the 
pharmacopoeia and the professions whose interests this work serves, 
sustained in his demise, and their obligation for the unselfish ser- 
vice, the many sacrifices, and the devotion to the pharmacopoeia 
continuously manifested throughout his many years of association 
with the work of the revision. 

"This assemblage attests its esteem for his character, its love 
for his personality, its admiration for his learning and extends to his 



jtSe,^i92b.^^^'^°'" } The Pharmacopoeial Convention. 369 

family its sincere sympathy in their bereavement in which it likewise 
claims to share. 

**As a lasting tribute to his memory and recognition of his in- 
estimable service this minute is entered upon the records of this 
Convention and a copy thereof transmitted to his family." 

The Nominating Committee made a report recommending the 
following for the respective officers: 

For President, Dr. Reid Hunt. 

For First Vice-President, Dr. Frederick B. Power. 

For Second Vice-President, Dr. M. Howard Fussell. 

For Third Vice-President, Dr. Walter A. Bastedo. 

For Fourth Vice-President, Prof. L. E. Sayre. 

For Fifth Vice-President, Dr. John F. Anderson. 

For Secretary, Dr. L. F. Kebler. 

For Assistant Secretary, Dr. W. W. Stockberger. 

For Treasurer, Samuel L. Hilton. 

For Trustees, James H. Beal, F. J. WuUing, Henry M. Whelpley, 
Dr. George H. Simmons, Dr. S. Solis-Cohen. 

For members of the Committee of Revision to be composed of 
fifty, the names of seventeen physicians and thirty-three pharma- 
cists and chemists were presented. 

This report was adopted without division and in record-breaking 
time. The report on General Principles To Be followed in Revising 
the Pharmacopoeia submitted by the retiring committee was taken 
up and considered seriatim. A few minor changes in the wording 
were made without effecting any material alterations in the prin- 
ciples proposed and the twenty-six propositions each under a distinct 
title were adopted as a whole for the guidance of the incoming Com- 
mittee on Revision. 

Having discharged its work expeditiously the convention was 
adjourned sine die at the end of this second session. 

The new Committee of Revision was called together on Thursday 
afternoon, Ma}^ 12, by the President, Dr. Reid Hunt, for the purpose 
of effecting its organization. Dr. H. V. Arny nominated Prof. E. 
Fullerton Cook for chairman and he was unanimously elected. 
Prof. W. ly. Scoville was elected Vice-Chairman and Prof. Charles 
H. LaWall was made Secretary. The committee immediately got 
down to work and held two meetings before adjournment at mid- 
night and, by adopting the suggestions that had been made by Prof. 
Cook, accomplished in these conferences the division of its membership 



370 Tax on Toilet Articles and Medicines, [^'^- ^""jnn^^igTo. 

into sub-committees, each of which selected its chairman who be- 
comes thus a member of the Executive Committee, and settled by- 
discussion a number of mooted questions which heretofore have 
required several months spent in correspondence for determination. 

As we reflect upon the events of the Pharmacopoeial Convention 
and the machinations preceding, we are fully aware that these evi- 
dence the need for some reform in the methods adopted for the 
appointment of delegates to the convention and likewise for the 
selection of the officers and committee of revision. The recommen- 
dations of Chairman LaWall were unquestionably correct and 
efficiency alone should be the guide in determining the selection 
of those upon whom these important duties are to devolve. We 
cannot, however, record that they made a very deep impression 
upon many of those present, despite caucus agreements and con- 
ventional endorsement. The peripatetic efforts of certain over- 
ambitious and radical elements allied to pharmacy were fraught 
with grave danger to the future of the Pharmacopoeia. Fortu- 
nately, a measure of sound judgment prevailed so that with provi- 
dential guidance a fairly representative committee of revision was 
selected. We can but regret that the wire-pulling of the educational 
elements resulted in the naming of so few practical pharmacists on 
the committee and yet this book is the constant and direct guide of 
this class of users who outnumber ten-fold that of any other class. 

We would draw the veil of charity over the acts of jealousy that 
blinded from the observation of some of the delegates the efficient, 
self-sacrificing services of others in behalf of the pharmacopoeia 
and the elevation of the practice of pharmacy. G. M. B. 

THE TAX ON TOILET ARTICLES AND PROPRIETARY 

MEDICINES. 

To avoid apparent confusion in the minds of the public regard- 
ing the collection of the tax on toilet articles and proprietary medi- 
cines, the Bureau of Internal Revenue has issued a statement ad- 
vising both dealers and purchasers that the tax of i cent for each 
25 cents or fraction thereof of the amount paid is on the article it- 
self and not on the total amount paid by the customer when two or 
more such articles are purchased, unless of the same kind and put 
up by the manufacturer in a single container for sale as an original 
package. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Frank G. Ryan, 



371 



For example, if a tube of tooth paste costs 35 cents and a bottle 
of perfume 65 cents, the tax is 2 cents on the tooth paste and 3 cents 
on the perfume, a total of 5 cents and not 4 cents as comp'uted on 
the total amount paid by the purchaser. 

If toilet powder sells at 10 cents a box, the tax is one cent; if two 
boxes are bought the tax is two cents, although the total amount paid 
by the purchaser is 20 cents; and if three boxes are bought for 25 
cents, the tax is 3 cents. If however, six boxes of toilet powder sell- 
ing singly at 10 cents each are put up by the manufactruer in a con- 
tainer or sealed package for sale as a unit and are sold by the dealer 
as an original package for 50 cents, the tax is 2 cents, the package 
being the unit of sale. 

The regulation providing that where two or more packages of 
cough drops are sold for 25 cents the tax shall be i cent is revoked, 
the tax being at the rate of i cent for each 25 cents or fraction thereof 
of the amount paid for a single package. 

Instructions to advise dealers that the tax shall be collected in 
accordance with this ruling have been sent to collectors of internal 
revenue. The public is requested to cooperate in the proper col- 
lection of the tax. 

This new ruling clarifies and to some extent, likewise, modifies 
prior announcements from the Bureau of Internal Revenue on this 
subject. We believe that it is entirely in harmony with the intent 
of the section of the Revenue Law of 191 8 relating to this form of 
luxury tax. We are constrained, however, to direct the attention 
of the Bureau to the fact that the ruling of the Department relating 
to the tax to be collected upon multiple sales of ice cream, soda 
water, coca cola, etc., is inconsistent with this decision concerning 
the collection of the tax under the same law on multiple sales of 
toilet articles and proprietary medicines. 



FRANK G. RYAN. 

On the afternoon of April 20, Frank G. Ryan, president of Parke, 
Davis & Co., died rather suddenly of a malignant attack of pneu- 
monia after an illness of but three days. Funeral services were held 
at Christ Church, in Detroit, on April 22. The active pall bearers 
were those who had been closely associated with him in the business 
management and a group of about fifty of the prominent repre- 
sentatives of the business and professional life of Detroit, all personal 



372 



Frank G. Ryan. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



friends, comprised the honorary pall bearers. The church was filled 
with a sorrowing throng composed of all walks in life, as Mr. Ryan 
had endeared himself to each whether a humble workman or girl 
employee in the office or laboratory, or a prominent professional or 
financial leader of the city and they all joined in paying a last tribute 
to one who was so universally esteemed. 

Frank Gibbs Ryari was born in Marcellus Falls, New York, on 
December 26, 1861. He was educated in the public schools of 
Klmira. At the age of fifteen, he engaged in the drug business. 
During the years 1 880-1 882 he was employed as a drug clerk with 
Brown & Dawson, pharmacists, of Syracuse, the junior member of 
which firm was secretary of the New York State Board of Pharmacy 
for a number of years. 

In 1882, Frank came to Philadelphia and matriculated at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. While attending instruction 
at the college, he clerked in several stores in Philadelphia and for 
several years after completing his college course he continued to 
keep in close touch with the actual duties of the retail pharmacist. 
Nevertheless, it was apparent even then, that he was gathering a 
broader experience as a teacher and as a student of commercial 
methods that would serve as a foundation for higher attainments. 
In 1884, he was graduated from the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, the subject of his thesis being "Magnesii Carbonas." 

In 1887, he was selected by Prof. Joseph P. Remington as his 
assistant in the department of Pharmacy. Both the professor and 
assistant Ryan were convinced that the instruction in pharmacy 
must be broadened out and much more attention be given to the 
commercial or business training of the embryo pharmacists, and 
that it was a proper part of the work of the College to see that the 
student was well-grounded in the essentials of business knowledge 
as well as in the professional and theoretical part of his calling so 
that the danger of an unsuccessful career would be minimized. It 
was largely through the efforts of Frank G. Ryan that in 1899 the 
College decided to establish an optional course in commercial train- 
ing and this branch of instruction was placed in his charge. This 
was an entirely new departure in the curricula of pharmaceutical 
schools and attracted considerable attention and comment. Within 
a few years, the value of the instruction was demonstrated and was 
incorporated as part of the established curriculum of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and it has since been added to the instruction 



1 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Frank G. Ryan. 



373 



given in many other schools of pharmacy. To Prof. Frank G. Ryan 
belongs the honor of having been the pioneer in this branch of phar- 
maceutical education and despite the early criticism he lived to see 
his ideas and the very course of instruction that he had outlined made 
the basis for the accepted course of business training in the leading 
schools of pharmacy. 

At the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association held 
in Richmond, in 1900, Prof. Ryan was requested to address the mem- 
bers upon the subject of commercial training for students of colleges 
of pharmacy. He said that the lack of business knowledge on the 
part of the young men engaging in the drug business had been, dis- 
cussed in the pharmaceutical journals and was undoubtedly real. 
In his experience he found that but one man in twenty had received 
any training in business principles, although his students were 
generally high school graduates and possessed a rood general edu- 
cation. 

As clerks the young men had little opportunity to learn about the 
market conditions, the correct methods of buying, discounts, bank- 
ing and insurance, etc., as this part of the business was almost uni- 
versally reserved for the proprietor. The business colleges were 
prepared to teach a man how to become a banker, broker, shipper, 
real estate dealer but none of these taught business methods as 
applied to the buying and selling of drugs specifically, and it was 
essential that the pharmacist should receive such before engaging 
in busines on his own account and this should be imparted as part 
of his collegiate training and preferably by those who had some ac- 
quaintances with drugs and the drug-trade customs. He submitteed 
a synopsis of what he considered as the essentials that should be 
included in this instruction. 

In 1889, when the scope of his duties in the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy were widened and the instruction in commercial train- 
ing added, he was given the title of Instructor in Pharmacy and 
Assistant Director of the Pharmaceutical Laboratory. At the 
same time, he held the position of lecturer on pharmacy in the 
Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia. Always courteous, yet 
forceful, he evidenced even in those early days that he was a born 
leader of men and that he possessed unusual administrative and 
executive ability that enabled him to command and to gain the 
respect, confidence and support of students and the development of 
these characteristics at that time and under circumstances that were 



374 Frank G.Ryan. . { ^Tu^e^YsM: 

trying to say the least, doubtless had an important bearing upon his 
subsequent success. 

Affluence may have been a dream of this ambitious young pharma- 
cist but at that period of his career it was an unknown factor. One 
of his classmates recently narrated that on the Commencement 
night when Ryan was awarded the pharmacy prize of $25.00 he 
remarked to his friend that this was a fortunate relief from being 
"flat broke." Intelligent and industrious application of his time 
was, however, a fundamental principle and for some years the summer 
months, when his college duties were for the time being suspended 
and which a less ambitious teacher would have enjoyed as a deserved 
vacation, found him engaged with Parke, Davis & Co. as a repre- 
sentative in attendance at conventions and in detailing physicians. 
He thus gained further experience and invaluable information and 
insight into human nature especially as reflected by those following 
the medical profession. 

In 1900 he determined to relinquish teaching as his calling in 
life and cast his lot with manufacturing pharmacy and accepted the 
position of head pharmacist with Parke, Davis & Co. After thirteen 
years' connection with the instructional work of his Alma Mater 
he resigned in May of that year and the Trustees very reluctantly 
accepted his resignation and he carried with him the sincere best 
wishes of the officers, members and faculty and it has been with 
justifiable pride that they have since marked his great success. The 
severance of the many ties of comradeship and association with 
innumerable friends in the east must have caused him some "heart 
pangs" as it did those he was leaving. 

We now know that this change meant at the time not only the 
taking up of a new and to some extent an unknown activity but 
that it likewise entailed a financial sacrifice as the initial salary was 
less than he was making by his several activities in Philadelphia. 

With his characteristic self reliance and determination he applied 
himself to the enlarged field of opportunity. For three, years he 
was one of the executive heads of a department energetically ap- 
plying himself to learning every detail of the business and applying 
the knowledge which he had gained by his scientific and commercial 
training. When the opportunity came for filling vacancies in ad- 
vanced positions of trust and responsibility his commanding position 
was so evident that he was invariably chosen. His advancement was 
phenomenal and to those unacquainted with the man and his ability, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Frank G. Ryan. 



375 



both innate and acquired, would have been considered as romantic. 
In less than seven years, from the time that he permanently cast 
his lot with this corporation, he had been elected first, a Director, 
then. Secretary, next, Vice-President and, finally. President. The 
latter position he filled for thirteen years when the Divine call 
terminated his labors. The thirteenth year would thus again appear 
as the completion of a determining cycle in his career. 

As vice-president of Parke, Davis & Co., Mr. Ryan made a tour 
around the world combining pleasure with business. While in 
London, in 1907, he was entertained at a public dinner by the leading 
pharmacists and prominent men connected with the drug trade. 
Returning to America, he had landed but a day when President 
Buhl was suddenly stricken and Frank G. Ryan was immediately 
elected to fill the highest office in the Company. As president for 
the intervening period he accomplished great things for this house 
and the perfected organization, the enormous developments along 
scientific as well as commercial lines are very largely attributed by 
his associates to his foresight and ability and to the inspiration of 
his character and policies. 

Frank G. Ryan joined the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in 1892. He was immediately elected secretary of the Section on 
Scientific Papers for the year and in 1 899-1 900 was chairman of this 
Section. He served as Chairman of the Committee on Weights and 
Measures and made an excellent report of the bills that had been 
introduced into Congress favoring the general adoption of the Metric 
System. He was not an office seeker and was contented to give 
his advice and the weight of his influence for the betterment of 
pharmacy without receiving personal recognition. Such offices and 
honors that were accepted came unsolicited and as a recognition of 
merit. He took an active interest in the organization and work of 
the American Drug Manufacturers' Association and for the first 
two years of its existence served as its President and the success 
and achievements of this comparatively young, yet exceedingly active, 
organization again demonstrates and reflects the effect and influence 
of the master mind in its formative period. 

He filled an important position in the civic life of the City of 
Detroit. He was a member of five of the leading clubs of the city 
and served a term as president of the Detroit Club and of the Coun- 
try Club. He declined to accept a number of public duties that 
were proffered to him. Nevertheless, he was an intense student of 



376 Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. [ -^^Jne^Y/jS; 

the economic and political ev^ents of the time. His advice was 
freely sought on many subjects and his judgment and opinions were 
greatly esteemed. During the war, the governmental authorities 
frequently sought his advice on matters relating to the drug trade 
and he also served as chairman of a local draft board and gave un- 
stintedly of his time and energies in this service. 

A close friend of Mr. Ryan has written "he was preeminently 
a man who carved out his own career from the hard rock of oppor- 
tunity. He rose from the ranks of drug clerks to a position of 
commanding influence in tiie pharmaceutical world." As we study 
the life work of those who have achieved notable successes, we find 
it interesting to isolate the personal characteristics that were the 
determining factors in their elevation. The personal traits that 
dominated the life and determined the preeminence of the subject 
of this sketch are not difficult to be discerned. Among these we 
may mention quickness of perception, promptness of decision, in- 
tense earnestness, unquestioned justness, sympathetic nature, un- 
swerving integrit}^ close application, confidence in himself coupled 
with unusual administrative ability and adamantine adherence to 
principles. These were the qualifications that enabled him to 
inspire others with enthusiasm and the development of their best 
efforts, that won for him the respect and admiration of his business 
associates and competitors and endeared him to a host of friends. 

His decease came \vith alarming suddenness and was a great 
shock to the community and the wide circle of friends. He left 
his office on Saturday, April 17, apparently in good health. That 
night he was taken with a severe chill and the next morning medical 
attendance was called in and the ailment was promptly diagnosed 
as a dangerous type of pneumonia from which he succumbed on 
Tuesday afternoon, less than three days after being taken ill. He 
is survived by a daughter, Mrs. Charles A. Dean, Jr., of Detroit, 
and a grandson, Charles A. Dean, 3rd, in whom Mr. Ryan was 
especially delighted. G. M. B. 

REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE OF 
REVISION OF THE U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA. 

By Charles H. La Wall, Ph.M. 

In presenting the report which the by-laws of this organization 
direct shall be made to the Decennial Convention by the Chairman 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Revision oj the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 



377 



of the Revision Committee, I must remind you that the real re- 
port, the one to which the Convention is entitled, written by the 
Chairman of the Committee who occupied that important post 
• during the active period of revision, can never be presented. He 
who has borne the burden and heat of the day has been taken from 
us, and I, who was so close to him in his work for so many years, 
realize more than ever the loss that American pharmacy has sus- 
tained, and that no surrogate can stand before you and do justice 
to such a task or perform it in the manner in which it would have 
been handled by our late Chairman Remington. 

In my hands the report will necessarily be limited to a chrono- 
logical record of major events in the decade just ending. It will 
lack the fire and enthusiasm which would characterize a report by 
the one who was Chairman for a period of nearly seventeen years. 
This period (from 1901 to 191 8) was the most important in the 
history of this ancient and honorable book of standards, for there is 
only one other national pharmacopoeia in existence which is older 
than the United States Pharmacopoeia and none which is 
more important ; it is the period which saw the United States Pharma- 
copoeia emerge from a position of interest only to a limited number 
of practicing physicians and pharmcists who were bound by the 
ethics of their respective professions to heed its mandates, to the 
supreme position which it now occupies as the book of standards 
recognized as authoritative by both national and state govern- 
ments in the laws pertaining to drugs. 

At the decennial meeting of the Convention in May, 1910, a 
change was made in the former plan of having a Revision Committee 
of twenty-five, a larger committee of fifty members being selected. 
This included the following : 

Joseph P. Remington, C. Lewis Diehl, 

William C. Alpers, George C. Diekman, 

John F. Anderson, A. R. L. Dohme, 



H. V. Arny, 
E. H. Bartley, 
George M. Beringer, 
Wilhelm Bodemann, 
Charles Caspari, Jr., 
C. K. Caspari, 
Virgil Coblentz, 
N. S. Davis, 



E. G. Eberle, 
C. W. Edmunds, 
Joseph W. Englamd. 
J. M. Francis, 
J. M. Good, 
H. M. Gordin, 
W. G. Gregory, 
Walter S. Haines, 



378 



Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



C. S. N. Hallberg, 
R. A. Hatcher, 
Lewis C. Hopp, 
Reid Hunt, 
L. F. Kebler, 
J. A. Koch, 
Henry Kraemer, 
Edward Kremers, 
Charles H. LaWall, 
J. H. Long, 
A. B. Lyons, 
PhiHp Marvel, 
C. F. Nixon, 
O. T. Osborne, 



W. A. Puckner, 

Otto Raubenheimer, 

George D. Rosengarten, 

H. H. Rusby, 

S. P. Sadtler, 

L. E. Sayre, 

J. O. Schlotterbeck, 

Tor aid SoUmann, 

A. B. Stevens, 

R. H. True, 

C. E. Vanderkleed, 

M. I. Wilbert, 

H. C. Wood, Jr., 

H. W. Wiley. 



Albert Plant, 

This Committee immediately held an organization meeting 
before leaving Washington and elected the following officers: 



^ The Committee then dispersed and under the guidance of its 
newly elected officers, three of whom lived in Philadelphia, com- 
menced organizing by mail for the formation of the Executive Com- 
mitteee of Revision of fifteen members, which had been authorized 
by the changed by-laws. Before this organization had progressed 
materially. Dr. Edward Kremers resigned fi-om the Committee 
and his place was filled by the election of Dr. Solomon Solis-Cohen. 
The Executive Committee, as finally selected by the group of mem- 
bers interested in these respective lines of work, was as follows. 
The names of those who served upon these various sub -committees 
are also given as a matter of record : 

No. Title. Chairman. Members. 

I Scope (Admissions and Dele- S. Solis Cohen Cohen, Dohme, Hall- 

tions) berg, Hunt, Mar- 



Chairman, 

1st Vice-Chairman, 

2nd Vice-Chairman, 

Secretary, 



Joseph P. Remington. 
C. Lewis Diehl. 
H. C. Wood, Jr. 
Charles H. LaWall. 



vel, Osborne, Plant, 
Rusby, Sollmann, 
Wood 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Revision of the U. 5. Pharmacopoeia. 



379 



No. Title. 

2 Therapeutics and Pharmaco- 
dynamics 



3 Biological Products, Diagnos- 
tical Tests 



Chairman. 

Torald SoUmann 



J. F. Anderson 



4 Botany and Pharmacognosy Henry Kraemer 



5 General and Inorganic Chem- 
istry 



6 Organic Chemistry 



C. H. La Wall 



G. D. Rosengarten 



7 Proximate Assays 



A. B. Stevens 



8 Volatile Oils 



9 Fluid and Solid Extracts, 
Tinctures 



lo Aromatic Waters, Spirits, 
Liquors 



H. W. Wiley 



G. M. Beringer 



C. Lewis Diehl 



Members. 

Cohen, Davis, Ed- 
munds, Haines, 
Hatcher, Osborne, 
Sollmann, Wood 

Anderson, Hatcher, 
Hunt, Long, Soll- 
mann, Edmunds, 
Wood 

Kebler, Kraemer, 
Plant, Rushy, 
S a y r e, Schlotter- 
beck. True 

Arny, Bartley, C. E. 
Caspari, Coblentz, 
Kebler, La Wall, 
Long, P u c k n e r, 
Rosengarten, Sadt- 
ler 

C. E. Caspari, Cob- 
lentz, Dohme, Keb- 
ler, Koch, La Wall, 
Lyons, Puckner, 
Rosengarten, Sadt- 
ler, Vanderkleed 

C. E. Caspari, 
Dohme, Francis, 
Gordin, Kebler, 
Kock, LaWall, 
Lyons, Puckner, 
Stevens, Van- 
derkleed 

Beringer, C. E. Cas- 
pari, Dohme, 
Francis, Koch, La- 
Wall, Sadtler, 
Kebler, Wiley 

Beringer, Chas. Cas- 
pari, Jr., Diehl, 
Diekman, F r a n- 
cis, Eberle, Good, 
Raubenheimer 

Arny, Beringer, 
Bodemann, Diehl, 
Eberle, England, 
Good, Gregory, 
Raubenheimer 



38o 



Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



No. Title. 

1 1 Syrups and Elixirs 



Chairman. 

W. C. Alpers 



12 Cerates and Ointments 

13 Miscellaneous Galenicals 

14 Tables, Weights, Measures 

15 Nomenclature 



Otto Raubenheimer 



C. S. N. Hallberg 



A. B. Lyons 



Chas. Caspari, Jr. 



Members. 

Alpers, Beringer, 
D i e h 1, Diekman, 
Eberle, England, 
Francis, Nixon 
Alpers, Diekman, 
Eberle, England, 
Good, Hopp, 
Raubenheimer 
Arny, Bodemann, Hall- 
berg, Hopp, Nixon, 
Raubenheimer, 
Sayre, Wilbert 
Kebler,La Wall, Lyons, 

Stevens, Wilbert 
Caspari, Jr., Cohen, 
Good, Hallberg, Os- 
borne, Plaut, Rusby, 
Wilbert 

On October 22, 1910, death removed Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg, 
Chairman of the Sub-committee No. 13. His place upon the Execu- 
tive Committee was immediately filled by the selection of Mr. 
Wilhelm Bodemann, and the vacancy in the General Committee of 
Revision was filled by the election of Prof. A. H. Clark, on January 
7, 1911. 

No other deaths occurred in the Executive Committee during 
the active period of the work of revision, which lasted until the 
surnmer of 191 6. The work of the General Committee and of the 
various sub-committees was mainly carried on by correspondence. 
One fairly representative personal conference participated in by a 
majority of the members of the General Committee of Revision 
was held during the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation in Boston, Massachusetts, on August 15, 191 1. Several 
official and numerous unofficial meetings were held of important 
sub-committees during the active period of work, but in the main 
the entire operation of revision was conducted by the method in 
use during the preceding decade — that of mimeographed circulars 
and letters and a definite procedure of debating questions and col- 
lecting and recording votes. 

We can form some idea of the magnitude of this stupendous un- 
dertaking when we glance at the statistics of the work as expressed 
in pages of material issued during the decade, most of which was 
sent out prior to 1916. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 



381 



Circulars to General Committee 
Letters to Executive Committee 



2000 pages (9 X 16 inches) 
3417 pages (8V2 X II inches) 



Bulletins to members of Sun-commit- 
tees from the chairmen (members 
of the Executive Committee) 



5557 pages (8V2 X 11 inches) 



These latter figures are underestimated, for no record is obtain- 
able for three of the sub-committees, and no account whatev^er is 
taken of the voluminous personal correspondence which was car- 
ried on by or between members throughout the entire progress of 
the work. 

The first task to be accomplished was the selection of the sub- 
stances for inclusion in the revised work. This duty was assigned 
to the Sub-committee on Scope, which made five preliminary re- 
ports from December 8th, 1910, to March i ith, 191 1. Some changes 
were subsequently made as new conditions arose necessitating 
modification or alteration of previous action. When the book 
finally appeared, however, the sum total of changes in monographs 
amounted to sixty-seven additions and two hundred and forty- 
three deletions. There are seven hundred and eighty- two titles 
and monographs included in the official substances in Part I. In 
Part II there are three hundred and thirty-nine test solutions and 
reagents described and a number of special descriptive articles 
covering general processes or subjects, together with numerous 
tables of value. 

In the progress of the work, the following procedure was fol- 
lowed in the main. A tentative monograph was submitted to the sub- 
committee to which that particular substance had been assigned, by 
its chairman, and comments and suggestions invited. The chairman 
of the sub-committee would then draft a new monograph embodying 
the changes suggested and again submit it to the members of the sub- 
committee. This procedure was repeated until a monograph was 
found to satisfy the members of the sub-committee. During this 
stage of the work, the chairmen of the sub-committees who were 
members of the Executive Committee, reported monthly to the 
Chairman of the General Committee of Revision upon the status 
of the work in their respective sub-committees. When a group of 
monographs satisfactory to a sub-committee had been collected by 
its chairman, these were submitted to the Executive Committee 
through the General Chairman and comments and suggestions 
invited. Sometimes the monographs with their criticisms would be 



382 Revision oj ike U. S. Pharmacopoeia. { ^"jJne^^Q'Jo: 

resubmitted to the committee from whence they had come, but 
more often the corrections were of a minor character and the mono- 
graphs would be finally revised by the Executive Committee. 
Having passed this group of censors, the revised or approved mono- 
graphs would next be sent out to the General Committee of Revi- 
sion, where they wxre subjected to the scrutiny and criticism of 
many who had not before seen them. Again the procedure of cor- 
recting minor errors or recommitting was followed and the mono- 
graph, having reached this advanced stage and having been finally 
approved, was put aside by the Chairman of the General Committee 
of Revision, until the entire manuscript was ready for the printer. 

During the Executive Committee and General -Committee 
stages of the evolution of these texts, the mandate of the Conven- 
tion regarding publicity was heeded, by submitting to the numerous 
pharmaceutical, medical and chemical journals lists of all proposed 
changes in abstract. These proposed changes were also widely 
circulated among the manufacturing firms of the country, thus 
calling in as an auxiliary a great body of interested and experienced 
scientific workers who performed services of great value without 
adding to the cost of the work. 

One of the burning questions occupying the attention of the 
members of the Revision Committee themselves, and interfering 
to a certain extent with the efficiency of their work through pressure 
from the outside, was the query: How long is the revision going 
to take? Such a factor should never enter into a problem of this 
kind. For several decades each succeeding revision has taken a 
little longer than the last, for the reasons which are clearly apparent 
to a rational unprejudiced observer. Under the present methods 
of procedure, in which practically all of the work is carried on by 
mail in the interests of economy, it may always be expected that a 
revision will require from three to six years. When the Conven- 
tion wishes a more expeditious handling of the work, it can easily 
obtain results by authorizing a large enough expenditure of funds 
to enable personal conferences to take the place of long drawn out 
arguments and discussions by correspondence and in the interest 
of scientific efficiency by authorizing the establishment of a central 
laboratory where all scientific problems can be worked out, at least 
in a preliminary way, without having to wait for the convenience 
of those who are doing the work largely as a labor of love and with 



june,-^?95b^^^''" } Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 383 

a generous sacrifice of time and energy usually transferred from 
more remunerative work. 

The most unthinking criticism in connection with pharmacopoeial 
revision is usually directed at this matter of time taken to revise 
the work. It generally originates in quarters where unfamiliarity 
with the problem is the principal asset of the critic. So far as any 
specific reasons may be given for the long period consumed in the 
revision of the U. S. P. IX, it may be stated primarily that this 
was the first complete revision of the work after the passage of the 
Food and Drugs Act, giving it authoritative legal standing, and, in 
consequence of this fact, every standard, every phrase, had for the 
first time in the history of a revision to be so carefuly framed as to 
afford no loop hole for evasion by, or escape of an adulterator on the 
ground of indefiniteness. American lawyers must be extraordinarily 
keen or most be more in the habit of interposing technical objec- 
tions or raising technical points of interpretation than are the law- 
yers of other countries, for forms and procedures which appear to 
be perfectly practical in the pharmacopoeias of many other nations 
were objected to, criticised and revised until our present United 
States Pharmacopoeia seems to some to be overbalanced in the direc- 
tion of academic preciseness and to have lost something of the 
spontaneity and practicality of some of the earlier editions. This 
may all be necessary and unavoidable, but the present Convention 
and the incoming Committee of Revision should not lose sight of 
the fact after all that the United States Pharmacopoeia should be a 
practical guide-book first and a law-book next. The European 
war, which began just as the revision was nearing completion, 
brought new problems to be solved and new difficulties to confront 
the revisers, and this influence was also of a nature to retard the 
progress of the work. 

Some questions consumed much time in discussing and were 
finally decided adversely, so far as admission was concerned. Among 
these were the following : 

The inclusion of a table of antidotes. 

The introduction of a standard medicine dropper. 

The publication of ethical rules for guidance 
of physicians and pharmacists in their relation to 
each other and to the public. 

The admission of whisky and brandy. 
The rules of procedure entitle every member to a reasonable 



384 Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. {^"'- ^JLl\^9^: 

length of time to formulate his arguments in a discussion and the 
question is then decided by a majority of the votes of the entire 
Committee either for or against the proposition. In this connec- 
tion it may be said that the present procedure leaves much to be 
desired as it works out in practice in many instances, especially 
when questions come to a vote in the General Committee. It is 
not uncommon in such a case, when the vote is tabulated, to find 
that those who may rightfully claim to be experts on a particular 
subject and who have given time, thought and study to a subject 
in addition to experience which they possess, are outvoted by mem- 
bers who are not particularly familiar with the question except in 
so far as they have been informed by the discussions which they 
have read. This defect has persisted for several revisions, and at- 
tention was called to it by late Chairman Remington in his report 
to the last Decennial Convention. I feel it necessary at this point 
to quote his remarks upon this subject verbatim: 

"The Pharmacopoeia is a composite work and one of the defects 
in the last revision was the fact that the whole committee were ex- 
pected to vote upon questions of detail, the vote of each member 
having the same value. This should be changed, and, upon special 
subjects, the sub-committee having these in charge should have much 
greater weight in the final decision than heretofore. This can be 
done by referring, for example, assay subjects, which have been 
before the General Committee, back to the sub-committee, if neces- 
sary, and each member of that committee might have two votes on 
the final decision, the same rule to apply to all sub-committees. 

"Another way of meeting this difficulty would be to allow any 
member of the General Committee, not especially posted upon 
matters of detail, to transfer his right to vote to a member of the 
sub-committee in whom he has confidence. This vital defect in 
pharmacopoeial revision might then be overcome." 

I beheve it would be well for the Convention this time to give 
some very careful thought to this subject and to issue binding in- 
structions to the incoming Committee covering this very important 
phase of the work. For example, it certainly is exclusively the 
province of the medical members of the Revision Committee to de- 
cide what substances should be officially included for remedial 
purposes, and this list, after having been decided upon by the physi- 
cians, should not be subject to review or alteration by pharmacists 
and chemists. On the other hand, when the list of official remedial 



june,-^?95b.^^^'''"' } Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 385 

agents has once been clearly outlined, it should be the province 
and privilege of the pharmacists and chemists to decide upon such 
additions and inclusions of materials used as ingredients as will 
make it possible and practicable to prepare the medicine of proper 
uniformity, quality and potency. These are the basic and funda- 
mental prerogatives, and a workable plan should be devised to 
maintain their integrity. 

The work of making a pharmacopoeia is big enougn and im- 
portant enough to enlist the constructive effort of every worker, 
be he physician, pharmacist or chemist, and by having a clear under- 
standing of the respective responsibilities and duties and an intelU- 
gent allotment of the details of the work much lost motion may be 
saved and a unanimity of eJffort developed which will not only 
expedite the progress of the work, but will develop a common in- 
terest of thought and action between physicians, pharmacists and 
chemists who are co-laborers in the important field of work which 
has for its ultimate object the alleviation of human suffering and 
the prevention and cure of disease. 

In the early part of 191 6, the preliminary work of revision was 
practically finished. The manuscript was placed in the hands of 
the printer and the great task of editing, proof reading and finally 
correcting the copy, proceeded rapidly to completion. Galley proofs 
were sent to the members of the Executive Committee and page 
proofs to all members of the General Committee of Revision, the 
majority of whom co-operated splendidly in this important labor. 
Comments and corrections were systematically compiled by the 
General Chairman and carefully considered in preparing the final 
page proof. Foundry proofs were sent only to the General Chair- 
man. The work was at last completed in the summer of 1916 
and the time of making the U. S. P. IX official was fixed for Sep- 
tember ist of that year. 

It has been stated and it is undoubtedly true that insufficient 
time was given from the time when the books were actually avail- 
able in the furthermost parts of the great geographic territory to 
which the United States Pharmacopoeia applies and the date when 
the work became official. Six months is not too long a time for the 
interests involved to make the necessary changes in labels and stocks 
and to minimize the confusion always attendant upon such a period 
of change. The Convention should adopt a definite resolution upon 
this point. 



386 Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. {^"'^7unJ!Y92'S: 

No work of such magnitude has ever yet been free from error 
or just criticism. It is gratifying to report, therefore, that when 
an official hst of corrections and necessary changes was issued in 
1 91 9, three years after the work had become official, only loi altera- 
tions were reported, a small number indeed, and most of them 
were of minor importance. 

On January i, 191 8, Chairman Remington died at his home in 
Philadelphia. He was immediately succeeded by the 2nd Vice- 
Chairman, Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr., the ist Vice- Chairman hav- 
ing died some time previous. 

Following the procedure of the previous decade when a similar 
situation occurred, Dr. Wood called for an election for Chairman 
of the General Committee of Revision, and upon April 6, 191 8, I, 
Charles H. LaWall, was elected to fill the vacancy for the remainder 
of the ten-year period of office. 

Death had fortunately spared the Committee during the early 
and constructive period of the work, only one death having oc- 
curred prior to 1915, that of Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg, previously re- 
ferred to. The other deaths which occurred during the decade 
were as follows: 

Mr. Albert Plant, June 17, 1915. 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert, November 25, 1916. 

Dr. W. C. Alpers, February 20, 191 7. 

Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, March 25, 191 7. 

Dr. J. O. Schlotterbeck, June i, 191 7. 
Prof. Charles Caspari, Jr., October 13, 191 7. 
Dr. John H. Long, June 14, 191 8. 

Prof. James M. Good, May 15, 191 9. 

From this it will be seen that out of the fifty-one members of the 
General Committee of revision ten, or 20 per cent., died during the 
decennial period for which they had been elected. 

Early in the summer of 191 8 an election was called for to fill 
the vacancies occasioned by death up to that time. Nominations 
were made of candidates and, after balloting, the following eight 
members were elected: 

Prof. B. Fullerton Cook, Mr. J. K. Lilly, 

Prof. W. B. Day, Dr. L. G. Rowntree, 

Mr. S. L. Hilton, Mr. L. A. Seltzer, 

Mr. H. P. Hynson, Prof. W. J. Teeters. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 



387 



On September 27, 1918, Prof. E- F. Cook was elected Secretary of 
the General Committee of Revision to fill the place made vacant by 
the election of myself to the general chairmanship. Vacancies hav- 
ing occurred in the Executive Committee by death and other causes, 
the following chairmen were elected during 191 8 of the sub-com- 
mittees named: 

No. 5 Dr. H. V. Arny. 
10 Prof. E. G. Eberle. 
• 1 1 Mr. J. W. England. 
15 Dr. H. H. Rusby. 

At the present time, therefore, the entire personnel of the sub- 
committees, with assignments of newly elected members is as fol- 
lows: 



No. 



Title. 



Chairman. 



I Scope (Admissions and S. Solis-Cohen 
Deletions) 



2 Therapeutics and Pharma- Torald Sollmann 

codynamics 

3 Biological Products, Diag- J. F. Anderson 

nostical Tests 

4 Botany and Pharmacognosy Henry Kraemer 



5 General and Inorganic 
Chemistry 



6 Organic Chemistry 



7 Proximate Assays 



H. V. Arny 



G. D. Rosengarten 



A. B. Stevens 



Members. 

Cohen, Dohme, Hunt, 
Marvel, Osborne, 
Rusby, Sollmann, 
Wood, Hynson 

Cohen, Davis, Edmunds, 
Haines, Hatcher, Os- 
borne, Sollmann, Wood 

Anderson, Hatcher, Hunt, 
Edmunds, Sollmann, 
Wood 

Kebler, Kraemer, Rusby, 
Sayre, True, Day, 
Lilly, Teeters 

Arny, Bartley, C. E. 
C a s p a r i, Coblentz, 
Kebler, Puckner, Ros- 
engarten, S a d 1 1 e r , 
Clark 

C. E. Caspari, Coblentz, 
Dohme, Kebler, Koch, 
Lyons, Puckner, Ros- 
engarten, S a d 1 1 e r, 
Clark, Vanderkleed 

C. E. Caspari, Dohme, 
Francis, Gordin, Keb- 
ler, Koch, Lyons, 
Puckner, Stevens, 
Vanderkleed, Hilton 



388 



Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



No. Title. 

8 Volatile Oils 



9 Fluid and Solid Extracts, 
Tinctures 



lo Aromatic Waters, Spirits, 
Liquors 



1 1 Syrups and Elixirs 



12 Cerates and Ointments 



Chairman. 
H. W. Wiley 



G. M. Beringer 



B. G. Eberle 



J. W. England 



Otto Raubenheimer 



13 Miscellaneous Galenicals Wilhelm Bodemann 



14 Tables, Weights, Measures A. B. Lyons 

15 Nomenclature H. H. Rusby 



Members. 

Beringer, C. E. Caspari, 
Dohme, Francis, Koch, 
Sadtler, Kebler, Wiley 

Beringer, D i e k m a n, 
Francis, Eberle, Raub- 
enheimer, Cook, Hil- 
ton 

Arny, Beringer, Bode- 
mann, Eberle, Eng- 
land, Gregory, Raub- 
enheimer, Cook, Hil- 
ton, Hynson, Seltzer 

Beringer, Diekman, 
Eberle, England, Fran- 
cis, Nixon, Cook, Hil- 
ton, Hynson, Seltzer 

Diekman, Eberle, Eng- 
land, Hopp, Rauben- 
heimer, Cook, Hilton, 
Hynson, Seltzer 

Arny, Bodemann, Clark, 
Hopp, Nixon, Rauben- 
heimer, Sayre, Cook 
Hilton, Hynson, 
Seltzer, Teeters 

Kebler, Lyons, Stevens 

Cohen, Osborne, Rusby 



In 1 91 8 the Board of Trustees authorized the publication of a 
supplement to include some new remedies and some of the changes 
made advisable by the continuance of the war and the shortage of 
supplies. The sudden end of the war eliminated the immediate 
necessity for a supplement, and it being near the end of the revision 
period, the Board of Trustees withdrew the authorization which 
they had previously made for its publication. 

The Spanish Translation which had been authorized by the Con- 
vention was placed in the hands of the printers during 191 8 and in 
December, 1919, was placed on sale through the same agency which 
had handled the previous Spanish Edition, they being the lowest 
bidders for the privilege. The publication of the Spanish Edition 
can never be considered financially advantageous to the Conven- 
tion, but it should be continued as a patriotic duty and in recogni- 
tion of the increasing use of the book in the Spanish speaking Amer- 
ican countries. 



june/?92b.^*'^'''"' } Revisiou of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 389 

The last work of the Committee has been to draft a set of General 
Principles for submission to the Convention, embodying the ex- 
perience and constructive thought of the present Committee. These 
will be submitted for your consideration and discussion at the proper 
time. There have also been collected a large number of sugges- 
tions and criticisms for the guidance of the incoming committee 
in planning and carrying on its work. All of those which came in 
before January 31st, 1920, have been collected, classified and pub- 
lished in the Journal of the American Pharmacuetical Association and 
reprints are now available for distribution and will be turned over 
to the incoming committee. 

Much material of the same kind which has accumulated since 
will be made a part of the records of the present committee. These 
records will also include the final reports and recommendations of a 
few of the sub-committees which are still functioning, and all of this 
material will be available for immediate use by the newly elected 
Committee of Revision. 

The plan of subdividing the work into fifteen different headings 
has worked out well in practice. It would be in the interest of 
efficiency if in naming the men who are to serve upon the Revision 
Committee in the next decade that some classification of their 
qualifications be insisted upon in making the nominations in order 
that a well-balanced committee might be selected embodying ex- 
perts in all lines of work. This could be accomplished by instruct- 
ing the nominating committee to require each nominee to be classi- 
fied by placing after his name the number of the present U. S. P. 
sub-committee in which his services would be particularly valu- 
able. By following such a plan, we would be assured of a Commit- 
tee of Revision to undertake the important work of the next decade, 
which would be well balanced in character and free from criticism. 

I, therefore, recommend that the Convention instruct the nominat- 
ing committee to proceed upon such lines in carrying out its work. 

If the Convention wishes to assure the issuing of the next re- 
vision of the Pharmacopoeia within a reasonable length of time, say 
two years from now, this result can be undoubtedly achieved by 
issuing instructions to the incoming Board of Trustees and Revision 
Committee that frequent personal conferences of sub-committee 
members be authorized and periodic meetings of the Executive 
Committee of Revision. This is tendered as a suggestion rather 
than as a recommendation. 



390 Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia j^""- ^""junl^ig^o] 

To this assembled Convention is submitted the foregoing report 
of the work of a Committee which, as far as its present personnel 
is concerned, ceases to exist officially within the next few hours. 
There is no greater honor or responsibility than can come to a physi- 
cian, pharmacist or chemist than of being included in this galaxy of 
workers. What the present Committee has accomplished has been 
done under the stimulus of the high standard set by the previous 
revision, of which so many commendable things were said by foreign 
critics, who may be expected to have a broader perspective and a 
fairer viewpoint in some respects than those who are close at hand. 
Many of our members have labored in season and out to make the 
book worthy of American medicine and pharmacy. Whether we 
have succeeded or not, it is the best that was possible to be done 
under existing circumstances. The time, thought, energy, we may 
even say the life-blood of men who did the best they knew how, 
are woven into its structure. 

To this Convention is entrusted the responsibility of selecting 
the next Revision Committee. Whatever be the conditions under 
which the next revision will be undertaken, you should not lose 
sight of the fact that capability and willingness to serve are the 
fundamental considerations that should guide you in your choice. 
There should be an entire absence of rivalry or jealousy except that 
which animates men who are each trying to see who can best work 
.and best agree. The next United States Pharmacopoeia should 
be a work which will enlist the support of that which is best in the 
professions sharing the responsibility of its revision. 

The initials are symbolic of three guiding principles which should 
be kept ever in mind, for without them no true success can be 
achieved. They are Unity, Service and Patience, and in closing 
let me again say that revisions may come and go, but it will be 
long before you will find a chairman who will exemplify these 
attributes as did Chairman Joseph P. Remington, whose memory 
might suitably be honored at this time by selecting men of his un- 
selfish, loyal and steadfast type to revise the next United States 
Pharmacopoeia. 



june,^?92b^''^'°' } Calcium Carbonate in Medicine. 391 

CALCIUM CARBONATE IN PHARMACY AND MEDICINE. 
By ADI.EY B. Nichols, Phar.D., 

PHIIvADEl^PHIA, PA. 

Chalk, chemically mainly calcium carbonate, is the name given 
to any soft, pulverulent, pure white limestone. The word chalk is 
an old one, having its origin in the Saxon "cealc," and the hard form 
"kalk" is still in use in some districts. The German word *'Kalk" 
comprehends all forms of limestone, and therefore a special term 
"Kreide" is employed, French *'Craie." 

Chalk is used extensively in a great many ways. It enters into 
the manufacture of cement and other commercial articles; it finds 
a place in various chemical processes, and in the making of paint, 
crayons and tooth powders. Whiting, or Spanish white, which is 
used to polish glass and metal, is purified chalk, prepared by elutria- 
tion. Chalk is employed to some extent medicinally, sometimes as 
a mild astringent, but more usually for its mechanical action as in 
grey powder, or in chalk mixture where it produces its effect by 
coating the walls of the stomach and intestines. 

At the present time, most of the calcium carbonate used in med- 
icine is obtained from natural deposits, of which there are a few in 
the United States, while the largest deposits, in the form of whole 
mountain ranges, with huge white chalky cliffs, are found in south- 
ern England and extending directly across the channel and through 
northern France. This natural chalk is called creta alba. 

Calcium carbonate is official in two different forms in the present 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia, as Calcii Carbonas Praecipitatus, so-called 
precipitated chalk, and as Creta Praeparata, so-called prepared chalk. 
The precipitated article is prepared by interaction between calcium 
chloride and sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate being precip- 
itated. This differs physically from prepared chalk, which is native 
chalk prepared by elutriation, in that the particles are more gritty 
and it is not usually so near white in color, and also lacks the ad- 
hesive qualities which are so pronounced in prepared chalk. The 
precipitated chalk is better adapted for use in tooth powders, and 
similar preparations, on account of its gritty character, while the 
prepared chalk is used extensively in medicine as an antacid, be- 
sides being particularly well adapted for the treatment of diarrhoea, 
by reason of its adhesive properties. 



392 Calcium Carbonate in Medicine. { jJSe,"^i92o.^*'^'''"* 

The method for preparing precipitated chalk was first made 
official in the fourth edition, 1850, of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
while the prepared chalk was official in the first and second editions, 
as Calcis Carbonas Praeparatus, and the title changed to the present 
form of Creta Praeparata in the third edition, 1840. Likewise 
Mistura Calcis Carbonatis was official in the first two editions of 
the Pharmacopoeia, and was changed to Mistura Creta in the third 
edition. The U. S. Dispensatory, first edition, 1833, also added, 
that besides being official in its soft state, as chalk, carbonate of 
lime is also ordered as it exists in marble (marmor), oyster shells, 
crabs eyes and crabs stones. The preparation called Testa Pre- 
parata, was recognized in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia from the first 
to the sixth editions inclusive. Testa is the term applied to the 
shell of the oyster, Ostrea Edulis, L., consisting of about eighty- 
seven to ninety-eight per cent, of calcium carbonate and found 
mostly in the internal pearly layer of the shell. Conchae was 
another term used to designate oyster shells, prepared by boiling 
with water and freed from all foreign matter, and Conchae Pre- 
paratae, the purified oyster shell, purified by elutriation and tro- 
chiscation. 

At the present time there is a preparation of this type official in 
the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, by the name of Calcarea Car- 
bonica, or Calcium Carbonate of Hahnemann, and is sometimes 
known as Calcarea Ostrearum, or Testa Ostryae. This is impure 
carbonate of lime as it exists in the oyster shell, and is directed to 
be prepared as follows: Take well selected, tolerably thick oyster 
shells, clean and break in a wedgewood or porcelain mortar. Select 
the pure white portions which exist between the interior and ex- 
terior surfaces, wash carefully in distilled water, dry over a water 
bath and reduce to a fine powder. 

According to theories accepted at that time, testa was supposed 
to be more acceptable to the stomach than ordinary chalk. Lewis' 
Materia Medica, 1784, states that lime water dissolves the human 
calculus, particularly lime water prepared from calcined oyster 
shells, which proves a more active menstruum for this concrete 
(and possibly other substances) than that prepared from stone limes, 
the dissolving power of oyster shell lime water seeming to be more 
than double that of stone lime water. 

There were a great many other drugs, besides oyster shells, 
which were used at various times as sources of calcium carbonate, and 



ju'Se,^?92b.^^^''"'' } Calcium Carbonate in Medicine. 393 

possibly the next in general use were crabs eyes, or crabs stones, 
which were known by such terms as Lapides Cancrorum, Lapilli 
Cancrorum or Oculi Cancrorum, being concretions found in the 
stomach and consisting of about sixty-four per cent, of calcium 
carbonate, with a little animal- matter. King's Dispensatory gives 
the following tests to distinguish the true from the spurious crab's 
eyes. They effervesce in hydrochloric acid in which they do not 
completely dissolve, thus being distinguished from spurious crab's 
eyes, which are wholly dissolved by hydrochloric acid. In the 
presence of boiling water, crab's eyes assume a pinkish red hue. 
Another closely related product was crab's claws, Chelae Can- 
crorum, which were prepared in a finely powdered state and con- 
sisted of about sixty per cent, of calcium carbonate. 

Corallen or Coral, was still another of the forms of calcium car- 
bonate used, and this too is still used in the Homoeopathic Pharma- 
copoeia, under the name Corallium Rubrum, or red coral, the skeleton 
of the coral zoophyte. The chemical constituents are calcium car- 
bonate with a trace of magnesium carbonate and a little more than 
four per cent, of ferric oxide as coloring matter. There is a small 
amount of animal matter present. This is also called carail rouge. 

Os sepia, or cuttlefish bone, the mantle of Sepia Officinalis L., 
is still another of the many forms of calcium carbonate relied upon. 
This consists of from eighty to eighty-five per cent, of calcium car- 
bonate. Its use lies mainly in furnishing calcium carbonate to cage 
birds. 

An interesting note on lime water dating back to the nineteenth 
century, states that lime water was originally prepared from "cal- 
caria usta," as lime was called, and the preparation was known as 
"Aqua Calcaria Usta." 

Other waters of this nature were mentioned linder such names 
as aqua calcarea bicarbonica, aerated or carbonated lime water, and 
aqua magnesia carbonica. Aqua or liquor magnesia carbonica was 
made either by freshly precipitating magnesium carbonate from 
magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate and saturating with car- 
bon dioxide, or using magnesia alba directly and then saturating. 



394 ■ Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. [ ^7une^^92'o: 

THE STABILITY OF DIGITALIS LEAF EXTRACTS. THE 

INFUSION (Second Paper). 

By Clayre a. Pomeroy and Frederick W. Heyl, 
kalamazoo, michigan. 

In a previous paper^ the deterioration of alcoholic digitalis 
extracts was discussed and a rather rapid rate of deterioration was 
established. A study of the stability of aqueous solutions is impor- 
tant because of the wide use of the infusion in practical therapeutics. 
It is also interesting to observe the behavior of such solutions because 
of the fact that most of the investigators to whom we owe our present 
information concerning the chemistry of the leaf have used pro- 
cesses involving the use of aqueous solutions. 

Infusion of digitalis is the oldest of the galenical preparations 
of this drug, and was in fact employed by Withering, to whom we 
owe the introduction of the drug to modern practice. He began to 
use it as a diuretic and the dose used is stated as 1-3 grains twice 
a day or the equivalent amount of infusion (1-3 drachms of 1.5 per 
cent, infusion). 

Aside from the clinical value of the infusion, which it is not 
our purpose to discuss, our brief investigation points out conclusively 
that in the modern evolution of pharmacy we have lost some of the 
unique powers of observation which the pharmacists of the i8th 
and early part of the 19th century had developed to such a degree 
that their personal interest could be relied upon in the matter of 
collecting and selecting drugs. The olden-time pharmacist knew 
his digitalis and the activity of the infusion. The modern phar- 
macist must necessarily rely upon the assistance of the pharma- 
cologist in this matter. During the interval between the old period 
and the time when complete scientific standardization shall be used, 
such problems as that presented by infusion of digitalis must prove 
a stumbling block to clinical progress. 

We have recently been required to answer a large number of 
inquiries on the part of clinicians concerning the strength and sta- 
bility of the infusion. Not only do we find a wide variation in the 
strength of various samples of leaves, but the instability of the in- 
fusion itself lends further variability to this preparation. The phar- 
macist relies upon indirect sources of supply for his crude drug, and 

^ Am. J. Pharm. ,gi: 425, 1919. 



jS^e^^gio^^^""^ } Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. 395 

then manufactures the unassayed infusion, usually in liter quanti- 
ties as prescribed in the pharmacopceia. He does well if he produces 
a preparation equal in value to those made in the earlier times 
when the clinician's report to the pharmacist constituted something 
of a pharmacological opinion on the drug used. 

While it is true that the pharmacopoeia wisely directs that the 
infusion must be freshly prepared from the leaves, the fact is that 
the quantities outlined in the text, which produce one liter of the 
preparation, leads most pharmacists in practice to overstock this 
galenical. 

Our results upon the stability of the infusion proved of great 
interest. When this subject is studied using the one-hour frog 
method, we find that the infusion stored at low temperatures will 
lose about 20 per cent, of its activity in 6-7 days; while in warmer 
weather, the velocity of the change is greater and the same stage of 
decomposition results in 3-5 days. It would appear reasonable 
therefore to limit the production of the infusion to small quantities. 
An excellent system of digitalis administration which is widely used 
in this country consists in giving 3-8 grains daily for several days 
until the desired therapeutic effect is obtained, with subsequent 
diminution to 1-3 grains per day. If we adopt this, it is evident 
that since one teaspoonful (4 Cc.) of the infusion is equivalent to 
I grain (0.06 Gm.) of the drug that a four ounce (120 Cc.) quantity 
constitutes a very desirable quantity of the infusion for prescription 
work. This amount of infusion contains about 31 grains (2.00 Gm.) 
of the drug and this supplies a quantity usually considered necessary 
during a 5 to 7-day course. 

Our conclusions are based upon the deterioration rate as deter- 
mined by the one-hour frog method. Hatcher and Eggleston,^ 
using the cat method have reported results that lead to the conclu- 
sion that "the infusion is fairly stable when prepared and kept with 
ordinary care, no important change then occurring within a week." 
They report stability of an order never observed by ourselves. Thus 
for example, they found an official infusion that had been kept 
stoppered at 70° F. for 19 days to test the same as at the beginning. 
In another case, a specimen made by the official process and kept 
in the ice box for four weeks retained its activity unchanged. An 
aqueous infusion after 28 days in the ice box retained about 80 per 
cent, of its activity. It is necessary to refer the reader to the original 

^ J. A. M. A., 65: 1902, 1915. 



396 Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. { ju^e.^^S^b.^^^"""' 

paper, but their findings are certainly entirely different from those 
obtained by the one-hour frog method. 

Concerning the comparative activity of infusions and tinctures 
we obtain results similar to the previous findings of Focke.^ This 
investigator reports that infusions filtered through linen or cotton 
give slightly higher results than when filter paper is used. The 
activity corresponds to about 85 per cent, of that obtained in tinc- 
tures of equal concentration. We believe that this figure will repre- 
sent the average finding when a considerable number of samples are 
investigated in this connection. Some of our fresher samples 
yielded almost as much of their activity to water as to the tincture, 
while in the case of a very old drug only 70 per cent, of the total 
activity was found in the infusion. For practical purposes Focke's 
figure is acceptable and the dosage of the infusion should perhaps 
be slightly higher (10/9) than for the powdered drug. In other 
words, considering 0.06 Gm. of digitalis (4.0 Cc. infusion) as a 
standard dose of the powdered leaf, the activity of the infusion will 
require about 4.4 Cc. to yield the same result. 

If one bears in mind the instability of aqueous digitalis solutions, 
while reviewing some of the chemical studies of the leaf, it becomes 
easy to comprehend the difficulty of the investigators in arriving 
at concordant results. Practically all the workers, including 
Schmiedeberg, Kiliani and Kraft, have worked in aqueous media, 
and we daresay that, dependent upon conditions, various products 
have been isolated which represent various degrees of alteration. 

In connection with the chemical investigation of the leaf it 
appears to be important to bear in mind the fact that the total 
activity of the crude galenical extracts may greatly exceed the sum 
of the isolated fractions, even if no chemical changes such as hydrol- 
ysis were involved. This subject is discussed by Tschirch and 
Wolter,^ who reported the interesting observation that the activity 
of the acetone extract of a salt saturated aqueous solution of digi- 
talis represented but a part of the total activity, whereas the ex- 
tracted fluid proved to be inactive. Acetone extracts the active 
principles from the leaf completely. They state that this difference 
in results is to be understood either by reason of chemical change in 
the active principles or because in the activity of crude extracts 
other substances which, while they are not in themselves active, 

^ Arch. Pharm., 249: 323, 191 1. 

2 Schweiz. Apoth. Zeit., 56: 469. This Journai,, 91: 471. 



j^e^igio^^^""^'} Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. 397 

have nevertheless an influence upon the active material. This 
influence is either in relation to solubility or absorption which is 
influenced favorably. Tschirch argues that the activity of digitalis 
is an ensemble effect and is not due to simply the sum of individual 
glucosides ; instead the activity of each individual is always influenced 
and increased by the simultaneous presence of others. With the 
successful isolation of individual glucosides the ensemble activity 
does not appear upon physiological testing. 

These investigators performed a simple experiment of interest 
in this connection and bring out a point which is overlooked in our 
first paper. Putting the drug through Keller's assay, they isolated 
18.5 per cent, of the activity in the chloroform shake out. The 
exhausted aqueous layer retained only 26 per cent, of the activity, 
so that by simple exhaustion of the aqueous solution with this inert 
solvent over half the activity disappears. Loss of activity may be 
due therefore not only to spontaneous changes, which are described 
in the experimental part, but also to the destruction of loose native 
combinations and the loss of the mutual effects found only in the 
native drug. 

KXPKRIMENTAI,. 

A. Some Observations upon the Comparative Activity of Fresh Tinc- 
tures and Fresh Infusions of Digitalis Made from the Same Drug. — 
Drug (F2190) stocked November 20, 1918. A 10 per cent, tincture 
assayed 130 per cent. (11-30-18). 

10% Tincture A'. 10% Infusion (A). A/A'. 



Date. % % 

II-30-18 . 130 ... .... 

1-14-19 135 (F. E.) ... 

4- 1-19 130 1 .0 

10- 1-19 no ... .... 

9-16-19 105 0.95 

1-15-20 90 .... 



From these assays it appears that in extracting this drug during 
one year the infusions and tinctures were almost equal (within the 
limits of error of the method). 

Another drug was examined on this point (G3316) : 

10% Tincture (A'). 10% Infusion (A). A/A'. 



Date. % % 

I-I0-20 150 ... .... 

4-14-20 120 .... 

4-19-20 140 . . . o .86 



398 Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. {^""- ^J^nl^i'-g^i: 

The infusion in this case represents about 90 per cent, of the total 
activity of the leaves as represented in the official tincture. 

In order to find out whether an aged drug would behave differ- 
ently we reexamined D1625 on this point. A sample of this lot has 
been stored since December 5, 1916. 

10% Tincture (A'). 10% Infusion (A). A/A'. 
Date. % % 

3- 1-17 135 ... 

4- 19-20 50 ... .... 

4-16-20 35 0.70 

From this result it would appear that the activity of the water 
soluble principles of an old drug represented less of the total activity 
than in the fresher leaf. 

B. On the Deterioration of lo Per Cent. Aqueous Infusions. — The 
infusion prepared from Drug F2190 was allowed to stand at room 
temperature (4-1- 19). 

Time. Activity, %. % Deterioration. 

At beginning 130 o 

After 18 hours 120 8 

After 24 hours. .. .■ 120 8 

After 48 hours no 15 

After 72 hours 95 27 

This infusion molded on the 3d day, and the work was repeated 
by filtering a fresh infusion (4-9-19) through porcelain and collecting 
the filtrate under sterile conditions. 

Date. Time. Activity, %. % Deterioration. 
4-8-19 At beginning i3o(?) 

4- 9-19 After 18 hours 120 0-8 

After 48 hours no 8-15 

After 90 hours 100 17-23 

After 144 hours 80 33-38 

After 8 days 76 37-41 

After II days ' 67 44-48 

After 16 days 48 60-63 

5- 3-19 After 25 days 40 66-70 

After 43 days 30 75-77 

After 63 days 30 75 

After 87 days. 27 78 

It is thus shown that this elaborately sterilized solution should 
have been discarded after 3-5 days. 

We next proceeded to determine the rate of deterioration when 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. 



399 



kept in an ice chest at a constant temperature of io° C. The 
infusion was prepared and maintained under sterile conditions as 
above. Drug F2190: 



Date. Time. 

9-16-19 At once 

After 
After 

9-22-19 After 

9-24-19 After 

9-29-19 After 

10- 8-19 After 

10-18-19 After 

10- 23-19 After 

11- 10-19 After 

1 2- 1 7-1 9 After 



Activity, %. % Deterioration. 



30 hours 
54 hours 
6 days 
8 days 
13 days 
22 days 
32 days 
37 days 
53 days 
92 days 

1-26-20 After 132 days 

The above work was repeated at room temperature. 



105 





95 


10 


95 


10 


85 


19 


85 


19 


80 


24 


70 


33 


65 


38 


60 


43 


55 


48 


45 


57 


40 


61 



Date. 



Time. 



10-14-19 After 24 hours 

10-17-19 After 4 days 

10- 23-19 After 10 days 

11- 11-19 After 28 days 

1 2- 1 7-1 9 After 64 days 

1-28-20 After 106 days 



Activity, 

105 
90 
80 
72 
60 
40 



% Deterioration , 
O 

24 
31 

43 
61 



Plotting these curves over to 100 per cent, basis as a starting 
point in each case. 

110 Rate of Deterioration of Infusions of Digitalis 



90 

Q 

tt 80 

Q 

(0 fco 



540 
u 

O JO 
0: 



20 



62) WHICH MOLDED IN ABOUT 2.^ DAYS (ROOMTfMpJ 

ROOM TEMP STER/LE WAR n WEATHER 
(.C) IO°C STERILE 

(d) ROOM TEt^FERATURE. COOL VYEATHER 

t*^) 15% infusion: cool weather. 




\0 l^ 14 Ife 16 20 ?Z 2A 28 iO i,2 34 .it ^8 

Time in Days 



400 Stability of Digitalis Leaf Extracts. [^'^- ^"^f^vl^i^^: 

From these curves it is shown that four infusions passed a point 
of 20 per cent, deterioration as follows : 
(a) Which molded in about 2V2 days. 
(6) At room temperature and warm weather in 3-4 days. 
{c) At 10° C. in 8 days. 

id) At room temperature in cooler weather; 7 days. 

C. Observations on Deterioration of 1.5 Per Cent. Infusion {U. S. P.). 
— We purposely began this investigation with 10 per cent, infusions 
because it was found that in using 1.5 per cent, solutions that con- 
siderable concentration was required before injection, i. e., 1.5 per 
cent, solutions are poorly absorbed. It might be objected that this 
concentration rather than the storage produced deterioration. 

Expt. I {1-1^-20). — A fresh 1.5 per cent, infusion U. S. P. was 
prepared (F2190), and two aliquots of 100 Cc. were concentrated to 
exactly 15 Cc. thus making the final concentration 10 per cent. 
One concentration was made upon the steam bath, while the second 
was concentrated at 40° in a vacuum distillation apparatus. Both 
solutions showed the same activity, i. e., 0.00667 Mil per Gm. frog 
or 90 per cent, of the standard for the tincture. 

Expt. II. — Adopting the process of concentration upon the steam 
bath, we took at intervals 100 Cc. of the sterile 1.5 per cent, infusion 
and assayed these with the following results : 



Date. Time. Activity, %. % Deterioration. 

1-16-20 At beginning 90 o 

1- 26-20 After 10 days 75 17 

2- 6-20 After 21 days 60 33 

2-24-20 After 39 days 35 61 



The curve during the first 20 days is exactly like those described 
for the 10 per cent, infusions "c" and "<i" and it passes the point 
recording 20 per cent, deterioration at about the nth day, but we 
consider the assay upon the 10 per cent, infusion of the fresher drug, 
which brings this point earlier, as more accurate. 

D. Observations on the Advisability of Adding 10 Per Cent. Alcohol. — 
In the U. S. P. of 1890, infusion digitalis is made with the addi- 
tion of 10 per cent, alcohol. It is true that the addition of alcohol 
clarifies the solution, and tends to prevent turbidity, but the better 
appearance tends to delude the pharmacist to accept an inaccurate 
belief that the stability is thereby increased. The following will 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1920. ) 



Calcium. 



indicate that the addition of lo per cent, alcohol is without favorable 
influence upon the stability. 

A 1.5 per cent, infusion (10 per cent, alcohol) was examined with 
the following results : 



Date. Time. Activity, %. % Deterioration. 

4-14-20 3 hours 105 o 

4-15-20 27 hours 85 19 

4-16-20 51 hours 65 38 

4-17-20 75 hours 55 48 



SUMMARY. 

1. A comparison of the relative activity of digitalis infusions 
and tinctures of equal concentration shows that there is a difference, 
the infusion being slightly less active. 

2. The infusions deteriorate. 

3. Placing a 20 per cent, limit on deterioration: The infusions 
should be discarded in 3-5 days' time. At lower temperatures this 
time limit may be extended to 6-7 days. 

4. The addition of alcohol adds nothing to the stability of the 
infusion. 

Research Laboratory, 
The Upjohn Company, 

Kai^amazoo, Michigan, May i, 1920. 



CALCIUM.* 

COMPARISON OI^ TKN DIFFERENT METHODS OF ESTIMATION. 
By George E. E)we. 

Standard Material. — Practically white, doubly refractive calcite. 

Preparation of Standard Material for Analysis. — The calcite was 
ground to a fine powder in an agate mortar, dried to constant weight 
in a platinum dish over a flame which was not permitted to touch 
the dish. The dried calcite was free from caustic as shown by its 
failure to turn red litmus paper when i Gm. was made into a paste 
with a little water and tested with litmus paper. The dried 
calcite was preserved in a glass stoppered weighing bottle. 

Impurities in the Standard Calcite. — The usual impurities of cal- 
cite are silica, ferric, aluminum, magnesium and manganese com- 
pounds. 

* From Bulletin of the International Metallurgical and Chemical Society. 



402 



Calcium. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



The standard calcite yielded the following proportions of these 
impurities : 

Si02 0.0119 

0.0123 Av., 0.0121 percent. 
Fe203-Al203 0.01319 

0.01360 Av., 0.0134 per cent. 

MgO None 

Manganese None 

SIIvICA. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample was weighed in a platinum dish, a very little 
water was added followed by 5 Co. hydrochloric acid (i : i). The 
mixture was evaporated to dryness and the residue baked at 200° C. 
until free from the odor of the acid; 20 Cc. of i : i hydrochloric 
acid was then added and the mixture boiled for about 10 minutes; 
30 Cc. water was added; the mixture was boiled and the silica col- 
lected on a filter and washed well with hot water. The filtrate was 
put through the same procedure again but only an unweighable 
amount of silica was obtained. The filter containing the silica was 
ignited to constant weight over a blast lamp and weighed ; the weight 
of the silica being corrected for the ash of the filter. 

FERRIC AND ALUMINUM OXIDES. 

The filtrate from the silica was made alkaline with freshly dis- 
tilled ammonia, only a slight excess of ammonia being used; a few 
drops of bromine water was added and the mixture boiled until only 
a very faint odor of ammonia was perceptible. The oxides were 
filtered off, redissolved in hot dilute nitric aid and reprecipitated 
with ammonia as before; they were then filtered off, washed thor- 
oughly with hot water and ignited over the blast a short time to 
constant weight. The weight of the combined oxides was then cor- 
rected for the filter ash. 

MAGNESIA. 

The filtrate from the ferric and aluminum oxides was rendered 
alkaline with ammonia, boiled and 20 Cc. of boiling saturated solu- 
tion of ammonium oxalate added. The mixture was boiled for 
five minutes and allowed to settle. The calcium oxalate was filtered 
off and washed with hot water several times, redissolved in dilute 
hydrochloric acid and reprecipitated as before. The filtrates from 
the two precipitations of calcium oxalate were acidified and evapo- 
rated to about 150 Cc. ; cooled and treated with 17 Cc. of 28 per cent. 



fZeXio^"""'} Calcium. 403 

ammonia water, followed by 15 Cc. of a 10 per cent, sodium phos- 
phate solution. The solution was stirred well and allowed to stand 
over night. No weighable amount of precipitate could be obtained. 

MANGANKSK. 

Volhard's reaction (a solution of 0.5 Gm. of the calcite in 5 Cc. 
conct. nitric acid was boiled with an excess of lead peroxide, then 
diluted with 25 Cc. of water and the insoluble matter allowed to 
settle), yielded no trace of violet-red color, therefore it was concluded 
that no more than a negligible proportion of manganese was present, 
if any. 

THKORKTICAL CaCOs CONTENT OF STANDARD MATERIAIv. 

No evidence was obtained as to how the Fe203 and AI2O3 were 
combined in the calcite but it was arbitrarily taken that the two oxides 
were present in equal proportions and combined as carbonates in 
the "ic" state, since the proportions were too small to exert any 
but a negligible influence on the calcium determinations. 

Likewise the state of combination of the Si02 was not determined, 
and while it may have been present in some form of combination 
with calcium, yet the amount concerned would be negligible, and as 
a consequence the Si02 was arbitrarily considered as being present 
in the free state. 

The proportion of silica (Si02) was 0.0121 per cent. 

The proportion of Fe203 plus AI2O3 was 0.0134 P^r cent., which, 

figured to the carbonate state, amounted to 0.0286 per cent. 

The total of impurities, therefore, was 0.0407 per cent. 

The difference between this figure (0.0407 per cent.) and 100 
per cent, was considered to represent the CaC02 content of the 
standard material. Thus, the CaCOs content was theoretically 
99.959 per cent. 

DETAILS OF THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF CAIvCIUM. 

No. I. Precipitating as calcium oxalate and weighing as cal- 
cium carbonate. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample was freed from silica and iron and aluminum 
by the methods mentioned under "Methods of Determining Impuri- 
ties." The calcium was precipitated as oxalate as mentioned under 
"Methods of Determining Impurities," except that it was washed 
more thoroughly. The calcium oxalate was dried on the filter, 



404 Calcium. {''"'■ ^T^n^!'UT6. 

ignited in a platinum crucible separate from the filter, to a faint red- 
ness for 15 minutes in order to convert all of the oxalate to carbonate. 
This ignition may result in the formation of a little calcium oxide, 
so, after weighing, the contents of the crucible were moistened with 
water and a small lump of ammonium carbonate added; the am- 
monium carbonate was driven off by heating the crucible on a water 
bath and the crucible then ignited to a very faint redness. This 
treatment was repeated until constant weight was obtained and the 
contents of the crucible no longer turned red litmus paper. 

Results No. I — 99 .64 

2 — 99 .49 Av., 99.57 per cent. CaCOs 

No. 2. Precipitating as calcium carbonate and weighing as such. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample was freed from silica and iron and aluminum 
oxides by the methods outlined under "Methods of Determining 
Impurities." The filtrate from the iron and aluminum oxides was 
treated with a little ammonia water and then ammonium carbonate 
solution in slight excess was added. The precipitated calcium car- 
bonate was allowed to settle for several hours on the top of a covered 
hot water bath; it was then filtered off and washed with water con- 
taining a little ammonia; dried and ignited separate from the filter 
and weighed as calcium carbonate as described under Method No. i. 

Results No. I — 100.05 

2 — 100.10 Av., 100.07 per cent. 

No. 3. Liberating CO2 by means of hydrochloric acid and weigh- 
ing the liberated CO2 in KOH solution. 

The calcite was placed in an Erlenmeyer containing a three hole 
rubber stopper. Through one of the holes a glass tube was placed. 
This glass tube extended to the bottom of the Erlenmeyer. The 
other end of the tube was connected with several potash bulbs to 
prevent access of the CO2 of the air into the Erlenmeyer. The second 
hole of the rubber stopper contained a glass tube which reached just 
below the stopper. The other end of the tube was connected first 
with a calcium chloride tube, then with a bulb containing sulphuric 
a.cid, then with a weighed potash bulb followed by a weighed soda- 
lime tube which was guarded from the air by an unweighed soda- 
lime tube. The third hole in the stopper of the Erlenmeyer contained 
a separatory funnel containing about twice the quantity of recently 
boiled 10 per cent, hydrochloric acid theoretically required to liberate 
all of the CO2 from the sample of calcite. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Calcium. 



405 



The assay was made as follows: Air was drawn for about 15 
minutes through the apparatus by means of an aspirator attached 
to the soda-lime guard tube, thus the air entered the train of potash 
bulbs and was depleted of CO2, it then entered the Erlenmeyer con- 
taining the sample and then in turn the calcium chloride tube and 
sulphuric acid bulb which depleted it of moisture. The air then 
entered the weighed potash bulb from which it took up some moisture 
and which it then deposited in the weighed soda-lime tube which was 
guarded against the moisture and the CO2 of the air and aspirator, 
by the un weighed soda-lime tube at the end of the train. The 
weights of the weighed potash bulb and soda-lime were then obtained 
and any variation from their previous weights was noted. The 
weighed potash bulb and soda-lime tube were replaced in the train, 
the current of the air was re-established and the 10 per cent, hydro- 
chloric acid in the separatory funnel was allowed to drip into the 
Erlenmeyer where it came into contact with the calcite and liberated 
CO2 which was dried by passing through the calcium chloride tube 
and sulphuric acid bulb and then caught by the weighed potash bulb 
and soda-lime tube. The air was allowed to pass for 15 minutes, 
during which time the contents of the Erlenmeyer were stirred up 
by the current of air and warmed a trifle by external heat. The 
weighed potash bulb and soda-lime tube were then allowed to stand 
in the balance case for about 1 5 minutes and weighed. When not 
connected in the train, the ends of the weighed potash bulb and soda- 
lime tube were kept closed by small rubber nipples which were re- 
moved momentarily and then replaced before each weighing in order 
to insure absence of pressure or vacuum within the bulb and tube. 
The increase in weight of the potash bulb and tube corrected as found 
necessary by the blank was considered to be due to the CO2 from the 
calcite and was calculated into terms of CaCOs. 

Results No. I — 99-57 

2 — 100.50 Av., 100.03 per cent. CaCOs 

No. 4. Precipitating as calcium oxalate and weighing as cal- 
cium oxide. 

In all respects this method was similar to No. i with the excep- 
tion that the calcium oxalate after gentle ignition was made into a 
paste with water and spread around the sides of the crucible so that 
the calcium oxide would be obtained in a very thin layer. This was 
found essential because of the tenacity with which calcium carbonate 
retains its carbon dioxide. Finally the crucible and its contents 



4o6 



Calcium. 



Am. Jour. Phara. 
June, 1920. 



were ignited to constant weight before a blast lamp and the weight 
was corrected for the filter ash. 

Results No. I — 99.75 

2 — 99 . 98 Av., 99 . 86 per cent. 

No. 5. Precipitating as calcium sulphate and weighing as such. 

0.5 Gm. of the calcite was freed from silica and iron and aluminum 
oxides as mentioned under "Methods of Determining Impurities." 
The filtrate from the iron and aluminum oxides was treated with a 
slight excess of dilute sulphuric acid and the solution was diluted 
with twice its volume of alcohol. The precipitate of calcium sulphate 
was allowed to settle over night, filtered off, washed thoroughly with 
alcohol, dried and ignited separately from the filter using only a 
cherry-red heat for ignition. The weight of ignited CaS04 was then 
corrected for filter ash and calculated to CaCCs. 

Results No. I — 99 .64 

2 — 99 . 73 Av., 99 . 68 per cent. 

No. 6. Precipitating as calcium oxalate and weighing as calcium 
sulphate. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample of the calcite was treated as in Method No. i 
to obtain the calcium oxalate which was then separated from the 
filter. The filter was ignited and the calcium oxalate was then placed 
in the crucible. A little 10 per cent, sulphuric acid was then added 
to the contents of the crucible which was then thoroughly dried on 
a water bath and very carefully ignited with the cover on, gradually 
increasing the heat until a cherry-red heat was attained. The crucible 
and contents were then weighed. The treatment with sulphuric 
acid was repeated until constant weight was obtained upon subse- 
quent weighings. 

Results No. I — 100.15 

2 — 100.64 Av., 100.39 per cent. 

No. 7. Precipitating as calcium oxalate and titrating with po- 
tassium permanganate. 

The sample of calcite was treated as in Method No. i to obtain 
the calcium oxalate which was filtered off, washed with hot water 
until free from soluble oxalate, transferred to the beaker in which 
it was precipitated by spreading the filter paper against the side of 
the beaker and washing down the precipitate first with hot water 
and then with dilute sulphuric acid (25 per cent.) ; reserving the washed 
filter by hanging it across the edge of the beaker; 50 Cc. of water 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1920. J 



Calcium. 



407. 



was then added followed by 10 Cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid; 
the solution was heated just to boiling and then titrated to the first 
pink change with 0.1 N potassium permanganate; then the filter 
paper was dropped in causing the pink color to be discharged owing 
to the trace of oxalate still present in the paper and finally the end 
point was obtained by a few drops of the 0.1 N potassium perman- 
ganate. The permanganate was standardized against calcium 
carbonate obtained from the standard calcite as in Method No. 2. 
This calcium carbonate was considered as being 100 per cent. CaCOs. 
The method of standardization was as follows : 

A weighed portion of the freshly ignited CaCOa (free from CaO) 
was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and precipitated as calcium oxa- 
late as mentioned under "Methods of Determining Impurities," 
and this calcium oxalate was dissolved in sulphuric acid (25 per cent.) 
and hot water as mentioned a few lines above and the permanganate 
solution run in to the end point, including the few additional drops 
required by adding the washed filter upon which the oxalate was 
collected, to the titrated liquid. 

Results No. I — 99.91 

2— 99.46 

3— 99.90 

4 — 99.47 Av., 99.68 per cent. 

No. 8. Precipitated as calcium oxalate from a slightly acid 
solution. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample of the calcite was dissolved directly in dilute 
hydrochloric acid; the solution was diluted to 150 Cc. and made 
barely alkaline with freshly distilled ammonia; a hazy precipitate 
of ferric and aluminum hydroxides resulted; hydrochloric acid was 
added drop by drop until acid, then 2 drops in excess was added. 
The mixture was then boiled and the calcium totally precipitated 
as calcium oxalate by means of an excess of ammonium oxalate solu- 
tion. The precipitated calcium oxalate was allowed to settle and 
was then filtered off and titrated with o.i N potassium permanganate 
as in Method No. 7. 

Result 99.82 per cent. CaCOs 

The experiment was repeated using acetic acid to dissolve the 
calcite and adding 2 drops of acetic acid in excess before precipitating 
with ammonium oxalate. 



Result 



99.91 per cent. CaCOa 



4o8 



Calcium. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Discussion of Method No. 8. The results obtained by this 
method indicate that calcium can be precipitated quantitatively as 
oxalate from a slightly acid solution. The acidity of the solution is 
due solely to the presence of oxalic acid which is liberated by the slight 
excess of hydrochloric acid or acetic acid present in the solution. 
This fact is made use of by Meade for the rapid determination of 
calcium in cement without previous separation of silica and ferric 
and aluminum oxides. The method described by Meade is essentially 
as described above with the following exceptions : The acid solution 
of the cement is rendered just alkaline with ammonia and then lo 
Cc. of a lo per cent, solution of oxalic acid is added to render the 
mixture acid and redissolve the hydroxides of iron and aluminium 
which are partially precipitated when the mixture is rendered alka- 
line with ammonia. In order to test the value of Meade's method a 
sample of limestone yielding the following analysis by Method No. 
7 was employed as a standard: 

Si02 3 320 

3.300 Av., 3 .310 per cent. 
FeiOs-Al'iOs 1.030 Dup., i .030 per cent. 

CaCOs 77 130 

77.125 Av., 77 . 127 per cent. 

MgCOs 18.377 

18.332 Av., 18.355 per cent. 

Total., 99.822 per cent. 

Meade's method was applied in detail to a sample of this lime- 
stone with the one exception that the calcium oxalate was finally 
weighed as calcium sulphate according to Method No. 6, instead of 
being titrated by permanganate as required in Meade's Method. 
The yield of CaCOs was 77.18 per cent. Another assay was made 
using acetic acid to dissolve the limestone and a yield of 77.31 per 
cent. CaCOs was obtained. 

No. 9. Liberation of CO2 by dilute hydrochloric acid and calcu- 
lating loss of CO2 into terms of CaCOa. 

The apparatus known as "Geissler's new form carbonic acid de- 
termination apparatus," listed on page 103 of the catalogue of Eimer 
and Amend, New York, was employed. 

The method consists of treating a weighed sample of the calcite 
in the apparatus with dilute hydrochloric acid and drawing the 
liberated CO2 through the sulphuric acid compartment of the appa- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Calcium. 



409 



ratus; the entrance and exit of the apparatus being properly guarded 
by bulbs containing concentrated sulphuric acid. 



No. 10. Residual titration method. 

A 0.5 Gm. sample of the calcite was placed in a flask connected 
with a straight tube reflux condenser. A measured excess of 0.2 A/" 
H2SO4 was run into the flask. The flask was connected with the 
reflux condenser and heated by a flame until the reaction was com- 
plete. The condenser was then washed with water, allowing the 
washings to flow down into the flask and the excess of 0.2 N H2SO4 
was titrated with 0.1 N Na2C03, using methyl orange as indicator. 
The 0.1 N Na2C03 was standardized by accurately weighing out the 
proper quantity of freshly ignited, chemically pure sodium carbonate 
and the 0.2 H2SO4 was standardized against the 0.1 N Na2C03. 

Results 99 . 66 

99.83 Av., 99.75 percent CaCOa 

For convenient comparison the results are herewith presented in 
tabular form: 

Theoretical CaCOs content of standard material, 99.959 per 
cent. 



Results 



99.68 

99.93 Av., 99.80 per cent. CaCOs 



Method. 



CaCOs Found. 



No. I — Precipitating as calcium oxalate and 



weighing as calcium carbonate. . . 99 . 64 

99-49 



Av., 99.57 per cent. 



No. 2 — Precipitating as calcium carbonate 

and weighing as such 100.05 



00. 10 



Av., 100.07 per cent. 



No. 3 — Liberating CO2 with HCl and weigh- 
ing liberated CO2 in KOH solution 99 . 57 

100.50 

No. 4 — Precipitating as calcium oxalate and 

weighing as calcium oxide 99-75 

99 98 

No. 5 — Precipitating as calcium sulphate 

and weighing as such 99 • 64 



Av., 100.03 per cent. 



Av., 99 . 86 per cent. 



99-73 



Av., 99.68 per cent. 



No. 6 — Precipitating as calcium oxalate and 

weighing as calcium sulphate 100. 15 

100.64 



Av., 100.39 per cent. 



4IO 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Method. CaCOi Found. 

No. 7 — Precipitating as calcium oxalate and 
titrating with potassium perman- 
ganate 99 91 99 90 

99.46 99-47 Av., 99.68 per cent. 

No. 8 — Precipitating as calcium oxalate 

from a slightly acid solution 99 ■ 82 

99 91 

No. 9 — Liberation of CO2 by HCl and cal- 
culating loss of CO2 into terms of 

CaCOs 99.68 

99-93 

No. 10 — Residual titration method 99.66 

99-83 

Pharmaceuticai. Laboratories, 
H. K. MuLPORD Co., 
PhiIvA., Pa. 



Av., 99.87 per cent. 

Av., 99.80 per cent. 
Av., 99.75 per cent. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

SPKCIAL MEETING. 

A Special meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
held April 26, at 3 p.m., to hear the reports of the Organization Com- 
mittee on Centennial Celebration. 

The Executive Secretary of the Committee, Professor E. Ful- 
lerton Cook, read the report. 

At the Annual Meeting of the College, held March 29, 1920, 
following the discussion of the Centennial Celebration of the founding 
of the College, the President was directed to appoint a committee 
to prepare plans for a suitable celebration. The President appointed 
on this committee Dr. R. V. Mattison, Aubrey H. Weightman, 
representing the college; George M. Beringer, Wm. L. Cliffe, Joseph 
W. England, for the Board of Trustees; Charles H. LaWall, E. 
Fullerton Cook and F. P. Stroup, for the Faculty, and Otto Kraus, 
R. P. Fischelis, for the alumni. The Board approved the appoint- 
ments, as also that of E. Fullerton Cook as Executive Secretary. 

The Organization Committee has held a number of meetings 
and make the following recommendations: 

First, Time. — It is suggested that the entire Commencement Week 
in June, 1921, be utilized for the main Centennial Celebration. 

Second, Funds. — It is essential for the proper carrying out of the 



ju'Se/??2b^^^''°' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 411 

programme, and the establishment of the College on a plane which 
is worthy of its past, and which will establish a proper endowment 
for its future development, be established. It is believed that it 
will be necessary to secure Two Million Dollars. This should be 
our avowed aim for an ample endowment and building fund for the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

In the campaign for funds three separate classifications are sug- 
gested : 

{ Fellowships 

A. — Endowment \ Professional Research 

[ Library 

B. — Buildings 

C. — Maintenance and Development. 

That donors may assign their contributions to any of these three 
purposes, and it is hoped that suitable memorial buildings, pro- 
fessorships and laboratories may be established. 

Third, Cooperation from Other Associations. — Pharmaceutical 
Associations be invited to arrange to hold their annual meetings in 
1 92 1, in Philadelphia, or if this be impossible, to send delegates to the 
College Centenary Celebration. A letter of invitation has been pre- 
pared and will be sent to the various associations. The Committee 
desires to suggest that the Centennial Celebration of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy be made broad and useful to the pro- 
fession by emphasizing the fact that it is the Centennial of the 
establishment of pharmaceutical education in America. 

Fourth, Centennial Volume. — The sub-committee on Centennial 
Volume, Mr. George M. Beringer, chairman, presents the follow- 
ing tentative report : It is difficult at this time to present a com- 
plete outline of what the Historical Volume should contain; so this 
report must be viewed as only a tentative suggestion for the con- 
tents of the proposed volume. 

1. History of the College. — This will lead to chapters on the 
influence of the College upon pharmaceutical education, Pharma- 
copoeial and National Formulary revisions, State and National 
Organizations, Industrial and Trade Developments, Medical Prac- 
tices, Legislation, etc. Included in this will be the History of the 
Department of Pharmacy of the Medico-Chirurgical College. 

2. History of the Combined Alumni. — This should be a dis- 
tinctive feature, and in connection therewith short biographies of 



412 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^""^JLl^^^^: 

each graduate should be given, if available. These can possibly 
be best presented with the sketch of each graduating class, and in 
addition an alphabetical list of all the graduates should be included. 

3. History of each member of the Faculty since the Foundation of 
the College. — This can well be made a leading part as most of these 
have been men of ability and marked influence upon the events of 
their day, and moreover the Alumni have a warm sentiment for 
their old professors. 

4. History of the Officers and Prominent Members of the College. 
— Our history is replete with the efforts and services of many eminent 
men whose work in behalf of pharmacy, the college, and public 
welfare, should be permanently recorded in such a volume. 

5. History of the American Journal of Pharmacy and its 
Editorial Management, during more than Ninety Years of its Pub- 
lication. 

6. The Story of the Library, Museum and Herbarium and of the 
Laboratories. 

7. The Centenary. — Full account of the celebration, plans and 
functions. As the plans develop, doubtless many other subjects 
that must be included in the Centennial Volume will become evi- 
dent. 

If it is determined to issue a volume such as is outlined here- 
with, the enormity of the task must be appreciated, and an active 
committee should be appointed at an early date. The preparation 
of the manuscript will entail much time, labor and expense. The 
committee should have authority to employ such outside assistance 
as may be necessary. 

We cannot at this time gauge the possible expense of this project. 
Your committee are of the opinion that the College should be largely 
reimbursed for this expense by the sale of the volume. 

Fifth, General Committee on Centennial. — This large General Com- 
mittee, not limited to one hundred, as first proposed, shall consist of 
members of the College, alumni and friends of the College. It shall 
represent all activities into which our alumni have entered and all 
geographical sections where they may reside. The following classi- 
fication has been suggested: 

Officers of the College. 

Members of the Board of Trustees. 

Faculty of the College. 




june^^i^S!; ! Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



413 



Pharmacists 



j Men Pharmacists 
! Women Pharmacists 



I Army Pharmacists 
^ Navy Pharmacists 



Physicians 
Wholesale Druggists 
Chemical Manufacturers. 
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. 
Editors and Journalists. 
Chemists. 

Members of State Boards of Pharmacy. 
Salesmen. 

The President of the College shall be the chairman of this General 
Committee. 



It is further suggested that there shall be established sub-com- 
mittees on 

1. Site. 

2. Contributions. 

3. Historical Data and Centennial Volume. 

4. Plans for the Centennial Celebration. 

5. College Membership. 

6. Publicity (including conventions). 

Executive Committee. — The chairmen of these special com- 
mittees, acting with the President of the College, shall constitute 
an Executive Committee who will be immediately responsible for 
the carrying out of the plan. 

Campaign Funds. — The organization committee suggests that 
the members of the College approve an appropriation by the Board 
of Trustees of $10,000, to provide funds for necessary expenses. 

Site. — ^The President and other members have been in communi- 
cation with the Mayor and other officials of the City and the Fair- 
mount Park Commissioners concerning a suitable location upon the 
parkway for the new college buildings. 

Buildings. — The President announced that Mr. Horace Trum- 
bauer, one of the most prominent architects of Philadelphia, is 
now drawing plans for the new college buildings. 

The programme thus placed before the members of the college calls 
for a unity of purpose, an enthusiasm and a faith in the institution 
and its future which will be worthy of the traditions of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. Always a leader, always maintaining 



SUB-COMMITTKKS. 



414 Active Principle of Thyroid Gland. } ^""^ -^"june^^Q^S: 

the highest ideals, the opportunity is offered our alumni and friends 
to place the college on a permanent foundation for the second hundred 
years of its history. Every alumnus is proud of the college. Each 
will be honored by its increased pre-eminence among scientific 
organizations, and by the status which pharmacy must assume in 
the development of modern medical practice. Pharmacy fixed 
upon the professional plane which is thus assured, will continue its 
great service to the medical profession and to humanity at large and 
will thus increase its prestige and distinction. 

The report was received and the recommendations considered 
seriatim. 

Many of the members took part in the discussion that followed 
the consideration of each recommendation and the report with only 
several slight amendments was adopted as a whole. 

Dr. Robinson asked consideration of the plan proposed at the 
annual meeting of enlisting the cooperation of those graduates of 
the College who are now practicing medicine. He thought there 
were about 250 of these graduates in Philadelphia or vicinity alone. 
He suggested an organization be formed to be called "The Medical 
Section of the Alumni of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. The 
title was approved and it was believed this section would be a valu- 
able help in the Centennial efforts. 

There was some discussion as to the continuance of the General 
Committee on Centennial, when, on motion, it was voted that the 
committee be continued as an Advisory Committee. 

C. A. Wbidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



ISOLATION OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE OF THE 
THYROID GLAND.* 

Among the achievements of biological chemistry the isolation 
in a crystalline form, and as a definite chemical body of the blood- 
raising principle present in the suprarenal capsule marks a distinct 
epoch, and the investigations to which adrenalin has since its dis- 
covery been submitted have removed the veil from many processes 
connected with the life of the organism. Now comes the news 
from America of another great stride forward in our knowledge of 
biology, of a discovery that may have far-reaching effects on thera- 
* From The Chemist and Druggist, March 27, 1920. 



f^e^^i920^^^"'^ } Active Principle of Thyroid Gland. 415 

peutics. B. C. Kendall, working in the clinic of the Brothers Mayo, 
of Rochester, has succeeded in isolating in a crystalline form the 
iodised active principle of the thyroid gland, that mysterious body 
which seems to play such an exceedingly important role in living 
processes. In the Journal of Biological Chemistry (Vol. xxxix.) 
lie reviews his investigations on this point, which began as far back 
as 1 9 10. At first he used barium salts to separate this substance, to 
which the name of "thyroxin" has been given, and first succeeded in 
isolating it in December, 19 14, the total amount obtained being 
100 milligrams. In February, 191 6, the action of carbonic acid on 
the process of isolating this body was discovered, resulting in the 
production of 7 grams by May, 191 7. This amount was used to 
ascertain the chemical structure of the new body, and based on these 
findings. Osterberg succeeded in preparing a small quantity of 
thyroxin by synthetic methods. At the time of publishing his paper, 
the author had succeeded in preparing about 35 grams of thyroxin 
from 3,275 kilograms of fresh thyroid glands, obtained almost exclu- 
sively from pigs. The yield consequently works out at the ratio 
of I gram of thyroxin for 100 kilograms of thyroid gland. The fol- 
lowing process was adopted: The fresh thyroid glands are hydro- 
lysed in a 5 per cent, soda solution. The fats are removed by being 
transformed into insoluble sodium soap. The alkaline filtrate is 
acidified after cooling, and the precipitate thrown down contains 
practically the whole of the thyroxin present. This precipitate is 
separated and dissolved in a solution of soda, and again precipitated 
by the addition of hydrochloric acid. The precipitate, after drying 
at ordinary temperatures, is dissolved in alcohol (95 per cent.), and 
to neutralize the remaining excess of hydrochloric acid present in 
this dried precipitate, solution of soda is added, which gives rise to a 
compact, black and sticky precipitate, which is separated by filtra- 
tion. To the alcoholic filtrate a very concentrated, hot aqueous 
solution of barium hydroxide is added, and the mixture is boiled 
under a reflux condenser to remove all the impurities and coloring 
matter present. A trace of soda is added to the filtrate, through 
which a current of carbonic acid gas is passed, whereupon the car- 
bonates which have formed are removed by filtration, and the 
alcohol by distillation. Hydrochloric acid is now added to the 
aqueous solution, the precipitate thrown down is dissolved in an 
alkaline alcoholic solution, and the latter saturated with carbonic 
acid gas. The solution is filtered, the alcohol removed by dis- 



41 6 Active Prmciple oj Thyroid Gland. { ^"^ ^Tnniy9To: 

tillation, and after standing for a time the mono-sodium salt of 
thyroxin separates out. The latter is purified by dissolving it in an 
alkaline alcoholic solution, then saturating with carbonic acid gas 
and distilling off the alcohol; the same operation may be repeated 
five or six times, using acetic acid in the place of carbonic acid, until 
the thyroxin as ''4-5-6-hydro-4-5-6-iodo-2-oxy-/3-indolpropionic acid," 
of the empiric formula C11H10NO3I3. 

It occurs in three different forms: (i) A ketonic form: 
CIH 

Hic/\c = C — CH2 — CHo — COOH 



HIC 



CH NH 



(2) A tautomeric enolic form : 
CIH 



HICf >C = C — CH2 — CH2 — COOH 

m6^Jc^^c — OH 

CH N 

(3) With an open pyrrolic nucleus, due to fixation of H2O, so that 
this body possesses both the characters of a di-acid and of a primary 
amine : 

CIH 

Hic/Nc = C — CH2 — CH2 — COOH 



CH NH2 



HIC'v^^Cs^ COOH 



The author states that the first form is the anhydride of the third, 
and these bear the same relationship to each other as creatinin to 
creatin. The third form is, therefore, "thyroxin," and occurs as 
such in the thyroid gland; it cannot be obtained in crystalline form, 
but crystallizes only on being converted into its anhydride. Kendall 
found that during the months of January, February and March the 
glands contain only a slight percentage of thyroxin, whereas during 
the summer months there is an increase amounting to 400 per cent., 
and this is the time when the glands should be used for the extraction 
of their thyroxin. 



fu"e^?92o.''''"" l Kauri Gum Industry. 4^7 



DEVELOPMENT OF KAURI GUM INDUSTRY IN NEW 

ZEALAND.* 

By Consul General Alfred A. Winslow, 

AUCKLAND, FEBRUARY lO, I92O. 

Since the close of war more attention has been given to the 
development of the kauri-gum industry in New Zealand than any 
time during the past five years, with the result that it seems probable 
that greater quantities of kauri gum and its by-products will be 
produced than heretofore. 

Oil from Kauri Peat Swamps. — There are very extensive kauri 
peat swamps in New Zealand that have been placed at the disposal 
of interested parties by the New Zealand Government on a leased 
basis. The present area for which the Governor General by Order 
in Council may set apart for the development of this industry is 
10,000 acres on a basis of leases for 42 years, with no party to receive 
a lease exceeding 3,000 acres. The lessees have to pay a low rental 
and also a royalty on kauri oil and other valuable products obtained. 

The New Zealand Peat Oils (Ltd.) have taken one grant of 3,000 
acres, and are now developing it with reasonably good prospects of 
success, having tested four samples taken from different depths of 
the swamp which yielded an average of 29 gallons of crude kauri - 
gum oil to the ton, with a yield of 4,300 cubic feet of gas per ton. 
This company proposes to push the development of this industr>^ 
during the coming year. 

Kauri Gum Extraction and Grading. — A new method of gathering 
and grading kauri gum has lately been undertaken, whereby kauri 
peat swamps that are thoroughly pregnated with kauri gum in differ- 
ent stages of decomposition can be worked with reasonably good 
success, according to late reports. It is claimed that if this process 
succeeds, as indicated at present, there can be more kauri gum 
secured from the deposits in the North Island than has been secured 
to date, though of an inferior grade to that which has been gathered. 

It is proposed to grade this kauri gum into about three or four 
grades according to size, which means largely according to the 
degree of composition. It is claimed any grade would be sufficient 
in quality for the manufacture of the lower grades of varnishes and 
similar products, and would be exceptionally good for the manu- 
facture of linoleums and that line of goods; and it is expected that 

* From Commerce Reports, April 8, 1920. 



4i8 



Elemi. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



these qualities of kauri gum can be produced in such quantities as to 
be sold for a very much more reasonable price in proportion to what 
kauri gum has been sold for heretofore. 

Production of Kauri Gum. — The production of kauri gum during 
the. seven years previous to the beginning of the war averaged not 
far from 8,000 tons per year, while since that time it has scarcely 
averaged 4,000 tons, and during the year ended, March 31, 191 9, 
only amounted to 2,338 tons. Of the output of 8.473 tons for 19 14 
the United States took 4,531 tons, the United Kingdom 3,335 tons, 
Germany 373 tons, and the remainder was well scattered over 10 
other countries; while for the year ended March 31, 191 9, the United 
States took 1,371 tons of the 2,338 tons, while the United Kingdom 
took 346 tons, Canada 572 tons, and Australia 49 tons. 

Of late quite large quantities of kauri gum have been going for- 
ward to the United States as shipping space could be obtained, and 
there are still large quantities in hand here for export, and it would 
seem there would be no difficulty in getting all of the kauri gum 
necessary from now on. 



ELBMI.* 

Elemi is a drug very little used in modern pharmacy, being 
chiefly employed in the form of a stimulating ointment in naval 
surgery, and finding a place for that purpose in the medicine-chests 
kept on board ships, foreign as well as English. It has, however, 
a much wider employment in the manufacture of printing-ink, in 
which its viscosity and adhesiveness and honey-like consistence are 
of considerable advantage. It is of use also in felting and varnish 
making and plasters. In the Scientific American attention is di- 
rected to the elemi of Porto Rico, derived from Dacryodes hexandra 
Griseb., and known in that island under the name of Tabanuco. 
This tree is the best timber-tree of the island, the trunk attaining a 
height of 50 feet to the first branch, and a diameter of 5 feet near the 
base. When the smooth bark is tapped by V-like incisions formed by 
two oblique strokes of the hatchet, the oleoresinous juice flows out 
and is collected in vessels when it is to be used for medicinal purposes, 
being employed in native practice as a stimulant ointment for 
indolent ulcers. It is also used for torches and as incense. For 
torches the juice is allowed to run down a central stick and formed 

*From The Chemist and Druggist, March 20, 1920. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1920. 



Elemi. 



419 



into a cylinder and covered with the leaf of the royal palm. As 
the volatile oil evaporates a solid candle or torch is formed. For 
incense also the oleoresin is allowed to solidify. But the tree is not 
confined to Porto Rico, as it occurs in several of the lesser Antilles 
Islands and in Costa Rica, where it is also known by the same name, 
Tabanuco. 

In Dominica it is known as the Gommier or Gommier rouge, 
and is believed to be the source of the elemi of that island. In 
St. Lucia it is called the Gommier a Canot. But the word Gommier 
may almost be taken as synonymous with elemi, since the various 
trees called by that name yield an oleoresin having most of the 
properties of elemi, though differing somewhat in odor from the 
Manila elemi of the Philippines, which was formerly official in va- 
rious Pharmacopoeias. Thus the Gommier of the Windward 
Islands is Bur sera gummifera Linn., known in Jamaica as the birch- 
tree, and in St. Vincent as the turpentine tree. A second Gommier 
in St. Lucia is the Prptium Guianense March, which is distinguished 
as the Gommier a Vencens. It yields also the encens of Cayenne and 
the Tacamahaca of Venezuela. All these trees belong to the same 
natural order Burseraceoe, to which also the frankincense tree of 
Somaliland belongs. There has been much confusion regarding the 
botanical names of the trees yielding the different kind of elemi, 
or oleoresins that have been imported into Europe from time to 
time under these names. Thus Manila elemi was for many years 
attributed to Canarium commune, and it is only since the American 
occupation of the Philippine Islands that it has been shown to be the 
product of Canarium Luzonicum Miq., and partly of Canarium 
villosum, Benth. and Hook. f. It may be regarded as probable, 
however, that African elemi from Angola is yielded by Canarium 
edule, Hook f., and that of Central Africa, Uganda and Southern 
Nigeria by Canarium Schweinfurthii, Engl. ; Mexican elemi by Amyris 
Plumieri; British Guiana by Protium Guianense, March, and P. 
heptaphyllum, March; Brazilian elemi by Protium Icicariba, March; 
and Mauritius elemi by Canarium Mauritianum, Blum. It is there- 
fore evident that various oleoresins more or less resembling Manila 
elemi occur in tropical countries in various parts of the globe, and 
are possibly capable of commercial use. At present few of them, 
except the Manila elimi and the Gommier a Vencens of the West 
Indies, are collected in a clean condition, and most of them are not 
even purified by melting and straining. 



420 



Ejffects of Quinine on Tissues. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



The essential oils of these oleoresins have in a few cases been 
examined and some of their constituents determined. Thus in 
Manila elemi and that of Southern Nigeria and of Uganda the odor 
of phellandrene is prominent. Limonene is also present in some 
varieties, and in one terpinene and terpinolene. But the possible 
uses of these oils in varnish making and in perfuming soap have yet 
to be worked out. 



EFFECTS OF QUININE ON THE TISSUES.* 

There are circumstances in which the vigorous action of adequate 
quantities of quinine in the circulation is highly desirable. The 
alkaloid itself is rather insoluble; but some of the salts of quinine 
are fairly soluble, and are absorbed with considerable readiness from 
the gastro-intestinal canal. The "Pharmacology of Useful Drugs, 
issued by the American Medical Association, makes it seem prob- 
able that too much importance has been attached to the influence 
of the degree of solubility of the salts of quinine in their absorp- 
tion, and too little attention to the selective capacity of the gastro- 
intestinal tract for absorbing them. In the United States, in con- 
trast with European countries, quinine sulphate is the salt generally 
prescribed, although the hydrochloride is decidedly more soluble 
and ought to be preferred. However that may be, numerous en- 
deavors have been made to secure more effective quinine therapy, 
particularly in malaria, by modes of administration other than the 
usual oral path. 

Baccelli first suggested the intravenous injection of solutions of 
salts of quinine when the symptoms of malaria are so severe as to 
threaten grave peril to the patient. Subcutaneous or intramus- 
cular injection has also been recommended and frequently em- 
ployed, particularly in critical cases. Despite the use of care in 
giving such treatment, much discomfort and pain may be caused; 
and even if aseptic precautions are studiously applied, a consider- 
able amount of induration if not actual abscess formation is likely 
to occur at the site of injection. Most therapeutists recognize this 
danger and warn against it. 

That tissue necrosis is produced by strong solutions of quinine 
salts need not be a surprise when it is recalled that for more than 

* From Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Feb. 14, 1920. 

^ Hatcher, R. A., and Wilbert, M. I.: "Pharmacology of Useful Drugs," 
Chicago, Amer. Med. Assoc., 191 5. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Effects of Quinine on Tissues. 



421 



half a century the substance has been regarded by toxicologists as 
a protoplasmic poison capable of destroying various forms of animal 
and vegetable cells. The suggestion has at times been made that, 
because of the observed tissue damage following intramuscular in- 
jections, this mode of administration should be abandoned. A 
recent experimental inquiry by Colonel Dudgeon^ of the British 
Army Medical Service, on the effects of injections of quinine into 
the tissues throws new light on the actual conditions developed by 
the procedure. It has been suggested that in order to avoid the 
untoward results, intramuscular medication should be <:;arried out 
only with dilute solutions. Dudgeon points out, however, that 
injection of quinine in solutions so dilute as to avoid edema and 
tissue necrosis is not of practical utility in man. Concentrated 
preparations of quinine produce more intense necrosis than do dilute 
ones; but when the latter are such as to be of therapeutic value, 
they also excite the tissue changes at the site of infection. 

A concentrated solution of quinine is absorbed rapidly from the 
tissues even in patients who are moribund. Dudgeon insists on 
the necessity of realizing that tissue necrosis — spreading edema and 
local blood destruction— are produced by the solvents frequently 
employed for quinine administration ; and the effects are only slightly 
inferior to those excited by the quinine salts and the alkaloid. No 
advantage was gained by the addition of oil or by injecting the 
alkaloid dissolved in alcohol or ether. Necrosis of blood vessels in 
the area of injection is a common result. This leads, according to 
Dudgeon, to hemorrhages into the tissues. Extensive damage of 
these sorts in the neighborhood of an important nerve trunk may 
result in nerve palsy. 

It may be that a choice between disadvantages will dictate the 
continuance of intramuscular injections of quinine. If so, the lim- 
itations and dangers of their use in practice need to be appreciated 
clearly and specifically. Daily doses administered for periods of a 
week and more in the glutal region — a favorite site for injection — ■ 
are not unknown. Such cases have been found, further, to retain 
only fragments of healthy tissues in the muscular tracts involved. 
Hence one can appreciate the force of Dudgeon's warning that re- 
peated intramuscular injections of quinine should not be given into 
the same area of muscle or tissue directly adjacent, because other- 
wise permanent injury of muscle or nerves may result. 

1 Dudgeon, L. S. : "On the Effects of Injections of Quinine into the Tissues 
of Man and Animals," /. Hyg., 18: 137 (Oct.), 1919. 



422 



Medicinal Plants in France. 



Am. Jour. Pharm • 
June, 1920. 



THE CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN FRANCE 
AND THE FRENCH COLONIES.* 

A very interesting account has recently been published^ of the 
development of the movement instituted in Paris in the early years 
of the war for extending the cultivation in France and French Col- 
onies of medicinal plants and plants used for the production of vola- 
tile oils. The following brief review of the progress made and of the 
organization adopted shows the energy displayed by the French in 
their endeavor to rehabilitate what was formerly a prosperous 
industry and to free themselves from dependence upon foreign 
countries for raw material. The support which the movement has 
received from the Government through the Ministry of Commerce 
and Industry stands in sharp contrast with the treatment received 
by a similar movement in this country. 

France has gradually lost by foreign competition the premier 
position which it formerly occupied in the collection and cultivation 
of medicinal plants, and has consequently been compelled to pur- 
chase these, chiefly from Germany and Austria, to the value of nearly 
20 million francs yearly. When these supplies were cut off by the 
war she had perforce to foster both collection and cultivation. 

The first attempts, praiseworthy as they were, failed to produce 
results of immediate value, and it was found necessary to coordinate 
isolated efforts. The importance of the work has already been pub- 
licly recognized. The Minister of Commerce and Industry urged on the 
President of the Republic the desirability of appointing a committee 
to organize and increase the cultivation, collection and preparation 
of medicinal plants, and in 191 8 a Committee of Medicinal Plants 
was officially formed. The President of this Committee was a 
professor of the Museum of Natural History and the Vice-Presidents 
were a professor of the Faculty of Science and a professor of the 
Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie. Among the twenty-six members 
of the Committee were representatives of the Colonial Office, of 
the Jardin Colonial, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, of the Ministry of Commerce, of the Associa- 
tion Generale des Herboristes de France, of the Association des 
Syndicats Pharmaceutiques de France, etc. An exceedingly strong 

*From The Pharm. Jour, and Pharmacist, March 6, 1920. 

^ "Le Comite interministeriel des Plantes Medicinales et des Plante 4 
Essences: Son Histoire, ses Buts, ses Moyens d'Action." Lucien Declume, 
1919. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Medicinal Plants in France. 



423 



committee, standing in direct communication with the State, with 
the Universities and with various industrial companies and syndi- 
cates, was thus constituted, and it immediately set to work. Com- 
missions for economic studies and propaganda, for cultivation and 
collection and for the cultivation of exotic plants were formed. 

The Commission for Economic Studies and Propaganda decided 
to form regional committees in order to procure without delay 
local information and to arrange between collectors and consumers 
the price at which the drugs should be sold. 

The Commission for Collection and Cultivation busied itself 
with instructions to collectors, with the provision of samples, with 
pamphlets, and so on. The value of special drying sheds was rec- 
ognized, but as rapidity was essential it was decided to employ the 
simple methods already in use. The representative of the Ministry 
of Public Instruction undertook to include in the official publications 
any notes or articles which the Committee might compile, and in- 
dicated his intention of sending to the provincial schools illustrated 
descriptive leaflets of common medicinal plants, together with the 
mode of collection, etc. The journals of the pharmaceutical and 
agricultural syndicates were also utilized for this purpose, and one 
number of La Francaise was almost entirely devoted to the subject. 
The necessity of furnishing all indispensible details before recom- 
mending the cultivation of any particular plant was recognized as 
was also the danger of extermination by indiscriminate collection. 

The Commission for the Cultivation of Exotic Plants had to deal 
with a most extensive programme, as France has to procure the 
majority of the overseas drugs she uses from foreign countries. 
The Committee of Medicinal Plants put themselves in communica- 
tion with the Directors of Agriculture in the French Colonies in order 
to obtain technical assistance. Particular attention was directed 
to the cultivation of senna in Morocco, Guinea, Dahomey and 
Madagascar; of the poppy in Morocco; of santonica; of buchu in 
Northern Africa; of Strophanthus hispidus and 5. Kombe in Gaboon 
and Dahomey; and of cocoa in Dahomey. Soils of proposed sites 
for cultivation were to be analyzed, and the endeavor made to secure 
special facilities for artificial manures. The Commission also dealt 
with the important subject of cinchona. The mountains of Annam 
were recommended as offering favorable conditions of soil and cli- 
mate, and the Governor-General of Annam was approached on the 
subject, the merchants present placing 6000 francs a year at the 



424 Medicinal Plants in France. i^""- ^Junl\%To: 



disposal of the Commission to facilitate the carrying out of experi- 
ments. M. AUand, the premier gum importer of France, was re- 
quested by the President (Professor Perrot) to give an account 
of the cultivation of the gum acacia tree, the result of which was that 
the Commission decided to communicate with the Governor-General 
of Senegal with the view of developing in that colony the cultivation 
of gum-bearing acacias. 

Soon after these decisions had been arrived at, the Committee 
of Medicinal Plants began to consider ways and means. A sub- 
stantial income was necessary if the work of the Committee was to 
bear fruit. It was resolved that the endeavor should be made to 
obtain an annual grant of 50,000 francs from the State, and an addi- 
tional 150,000 francs from those industrially interested in the work. 
Such an income would allow of financial assistance being given to 
defray the expenses of experimental trials, of technical researches 
in University laboratories, of investigating cultivation in the tropics, 
of the maintenance of an office, and so on. A grant of 50,000 francs 
for a year (renewable, it is hoped), was readily obtained from the 
State. 1 

In the meantime the Inter-Ministerial Committee had organized 
no fewer than fifteen Regional Committees in France, one in Algiers, 
and one in Tunis; in each case the Regional Committee consisted 
chiefly of professors of the local university or school of medicine 
and pharmacy or similar institutions, together with pharmacists, 
druggists, herb-growers, etc. As the result of inquiries, the ap- 
proximate quantities required of the most important indigenous 
drugs had been determined, and, in conjunction with the Syndicate 
of Druggists, a basis of prices had been arranged. 

It was now considered desirable to establish an "Office National 
des Matieres premieres pour la Droguerie, le Pharmacie, la Distillerie 
et la Parfumerie," and such an office was founded under the auspices 
of the Inter-Ministerial Committee and of the syndicates of the sev- 
eral industries mentioned. The object of this office is to form a 
Society of Study, Research and Propaganda, with the view of or- 
ganizing in France a drug market and of producing drugs, so as to 
render the country independent of foreign markets. It is intended: 

(a) To collect all information concerning the origin, cultivation 
and improvement of all plants and their products. 

^ It is understood that the additional 150,000 francs have now been sub- 
scribed, making an annual income of 200,000 francs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1920. 



Tuberculosis in iq20. 



425 



(6) To centralize the technical, scientific and commercial in- 
formation necessary for developing the commerce and chemical 
treatment of drugs. 

(c) To encourage and organize in France and the French colonies 
the cultivation and production of raw material. 

(d) To study all questions relating to the development and pro- 
tection of the drug market. 

(e) To give financial assistance to laboratories for all studies 
concerning the composition of raw material and the extraction of 
their active constituents— to publish the results, so that they may 
be utilized industrially or therapeutically. 

(/) To organize and financially assist research expeditions with 
the view of investigating the sources of production, and of securing 
the seeds, rhizomes, etc., necessary for attempting their cultivation 
in France. 

(g) To keep in communication, by means of the Ministry of 
Commerce, with the Agricultural Services, Technical Institutes, 
Ambassadors, Consulates and Commercial Agents abroad ; to suggest 
to public authorities the initiatives to take and all actions for the 
extension of the production or for the exportation of raw or manufac- 
tured products. 

That this admirable and extensive organization has been carried 
through in so short a space of time and so successfully has been 
largely due to the energy and foresight of Professor Perrot, of the 
Ecole Super ieure de Pharmacie. That it has already borne fruit 
is shown by the fact that Professor Perrot and M. Alland (repre- 
senting, respectively. Science and Commerce), are at this moment 
engaged in investigating at Khartoum the cultivation of gum-bearing 
acacias, of senna and of other drugs, with the view of establishing 
them in the French colonies of Africa. 



TUBERCULOSIS IN 1920.* 

Lereboullet and Petit say that the prophylaxis and hygiene 
rather than the medical aspect of tuberculosis engrossed attention 
during 191 9. Among the few communications on the medical fea- 
tures were those of the detection of the falsely labeled tuberculous. 

* From Paris Medical, 9: 52 (Dec. 27), 191 9; through Jour. Amer. Med, 
Assoc., Feb. 28, 1920. 



426 



Tuherciilosis in igzo. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1920. 



Compulsory declaration of tuberculosis seems to have been post- 
poned to the day when the declaration will ensure care and assistance 
for the tuberculous and his family. Until this can be realized, noti- 
fication serves merely to pile up statistics. E. Sergent has recently 
presented evidence that even tubercle bacilli in the sputum do not 
necessarily prove that the lesions are in process of evolution, and 
also that the absence of tubercle bacilli is not unfailing testimony 
as to the non-activity of the lesions. Radiography throws no light 
on the age and evolution of the lesions, but a low arterial pressure 
is the rule in progressing cases. A rise in temperature after mus- 
cular exercise does not necessarily mean tuberculosis, as unstable 
temperature may be observed under various other conditions, diges- 
tive, cardiac, etc. They agree with Sergent's dictum that there is 
absolutely no certain sign which tells whether tuberculous process 
in a well appearing person is progressing or not. He may have had 
hemoptysis on one occasion or a disquieting pleurisy, but has been 
in apparent health since. Repeated examination, the fixity of the 
stethoscopic and radioscopic findings, the character of the physical 
signs, the attenuation of the myotonic reaction, the disappearance 
of the tenderness of the apex, the normal blood pressure, the in- 
tensity of the tuberculin reaction, stability of the temperature, and 
the repeatedly verified absence of tubercle bacilli from the sputum, 
form a bundle of proofs on which the diagnosis can be based. The 
whole secret lies in repeating the examinations and comparing the 
findings. About 25 per cent, of the tuberculous show Roentgen shad- 
ows in the fissures between the lobes, but few physicians ever examine 
for these localisations scissurales, and yet they are an important factor 
in recurring pleurisy. The stethoscope reveals small and inconstant 
foci of dry rattling, or friction rales, which